«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: Richard de Cambrige 1182 P (St) and Alan de Cambrigge 1227 AssSt must have come The dictionary 557 from Cambridge (Glos), Cambrigga 1200–10. Picot de Grantebrige 1086 DB (C) and William de Cantebregge 1338 LLB F certainly owed their names to the University town,
but it was not until late in the 14th century that the form Cambrigge became common:
Stephen de Caumbrigge 1348 Works (C), John Caumbrigge 1376 LLB H.
: (i) Robert de Camel 12th Seals (So); Richard de Cammel 1319 FFC. From Queen or West Camel (Som). (ii) Walter, Ivo Camel 1200 P (D), 1220 Cur (W); John le Camule 1332 SRSx. The last form is clearly a nickname, perhaps in the sense ‘a great, awkward, hulking fellow’ as used by Shakespeare: ‘A Dray-man, a Porter, a very Camell.’ v.
: The Highland clan name is Gael camshrón ‘wry or hook nose’. The Lowland name is from Cameron (Fife): Adam de Kamerum 1214–49, Hugh Cambrun 1219, John de Cameron 1421 Black.
: Robert Chamoke alias Cammock 1547 FFEss; John Cammok 1557 Black. From Cammock in Settle (WRY), or perhaps a nickname from OE cammoc ‘a thorny shrub’.
: (i) Adam le Camhus 1256 AssNb.; Robert Cambysshe 1455 FrY; William Cammas 1620 ib.; George Camisse 1632 ib. ME cammus, camois, OFr camus ‘having a short, flat nose, pug-nosed’ (c1380 MED). (ii) Bartholomew le Camisur 1282 LLB B. A derivative of ONFr camise, kemise, OFr chemise, MedLat camisia, an undergarment worn by both men and women, a shirt; used also of a priest’s surplice, a herald’s robe. Metonymic for a maker of shirts, etc. (iii) Stephen de Cameis 1200 P (Nth); Matillis de Camois 1205 Cur (Sr). Perhaps from Campeaux (Calvados).
: Alricus campe (cemp) 1066 ICC (C); Robert Campe 1195 P (Wa); Tomas le Campe 1200 P (Ha); John Campe (Kempe) 1205 P (Do). OE cempa ‘warrior’. v. KEMP. Camp may be due to the influence of OE camp ‘battle’, campian ‘to fight’.
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: Gilbert de Campania, de Champanie Hy 2 DC (L); Graves de la Campaine ib.; Roger de Campen ib. (Lei); William Campaignes 1180 P (Do). From one of the places named Carapagne (Pas-de-Calais (several), Oise), or a Norman form of Champaigne.
: (i) Colin Campbell 1282 Black; Neel Cambel 1296 CalSc; Duncan le Cambell 1447 Black. Gael caimbeul ‘wry or crooked mouth’. The surname occurs as Camille (1451), Cammell (1473), Camble (1513). (ii) Thomas Campell 1524 SRSf; John Camell 1612 FrY. John Camell (1667 FrY) or Cambell (1697 ib.) was a son of Michael Camell and father of Michael Cambell and Daniel Camett is also called Daniel Campbell (1691, 1719 ib.). Their real surname was probably Cammell.
: Robert Camplyon 1454 Paston; Thomas Camplechon 1589, Campleion 1611, Edward Campleshon 1630 FrY. The first element may be connected with ME camplen ‘to fight’, and the meaning of the name would then be ‘fighting John’. cf. John Campleman 1680 YWills.
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: Stephen Camelyn 1230 Cl; William Campelin’ 1275 RH (Nf); James Camplen 1664 FrY; Daniel Camplin, John Camplinge 1674 HTSf. OFr camelin, a kind of stuff made (or supposed to be made) of camel’s hair (c1400 NED). Either a maker or a wearer of cameline.
: Richard de Camuilla, de Canuilla 1148 Eynsham (O), c1155 Holme (Nf); Thomas Camuille 1327 SRSx; Samuel Camwell 1713 FrY. From Canville-les-Deux-Eglises (Seine-Inférieure). v. ANF.
: Hugh filius Kandelan 1196 P (Cu); Robert Candelane 1332 SRCu; Robert Candelayn 1379 PTY; Thomas Candland 1515 SaAS 2/i. ME Candelin, a variant of ME Gandelin, Gandelayn, corruptions of Gamelin, a diminutive of ON Gamall.
: (i) Ailuuin Candela c1095 Bury (Sf); Adam Chandeille 1196 P (Sr); Samson Candeille, Candel 1197, 1207 P (W). OE candel, Lat candela, or ONFr candeile, OFr chandeile ‘candle’, metonymic for a maker or seller of candles. (ii) Ralph de Candel 1176 P (So).
From Caundel (Dorset).
: (i) Cana, Cane, Cano 1066 DB (Sr, Sx); Cane 1160–70 MedEA (Nf); Willelmus filius Cane c1213 Fees (Berks); Leofwine Kana 11th OEByn; Leouuinus Chane 1066 Winton (Ha); Herueus Cane 1177 P (Sf); Hugo Kane 1210 P (He); William le Cane 1332 SRSx.
The personal-name is probably OE Cana. v. also CAIN. The nickname is ME, OFr cane ‘cane, reed’, used, probably, for a man tall and slender as a reed. (ii) Alan de Cane 1230 P (Y). From Caen (Calvados). cf. CAIN, CAM. Kirby Cane (Norfolk) was held in 1205 by Walter de Cadamo and in 1242 by Maria de Cham (DEPN).
: Thomas de Canefeld 1310 LLB D; William de Canefeld 1321 CorLo. From Great, Little Canfield (Ess). Sometimes, perhaps, from Canvilleles-Deux-Églises (Seine-Maritime). v.
: (i) Bartholomew Canne 1327 SRSf; Richard Can 1327 SR (Ess). OE canne ‘can’.
The dictionary 563 Metonymic for CANNER. (ii) Richard de Canne 1276 RH (O). From Cann (Dorset).
: (i) The Manx name is MacCannon 1511, Cannan 1638, from Ir Mac Cannanain ‘son of Cannanari (Ceann-fhionn ‘white head’), recorded in 950 (Moore). (ii) Canan 1296 CalSc; Fergus Acannane 1562 Black; David Cannane 1624 ib. Ir O’Canáin, descendant of Candn, a diminutive of Cano ‘wolf-cub’.
: Lucas de Canninges 1200 Cur; Philip de Caning 1280 IpmW; Thomas Canynges 1450 AssLo; John Canning 1642 PrD. From Cannings (W).
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: Aluric se Canonica 11th OEByn (D); Reginald Canun 1177 P (C); Nicholas le Chanone 1332 SRSt; Williara Canons 1401 FrY. The first example is from OE canonic, the later ones from ME canun, ONFr canonie, later canoine; ME chanun, central OFr chanoine ‘a clergyman living with others in a clergy house’ (c1205 NED). v. CANNAN.
: Richard Cante 1327 SRSf, Caunt 1357 FFHu. ONFr cant, OFr chant ‘singing, song’, metonymic for CANTER, CHANTER.
Cantellow, Cantello, Cantelo, Cantlow : Waterus (sic) de Cantelupo c1135 DC (L); Roger de Cantelo 1185 Templars (So);
William de Cantelowe 1320 Eynsham (O); William Cantlowe 1448 LLB K. One family came from Canteleu (Seine-Inférieure), another from Canteloup (Calvados). v. ANF 24.
: Augustinus cantor, precentor 1153–68, 1186–1210 Holme (Nf); Walter le Canter 1230 Eynsham (O). The early examples are all from Latin cantor and refer to precentors in cathedrals or monasteries. The last is from AFr caunter, cauntour ‘singer, one who leads The dictionary 565 the singing’. cf. CHANTER.
: Ailward, Walter Cape 1190 P (K), 1221 AssGl; Walter, Maud Cope 1275 RH (Lo), SRWo. OE *cāpe, ME cope ‘a long cloak or cape’ (a1225 MED). Cope is the normal development, Cape the early form retained in the north.
Capcl, Capell, Capelle, Caple, Cappel, Cappell : Jacob de Capel 1193 P (He); Ralph, Philip Capel 1214 Cur (Nth), 1285 Ass (Ess);
Robert atte Capele 1296 SRSx. From Capel or Capel Le Ferne (Kent), Capel St Andrew or St Mary (Suffolk), Capel (Surrey) or How or King’s Caple (Hereford), or from residence near or service at a chapel (ME capel, ONFr capele). Occasionally also from ME capel, capul ‘a nag’: Rogerus Caballus 1230 ArchC 6. v. CAPPLEMAN.
: Baldwin le capeller 1216–20 Clerkenwell; Robert le Capeller 1270 SaAS 3/vii; John le Cappeler 1298 LLB B. A derivative of ME capele ‘chapel’, one who works as a chapel.
Soraetimes, perhaps, a derivative of ME capel ‘horse’, hence one who looks after horses.
: Nicholas le Capyare 1275 SRWo; Symon le Cappere 1276 RH (O); William Capier 1285 Ass (Ess). A derivative of OE cæppe ‘cap’, a maker of caps (1389 NED).
: Walter Capelman 1327 SRSx. Either from ME capel, capul ‘horse’, one who looks after horses (cf. PALFREYMAN), or one who lives near or is employed at a chapel. v.
CAPEL, CHAPPEL and cf. TEMPLEMAN.
: Caperun 1130–32 ELPN, 1148 Winton (Ha), 1185 Templars (L); Robert Caperun 1130 P (Berks); Roger Caperun, Chaperon camerarius Henrici regis 1154–64, 1173–83 Bury (Sf); William Capron 13th Gilb (L); John Capurne 1503 NorwW (C). ONFr capron, OFr chaperon ‘hood or cap worn by nobles’ (c1380 NED). Roger Chaperon was the royal chamberlain whose duties included those of Master of the Robes. cf. ‘As hys The dictionary 569 chamberleyn hym broЗte vorto…werye, a peyre hose of say’ (1279 NED) and ‘Hys (the king’s) chaumberlayn hym wrappyd s (c1325 ib.). Caperun may be a name of office, ‘the robe-master’, but its chief meaning is, no doubt, ‘a maker of hoods’. cf. William Caperoner 1327 SRSo. The modern meaning of ‘chaperon’ is not found before the 18th century.
: Carbunel(lus) 1086 DB (He); Durandus Carbonellus 1130 P (O); Robertus Charbonellus c1145 DC (L); William Carbonel 1175 P (D). OFr carbon, charbon ‘charcoal’, probably an affectionate diminutive for one with a swarthy complexion or hair A dictionary of english surnames 570 black as coal, the essential characteristic of charcoal. The name was sometimes confused with CARDINAL and became CARNALL. cf. Cardinal’s Fm (PN Ess 429): Carbonels 1381, Cardynals 1577, Carnals 1777.
: Nicholas carbonarius 1221 AssSa; Robert le carboner 1247 AssBeds; John le Carboner 1277 AssSo. AFr *carbonner, OFr charbonnier ‘a maker or seller of charcoal’.
: Arnald, Laurence Carde 1221 AssSa, 1297 MinAcctCo. OFr carde ‘teasel-head, woolcard’. Metonymic for CARDER or for Card-maker. Richard Cardemakere. 1346 FrNorw.
: William Cardon, Cardun 1086 DB, InqEl (Ess); Richard Cardun 1121–18 Bury (Sf).
OFr cardon ‘thistle’, used perhaps for one of an obstinate, stubborn character. Carden is very common and must sometimes derive from Carden (Ches).
: Ingelrannus Cardinal’ 1190 P (Y); Geoffrey Cardinett’, Cardinal 1208 Cur (Y), 1327 SRC. OFr cardinal ‘cardinal’, a pageant-name or a nickname for one like (or unlike) a cardinal or with a partiality for dressing in red. v. CARBONELL.
: Alice Careu c1147–57 MCh; William de Carreu 1347–9 FFSr; William Carewe otherwise Cooke 1653 EA (NS) ii. From Carew (Pembroke), or for CAREY.
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: Wulgor le Carkere 1166 P (Ha). ME cark(e), AFr kark(e), a northern French form of carche, charche ‘a load, a weight of three or four hundredweights’ (a1300 NED), a kark of pepper, ginger, etc. (c1502). Probably ‘carrier’. Karck is metonymic.
: Godric filius Carie, Carli, Godric Carlesone 1066 DB (K); Edmundus filius Carle 1205 Cur (Sf); Robert le Karl 1202 AssL; William Carl 1296 SRSx. The personal name may be ON, ODa Karli, ODa Karl or OG Karl. A more common source is probably ME carl, ON karl ‘man’, used in ME with various meanings at different times: man of the common people, a countryman, husbandman; a free peasant; by 1300 it meant ‘bondman, villain’ and also ‘a fellow of low birth or rude manners, a churl’.
: Richard, Reginald Carles 1141 ELPN, 1200 P (Gl); Alan Karelees, Margaret Kareles 1260 AssC. OE carlēas ‘free from care’, or more likely ‘unconcerned, careless’.
: Elsi de Carleton 1031 FeuDu; Osmund de Carleton’ 1163 Cur; Hugh de Carleton 1240–1 FFWa; Thomas de Carleton 1379 PTY. From Carlton (Beds, C, Du, L, Lei, Nt, Nth, Sf, ERY, NRY, WRY), or Carleton (Cu, La, Nf, WRY).
: Simon nepos Kareman 1196 Cur (Nth); Hamo filius Karlman 1201 Cur (K); Robert Kareman 1184 P (Lei); Henry Carman 1275 RH (Sf); Robert Carleman, Karleman 1279 RH (C). ON karmann, a variant of karlmann (nom. karmaðr) ‘male, man, an adult male’, used as a personal name. v. CHARMAN.
: Andrew Karn’ 1275 RH (Nf), James Carne 1493 Black; Valentine Karne 1642 PrD.
From Carn Brae (Co), the River Cairn (Cu), or ‘dweller by the heap of stones’, Welsh carn.
: v. CARN Carnall, Carnell, Carnelley, Crenel, Crennell : William de la Kernel, de la Karnaile 1244, c1250 Rams (C); Hugo de la Karnell 1247 FFHu. ONFr carnel, a variant of kernel, OFr crenel ‘battlement, embrasure’. The A dictionary of english surnames 576 reference is, no doubt, to arbalesters whose post was on the battlements, v. also CARBONELL, CARDINAL.
: Peter Carun 1199 P (Nb); Hugh de Carun 1208 P (Lo/Mx); John Caron 1642 PrD.
From Cairon (Calvados), or the Norman-Picard form of OFr charron ‘cart’, hence metonymic for a carter.
: Godwin carpentar’ 1121–48 Bury (Sf); Ralph carpenter’ 1175 P (Y); Robert le carpenter 1212 Cur (Sf). AFr carpenter ‘carpenter’ (c1325 NED).
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: Osbert de Ker c1200 Riev (Y); Robert Ker 1231 Pat (Nb); William Carre 1279 RH (O);
John del Car 1332 SRLa; John Atleker 1375 NorwW (Nf). ‘Dweller by the marsh or fenny copse’, ME kerr, ON kjarr ‘brushwood, wet ground’.