«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: Alan de Braunthwait 1332 SRCu; Simon Branthwite 1523 FrY; Bloss Branwhite 1764 Bardsley. From Branthwaite (Cumb).
Branton, Brantown, Brantom, Braunton : Ralph de Branton’ 1162 P (Nth). From Branton (WRYorks) or Braunton (Devon).
: William Brasier’ 1327 SR (Ess); Thomas Brasyer 1381 AssC. A derivative of OE brasian ‘to make of brass’, a worker in brass (a1425 MED). cf. Thomas le Brasgetere 1333 MESO (So), ‘brass-founder’.
: William bras 1127 AC; John Braz 1218 P (He); Nicholas Brace 1327 SRSo; William Brasse 1440 ShefA. OFr brace, brase ‘arm’, for some peculiarity of the arm, or for one or other of its various senses: ‘a piece of armour covering the arm’, ‘part of a horse’s harness’, or ‘a pair of hounds’. Sometimes, perhaps, from Breton braz ‘big’, or local from Brace (Sa).
: Richard Brassehevede 1301 SRY. OE bræs ‘brass’, used as a type of hardness, insensibility (c1330 MED) and hēafod ‘head’. cf. brassehead buls 1613 NED. cf. Roger Brasenhed 1434 FrNorw.
: (i) Alnod de Braio 1084 GeldR (D); Richard de Brai 1135 Eynsham (O); Ralph de Bray 1225 Cur (D); Daniel de Bray 1297 MinAcctCo. From Bray (Berks), High Bray (Devon), or some unidentified place in Cornwall. (ii) Roger le Bray 1202 AssNth; Hugh, William le Brey 1275 RH (C), c1304 Glast (So); John, Henry le Bray 1327 SRC, SRSf. Cornish bregh ‘fine, brave’. The great home of the Brays is Cornwall; in the eastern counties the name is of Breton origin. (iii) There was also a woman’s name Braya, which may derive from the Cornish nickname, cf. Braya, daughter of William a Istetone of West A dictionary of english surnames 428 Angmering 1316 AD i (Sx), and Peter Braya of Ist Angmerynge 1324 ib. was probably of the same family. (iv) Godfrey de Bra 1400 Black (Aberdeen); Thomas de Bra 1438–48 ib. (Dunfermline); Agnes Bray 1617 ib. From one of the many places in Scotland called Brae. (v) In Ireland, either a toponyraic, de Bre, or Ir Ó Breaghdha, a native of Bregia, a territory in Meath (MacLysaght).
: Robert de Braibroc 1199–1200 FFWa; Henry de Brabroc 1221 AssWo; William de Braibrok 1315 LLB E; William Braybrok 1432–3 FFWa. From Braybrooke (Nth).
: William Braier’ 1198 P (K); Godfrey le Brayer 1279 RH (O); Walter le Broyer 1301 SRY; John Broyer 1327 SRC. ‘A maker or seller of pestles’, from OFr breie, broie.
: Denis Brekelaunce 1334 SRK. ‘Break lance’, OE brecan, OFr lance, perhaps a nickname for a soldier. cf. John Brekpole 1447 CtH ‘break pole’; William Breksekyll’ The dictionary 431 1379 PTY ‘break sickle’.
: Adam Brekeleg 1243 AssSo. ‘Break leg’, OE brecan, ON leggr. cf. Thomas Sortleg 1284 CtW ‘short leg’; John Stifleg 1363 IpmW ‘stiff leg’.
: Alexander Brekespere 1199 CurR (L); Geoffrey Brekespere 1206 Cur (Sr); Thomas Brekaspere 1227 AssBeds. ‘Break spear’, which, as Bardsley remarks, ‘would be cheerfully accepted as a nickname by the successful candidate in the tournament’. It could also have reference to achievement in actual battle. cf. Stephen Bruselaunce 1308 RamsCt (Sf); Martin Briselaunce 1312 LLB D; Richard Brekeswerd 1195 P (L) ‘break sword’, and v. SHAKESPEAR.
: Breme 1066 DB (Sf); Hugo Brem 1221 AssWa; Symon Brim 1279 RH (C); Agatha Breme 1327 SRC; Robert Brymme 1327 SRSx. OE brēme, ME brem(e), brim(me) ‘vigorous, fierce’, earlier ‘famous, noble’, or OE Brēme. v. also BRAHAM.
: Walter, Richard le Brer 1255 RH (Sa), 1279 RH (O); William Brere 1346 FrY. OE ‘prickly thorn-bush’, modern briar, used as a nickname. cf. ‘sharp as brere’ (Chaucer). v.
: Richard de Brertona 1176 YCh; Alexander de Breretone 1242 AssDu; William de Brereton 1356 FFY. From Brereton (Ches, Staffs), Brierton (Durham), or Brearton (WRYorks).
: Brian de Brede 1195 FFNf; William de Bredes, John de Brede 1296 SRSx; Elena atte Brede 1317 AssK; Marjery Brede 1352 ColchCt. ‘Dweller by the plain or flat expanse’ as at Brede (Sussex). OE ‘breadth’, used topographically in ME of a broad strip of land.
: Roger Brese 1210 P (Nf); William Brese 1275 Wak (Y). Usually explained as ab Rees ‘son of Rees’. This may be the origin of Robert Breese 1666 Bardsley (Ch), but the above forms are too early for this development. They are nicknames from OE brēosa ‘a gadfly’.
: Walter Brabounare 1418–26 Black (Ayrshire); Agnus Brebner 1489 ib. (Elgin); Finlay Brembner 1649 ib.; James Brimner 1630 ib. cf. BRABINER. Artisans and traders from Brabant settled early at Aberdeen and on the east coast of Scotland. Bremner is still at times pronounced Brembner in Caithness.
The dictionary 435
Brend, Brent, Brind
: (i) Gilbert Brende 1273 RH (St); Adam Brend, John Brent 1327 SRWo; Hugo le Brent 1279 RH (O); Geoffrey le Brende 1327 SRSf. Brend, brent and brind are ME forms of the past participle of OE beornan ‘to burn’. The burnt’, a nickname for a criminal who had been branded. cf. Henry Brendcheke 1279 AssNb, Cutte Brendhers 1279 RH (C). cf.
BRENNAN. (ii) Symon del Brend 1318 FrY. Here brend is used topographically of ‘burnt land’, hence ‘dweller by the burnt land’ as at Brind (ERYorks), Brende 1188 P. v.
Brennan, Brennans, Brennand, Brennen, Burnand
: Reginald Brennehand’ 12th DC (L); Walter Brenhand 1229 Whitby (Y); William Brennand 1277 Ipm (Nt); Joan Bymand 1475 GildY; Anna Bumand 1512 ib. ‘Burn hand’, a nickname for the official who carried out the harsh punishment of medieval law.
Matilda Brendhand 1295 Barnwell (C), whose surname would also become modern Brennan, had suffered this punishment. Brennan may also be for Irish Ó Braonáin ‘descendant of Braonán’, a diminutive of braon ‘sadness’.
: Jordan, John le Brenner 1280 AssSt, 1327 SRSf; John le Brynner 1327 Pat. OFr brenier ‘keeper of the hounds’, or a derivative of ON brenna ‘to burn’, ‘burner’ of lime, bricks or charcoal. cf. BERNER.
: Edward Brit 1066 DB (D); Tihellus Brito 1086 DB (Ess); Walter Bret 1164 StCh; Alan le Bret 1177 P (C); William le Brit, le Brut 1230, 1256 Oseney (O); Matthew le Brut 1242 Fees (He); Henry Brit 1275 SRWo; Ralph le Brut 1296 SRSx. The most frequent form of these common surnames is Bret which is usually from OFr Bret, nominative of Breton ‘a Breton’. The variation between e, i and u points to OE Brit, Bryt, Bret, which meant ‘a Briton’ and continued to be applied to the Strathclyde Britons until c1300. In the Welsh border counties it may have been used of the Welsh as Waleys was of the Strathclyde Britons. v. WALLIS.
: Robert de Bretherton’ 1203 SPleas (St); Warin de Bretherton 1324 CoramLa; John of Bretherton 1401 AssLa. From Bretherton (La).
Breton, Le Breton, Bretton, Briton, Britton, Brutton The dictionary 437 : Geoffrey (le) Bretun, le Briton 1164–6 P (Ess, Y); Lowis le Briton 1166 RBE (Ess);
Ralph Bretun 1166 Oseney (O); William, John le Bruton’ 1248 Fees (Ess), 1279 AssSo.
Bretun, the most common form, is the cas-régime of OFr Bret ‘a Breton’. For the variation between Breton, Briton and Bruton, cf. BRET.
: Bretel 1066 DB (Co); Bretellus, Britellus 1086 DB (D, Do, So); Bretellus de Amber’ 1130 P (Ha); Reginald Bretel 1169 P (Hu); John Brutel 1235 Oseney (O); Richard Britel 1243 AssSo. OCornish Brytthael, OBret Brithael: Godwine Brytæl 1035 OEByn (Do).
: John Bretener 1379 PTY. ME Bretoner, Brutiner ‘a Breton’, used as a term of reproach.
cf. ‘A Brutiner, a Braggere, a-bostede him also’ (a1376 MED).
: Alexander Brevetur 1221 ElyA (C); Adam le Breuetor’ 1275 SRWo; Walter le Brefeter 1285 Ass (Ess); Joan Breftour 1327 SR (Ess); John Breuet 1357 ColchCt. A derivative of OFr, ME brevet, a diminutive of OFr, ME bref, ‘an official or authoritative message in writing’, especially papal indulgences, used also by metonymy for a bearer of these (1275 NED).
: Osbern de Broilg 1086 DB (Beds); Letia de Brouilla 1194 P (Do); Richard Bruille, Brulle 1206 Cur (Wo); William Brule, Brulle 1206 Cur (Gl). cf. Breuil (Calvados), but (La) Breuil is too common as a place-name in France to allow of a safe derivation from any one or other of them.
: (i) Richard Brlwerra 1192 AC (Ha); William Bruwere (Briwere) 1148 Winton (Ha);
John Browere 1201–12 RBE (Sf); Henry le Brewere 1278 AssSo. ME brewere, a derivative of OE brēowan ‘to brew’, a brewer (a1300 NED). v. BREWSTER. (ii) Ralph de Brueria 1086 DB (D); Nicholas de la Bruiere 1195 P (Gl); Thomas de la Bruera 1221 FFSt. The DB under-tenant may have come from Bruyere (Calvados), from OFr bruière ‘heath’, a term used also in England: Temple Bruer (Lincs), la Bruere Hy 2. Bruera (Ches) is a translation of OE Heeth 12th, Bmera c1190.
Brewis, Brewse, Browse, Bruce
: (i) William de Briouze a1080 France; William de Braiose 1086 DB (Sx, Sr, Ha, Berks, W); William de Breosa 1154 Templars (Sx), de Braiuse 1169 P (Sx), de Braosa, de Breusa, de Breuse, de Breiuse 1206 Cur (He, Sr), de Brews’ 1212 Fees (Sx); Reginald de Brause, de Brawose 1206 Cur (Sx), de Brause 1212 Fees (D), de Breus’, de Breius, de Breuis 1219 Cur (Sx), de Breaus’ 1226 Fees (He); Maria de Brewes 1296 SRSx; Robert Brous 1327 SRSx. From the time of Domesday the family of Briouze were lords of the rape of Bramber (Sussex). They came from Briouze (Orne) and their surname survives in Manningford Bruce (Wilts) and Wickhambreux (Kent). Its later forms are inextricably confused with those of BRUCE. (ii) Hugh del Breuhous 1302 FrY; Robert del Brewhus 1332 SRCu; Richard del Bruhous 1401 FrY. ‘Worker at the brew-house’, a brewer.
The dictionary 439
: Robert Bruet 1207 Cur (W); John Brouet 1268 Pat (Wa); John Brewett 1524 SRSf. OFr brouet, broet ‘soup made of flesh broth’, a diminutive of OFr breu, earlier bro, ME browet, bruet (1399 NED). Used for a maker or seller of broth. Brewster, Broster, Bruster: Roger Breuestere 1221 ElyA (Sf); Emraa le Breuslere 1279 RH (Bk); Geoffrey Brouster 1283 SRSf; John Browster, Margaret Brewster 1381 SRSf; Henry Bruster 1383 FrY. ME brewestere, browestere ‘a woman brewer’ (1308) NED. cf. BREWER. Threequarters of the examples are names of men. cf. BAXTER. Broster may sometimes be from broudester ‘a female embroiderer’, from ME broudin from OFr brouder ‘to embroider’ (1450 NED): Gelisius Browdester 1377 FrY; Nicholas Broudester 1381 PTY.
Brian, Briance, Briand, Briant, Brien, Brient, Bryan, Bryand, Bryans, Bryant, O’Brian, O’Brien : Radulfus filius Brien 1086 DB (Ess); Briendus de Scal’ 1086 ICC (C); Brien 1088 StCh, 1114–19 Bury (Sf); Brient 1130 P (W); Brianus filius Radulfl, Alani 1207 Cur (Sr, Y); Ralph Brien 1160 Bury (Sf); Ralph Brian’ 1205 P (Y); Bennet Briant 1524 SRSf. A Breton name introduced into England by the Normans. In the north, it is Olr Brian, brought by Norsemen from Ireland (where the name was common) to Cumberland and across the Pennines into Yorkshire. It is found in ON as Brján.
: Bricius de Kyrkebi 12th DC (L); Bricius judex c1189–99 Black (Abernethy); Brice 1208 Cur (Y); William, Roger Brice 1240 FFEss, 1277 Ely (Sf). The name of St Britius or Brice, successor of St Martin as Bishop of Tours, was popular in England and Scotland in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is probably Celtic in origin.
: Hereward Bric 1201 P (Nth); John Brik 1327 SRC; John Brix 1340 PN Do 75; Richard Brykys 1456 FFEss. Perhaps OE ‘brittle, fragile, worthless’. The later examples may perhaps be variants of BRIGGS.
: Walter de Bridewill’ 1297 MinAcctCo (Co). ‘Dweller by a well dedicated to St Bride or near a spring or stream frequented by birds’ (OE bridd). There can be no reference to Bridewell as a prison. The London Bridewell was a ‘lodging’ built by Henry VIII near St Bride’s Well and later given by Edward VI as a hospital. The modern meaning arose later, when the hospital was converted into a house of correction.
Bridge, Delbridge, Dellbridge, Dealbridge : Gilbert atte Brigge 1272 PN Sr 143; Nicholas de la Brugge 1275 SRWo; William ater Bregg 1296 SRSx; Roger dil Brigge 1327 SRSf. ‘Dweller near or keeper of the bridge’, OE brycg. v. BRIDGEMAN.
: John Brygeman 1296 SRSx; John Bregman 1310 PN Ess 217; John Bruggemon 1332 SRWa. ‘Dweller by or keeper of the bridge’ (1648 NED). William Breggeman is identical with William atte Bregge (1332–3 ERO). v. BRIDGER, PONTER.
: Aylward Attarebrughend’ 1239 MELS (So); John At Brugeende 1279 RH (O); John Attebriggende 1280 AssSt; Richard atte Bruggende of Kingston 1377 LoPleas; Thomas Bridgin 1640 SaltAS xv. ‘Dweller at the end of the bridge.’ Occasionally, ‘man from Bruges’: Alexander Brugeyn 1260 AssC.
The dictionary 443
: Walter le Briggere 1327 SRSo; Walter Bregger 1327 SRSx; John Bruger 1332 SRSr. A derivative of OE brycg ‘bridge’, with the same meaning as BRIDGEMAN. John le Bruggere, also called John de Ponte (1294) lived at Bridge End in Ockham (Surrey). v.
PN Nth xlvi.