«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
‘a hunch or hump on the back’, metonymic for a hunch-back. cf. ‘crumpled knees and boce on bak’ a1300 NED. (iii) In 1333 a vessel called bos was used for carrying mortar at West-minster. cf. ‘a boket called le bosse’ (1423 Building 338, 353). This must be boss A dictionary of english surnames 378 sb. 4, ‘a plasterer’s tray or hod’ (1542 NED), for a maker or a user of these.
: John Botswayne, Armand Bosome, John Bottswaine 1639, 1644 EA (OS) iii, 53, 118 (all in Beccles). A late development of BOATSWAIN. The Sussex Bossom is from Bosham (Sussex).
: Martin de Borstall’ 1198 P (K); Robert atte Borstalle 1296 SRSx. OE borgsteall ‘place of refuge’, later ‘pathway up a steep hill’, common in Kent: Borstal, Bostall Wood, Borstal Hall, Borstalhill Fm; also at Bostal Road in Poynings (Sussex), Boarstall (Bucks) and Boshill (Devon).
: William de Bostok 1259 AssCh; John Bustok 1394 CtH; Robert Bostocke 1559 Pat.
From Bostock (Ch), or Bostock’s Fm in Ewhurst (Sr). Boston: Thomas de Boston 1290 FFY; John de Boston 1384–5 IpmNt; William Boston 1412 FrY. From Boston (L).
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: William de Boesavilla c1130 StCh; Michael de Bosevill’ 1176 P (Ess); Hugo de Beseuilla 1199 FF (Sx); William Bosevyll 1362 Shef (Ravenfield); John Boswell 1379 PTY. From Beuzeville-la-Giffard (Seine-Inférieure), Boesevilla, Bosavilla l2th ANF.
: Richard de Baresworth’ 1206 Cur (Nth); William de Boreswurth’ 1230 Cur (Lei);
Alexander de Boseworth’ 1298 AssL; Henry Boseworth 1327 SRWa. From Bosworth (Leics), Baresworde DB.
: Sarra le Bottler 1332 SRWa; Johan Bottler 1351 AssEss. A derivative of ME botel, OFr bouteille ‘bottle’, a maker of leather bottles. cf. Stephen, Thomas Botelmaker 1346 ColchCt, 1420 LLB I.
: Botte Buny 1222 AssWa; Aldred Bot, Alrebot 1066, 1086 DB (K); Walter, William, Richard Botte 1189 P (O), 1214 Cur (Wa), 1225 Lewes (Nf); Richard Bot 1212 Fees (Ha); Walter le Botte 1279 RH (O). Tengvik takes the DB name to be OE *Butt, a nickname, but it should, no doubt, be taken with the other forms. We have clearly a nickname from OFr bot ‘toad’ and are also concerned with a personal name, probably OE Botta, found in Botley (Bucks) and in BOTTING.
: v. BUTTON Botterell, Botterill, Bottrell, Bottrill, Butteris, Butteriss, Buttress, Buttriss : (i) Hamo, Rannulf Boterel c1155 DC (L), 1198 P (Nf); Reginald Boterell 1193 P (Y);
(ii) Emma des Boterell’, des Boteraus 1197 P(D), 1211 Cui(So); William de Botereus 1277 AssSo; Thomas Buttris 1639 YWills. These surnames are difficult and complicated.
We seem to have a nickname from OFr boterel ‘toad’ but Peter Boterel 1127–17 Bec (W) is also called Boter (1107–33 ib.). He was one of the family of Butery, tenants of Ogbourne (Wilts), other members of which were Geoffrey Boter (1107–33), William Boterel (1122–47), James Butery and William Buteri (c1248). The various forms of the surname must have the same meaning. Buteri is for atte buteri ‘keeper of the buttery’, from OFr boterie, late Lat botaria, from bota, a variant of butta (OFr botte) ‘cask, bottle’.
cf. BUTTERY. Boter is a derivative of bota, one in charge of the casks or bottles. The diminutive Boterel is curious but we may compare Fr Pasturel from Pasture ‘shepherd or owner of the pasture’ and Peverell, a diminutive of peivre ‘pepper’. Boscastle (Cornwall) is Boterelescastel in 1302 and was then held by William de Botereus whose family presumably took its name from Les Bottereaux in Normandy (DEPN). The place-name means ‘Boterel’s castle’ and is, no doubt, to be associated with William boterel 1130 P The dictionary 383 (Co). One would take this to be a nickname from the toad were he not called de or as Boterell’ in 1178 (P). Aston Botterell (Salop) was held in 1203 by William Boterell whose surname is taken as the nickname in DEPN. He is probably identical with William des Boterels, des Botereals 1197–8 P (Sa) and of the same family as Albreda Boterell’, de Botereus, de Boterell’ 1221 AssSa, de Botereaus, de Boterels 1226, 1242 Fees. Here we seem to have early examples of the loss of the preposition and the substitution of the singular Boterel for the plural form of the place-name which appears to mean ‘the toads’.
The modern surnames may represent all these varieties. Buttress, Buttriss, and Butteriss are certainly from Les Bottereaux.
: Godwinus filius Botild 1188 BuryS (Sf); Johnnnes filius Botill’ 1219 AssY; Adam Botild’ 1221 AssGl; Richard Botyld 1296 SRSx; Cuthbert Bottyll 1565 Oxon. ON Bóthildr, ODa, OSw Bothild (f). Also, probably, metonymic for BOTLER.
: Dowe de Bothemes 1246 AssLa; Richard del Bothom 1307 Wak (Y). ‘Dweller in the dell or hollow(s)’, OE botm ‘bottom, lowest part of a valley’.
: v. BOTTERELL Bouch, Buche, Budge The dictionary 385 : Ralph Buche 1160–70 Templars (Y); Fegga Buche, Bucca, Bugga 1165–7 P (L); Hugo Buche, Bucca 1199, 13th Guisb (Y); Alexander Buche, Bugge 1221 AssWo; Michael od la Buche 1225 Pat; Geoffrey Bouche 1226 FFBk; John Bouge, Walter Bugge 1327 SRSf;
John Bougge 1327 SR (Ess). OFr bouche ‘mouth’, a nickname. In ME this also became bouge and later budge, especially in the sense ‘an allowance of victuals granted by a king or nobleman to his household or attendants on a military expedition’ (c1440 MED). This sense may be older and may account for some of the alternatives above. Buche is common. The form Bugge, also common, is ambiguous. It may be for ME bogue, OFr bouge, also boulge, buche (Godefroy) ‘a small leather bag or wallet, a skin-bottle’ and denote a maker of these. Or it may be for BUGG, where doubtful forms are given.
: Geoffrey de Bocton 1202 FFY; Walter Bugheton 1255 AssSo; Henry de Boketon’ 1314–6 AssNth; Thomas Boughton 1440–1 FFWa. From Boughton (Hu, L, Nf, Nt, Nth), Great Boughton (Ch), or Boughton Aluph, Malherbe, Monchelsea, under Blean (K).
: v. BOWL Boulger, Boulsher, Bolgar, Bolger, Bulger : John Bulgere 1300 MESO (Wo). OFr boulgier ‘maker of leather wallets or bags’, from OFr boulge, ME bulge ‘leathern bag’.
: A Huguenot name. James Bourditton, descendant of a Huguenot who left France in 1685, was minister of the Artillery Church in Spitalfields. From OFr borde ‘an isolated country house’, or, more rarely, ‘man from Bordeaux’. v. Dauzat.
: Godric æt Burnan 1044 OEByn (K); Almarus de Brunna 1066 ICC (C); Basilia de la Burne 1219 FFEss; William Atteburn 1256 AssNb; Richard Atteburne 1261 AssSo;
Adam de Burne c1280 Black (Ayr); Richard atte Bourne 1327 SRSx; Robert del Burn 1332 SRCu. The first reference above is to Bishopsbourne (K), OE burna ‘stream’, the second to Bourn (Cambs), ON brunnr ‘stream’. In the North and Scotland burn is still the living word for a stream. In the rest of England it was early replaced by brōc ‘brook’ and in the south bourn came to be used of a stream which flows only in winter or at long intervals, a meaning still found in the dialects of Kent, Surrey and Wilts. Here, in surnames, the reference is usually to an old stream called burna, a name often surviving as that of a farm, etc. Bourne (Surrey) is named from an intermittent stream. v. BORN.
: Giles Bowskille 1560 Pat; John Borkenskale 1583, William Borrenscale 1602, John Burascale 1649, George Buskill 1653 FrY. From Bowscale in Ulpha, Borrowscale in Matterdale, or Borrowscale in Torpenhow (Cu).
: John Bult(e)flour 1303 Surnames 258, 1430 FrY; Adam Bonteftour 1332 Sundby; Helen Bonfela 1438 NorwW (Sf); John Bownflower 1505 ArchC 41; John, Thomas Boutflower 1511 ib.; William Buntflowre ib.; Robert Bonfelow, Bunfettow 1521 NorwW (Nf); Ralph Bultftower 1568 SRSf. ME bulte ‘to sift’ and flour ‘flour’, ‘sift flour’, a nickname for a miller. cf. BOLTER. Buntflowre, pronounced Bunfler, Bunfeler, was reconstructed as Bonfellow.
: Daniel le buuier 1191, le bouier 1197 P (Y); John Bovier 1327 SRSx. OFr bovier, buvier, bover, ‘ox-herd’. This would usually appear as bouer and be indistinguishable from the forms for BOWER.
: William de Bu uilla, de Boe uilla, de Bee uilla, de Boeuilla, Humphrey de Buivile, Sahala de Bou uilla 1086 DB (Sf); William de Bouilla, de Buiuilla c1150 DC (L);
William de Bowile 1179 Clerkenwell (Ess); John de Bouilla 1182 Eynsham (O). Probably from Bouville (Seine-Inférieure). Early forms of two places named Beuville in Calvados make these less certain identifications (OEByn). Four places in Essex preserve this surname: Bovill’s Hall (2), Uplands and Marsh, the latter occurring as Bowelles (temp.
Henry VIII), so that the surname may also have become BOWELL. v. BOWLES.
Nicholas atte Boghe 1327 SRSo. From Bow (Devon, Middlesex) or from minor places of the same name. ‘Dweller near a bridge’, from OE boga ‘bow, arch, vault’, here ‘an arched bridge’.
: Bowden is frequent but often represents an older Bowdon. (i) John de Boghedon 1333 PN D 205. There are 17 places called Bowden in Devon and one Bowdin, all ‘curved hill’; Bowden Edge (Derby) has the same origin; (ii) Thomas Bovedon’ 1279 RH (O); OE būfan dūne ‘(dweller) above the hill’, as at Bowden (Wilts); (iii) also from Great Bowden (Leics) or Bowdon (Ches), earlier Bugge-, Bogedone; (iv) from Bowden (Roxburghshire): Richard de Boulden 1200–40 Black.
: Richard le Boudler 1274 RH (Sa); William Bowdeler 1493, Andrew Bowdler 1644 SaAS 2/xi, x. Perhaps, as suggested by Harrison, a derivative of dialectal buddle ‘to wash ore’, and hence a nickname for a miner.
: Peter de Boelles Hy 3 HPD (Ess); Ralph de Bueles 1249 FFEss; Walter de Bowell 1275 RH (Herts). In 1086 Shellow Bowells (Essex) was held by Lambert de Buella who probably came from Bouelles (Seine-Inférieure). v. also BOVILL.
: (i) Matthew de Labur’ 1194 Cur (Sr); Mayfflin Attebur’ 1280 AssSo; Henry del Boure 1287 AssCh; Gilbert atte Boure 1296 SRSx; Lorence atte Bure 1296 Black (Peebles);
Peter ate Boures 1327 SRC. From minor places called Bower (Som, Sussex, Peebleshire, etc.) or equivalent to CHAMBERS ‘chamber-servant’, from OE būr ‘cottage, chamber’.
(ii) Teodricus Bouer 1187 P (He); Peter le Bouer 1296 SRSx; John Bour ‘bowyer’ 1325 Pat; Robert le Bowyere, le Bower’ 1327, 1332 SRSt. A form of ME bowyere, identical with BOWYER.
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: v. BOWRING Bowerman, Boorman, Borman, Burman : William Bureman 1204 P (Y); Robert Boreman 1279 RH (O); William Bourman 1327 SRSx; Walter Burman 1327 SRC. OE būr and mann ‘a servant at the bower’. Identical in meaning with atte Boure. v. BOWER and BOWRA. cf. Alice Bourwyman 1301 SRY, Marion Bourswain 13th AD i (Sx), Alice Bourgrom 1327 SRSo. v. also BORROWMAN.
: Gerard de Bowes 1269 AssNb; John de Boughes 1341 FrY; John Bowys 1423–4 FFWa.
From Bowes (NRYorks), or ‘dweller at the arches or bridge’, OE boga.
: John le Bouller 1316 FFSo; Robert le Bollere 1332 SRSt. A derivative of OE bolla ‘bowl’, a maker or seller of bowls. Also ‘one who continues at the bowl, a tippler’ (c1320 NED).
: Adam Bogheman 1223 Cur (We); Thomas Bouman 1279 AssNb; Nicholas the Bowemon, the Bouman 1286–7 AssCh. OE boga ‘bow’ and mann, a bowman, a fighting man armed with a bow (1297 NED).
Bowra, Bowrah, Boarer, Boorer, Borer, Burra : Hugo le Burer 1218 AssL; Alice Burrer 1279 RH (C); William le Bourere 1332 SRSr;
John Bourere 1375 FFSx; John Bowrer 1498 AD vi (Sr); William Bowrar 1535 SxWills;
John Bowra 1683 ArchC 53; Thomas Borer 1697 DKR 41 (Sx). The name of Thomas atte Boure, MP for Horsham in 1320, eventually took the form of Bourer or Borer, whence the family of William Borrer, High Sheriff of Sussex (SxAS viii, 274). The meaning is identical with that of Bower and Bowerman ‘dweller or servant at the bower’ (OE būr). Bowra is a specifically Kentish form. Thomas Bowra, surgeon, of Sevenoaks, who was born at East Grinstead, Sussex, abandoned the earlier forms of his name, Boorer or Bowrer, after migrating to Kent during the Commonwealth. The relatives he left behind in Sussex continued to use various older forms, Boorer, Boreer, Boorer, Borar, Borra (ArchC 58, 77).
: Henry Bouryng 1302 DbCh; Walter Bowryng 1327 SRSo. OE *būring, a derivative of būr ‘bower’, probably synonymous with BOWRA and BOWERMAN.
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: Robert Buveton’ 1222 Cur (Beds); Roger Abovetoun, John Aboventoun c1240 Rams (Hu). ‘(Dweller) above the village’ (OE (on) būfan tūne).
The dictionary 401
: Ailwardus le Bogiere 1183 P (Lo); William le Boghier, le Bowiere 1275 RH (Lo);