«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: William Attechurchegate 1269 Cor-Beds; Thomas atte Chirchegate 1326, John ate Cherchegate 1332 MELS (Sr). ‘Dweller by the church gate’, OE cyrice, geat. cf. William atte Churchstighele 1306 AssW ‘dweller by the church stile’.
: John de Chirchehul 1221 AssWa; Matilda de Chirchull’ 1275 SRWo. From Churchill (Devon, Som, Worcs, Warwicks). The name may also denote residence on the churchhill. William atte Churchutt’ 1333 MELS (So) lived near the church-stile and was also called William Churchestyele (1327 ib.).
: Ælfric Cerm c1055 KCD 937 (So); Geoffrey Cherm 1211 Cur (So); William Chyrme 1538, Benjamin Churme 1658 SaAS 3/viii, 2/iv. OE cirm, cierm ‘noise, uproar’, a nickname for a noisy, boisterous person.
: Ælfled Cerceman c1095 Bury (Sf); Ralph Chlrcheman 1259 RamsCt (Hu); Ouse le Chercheman 1279 RH (C); John Churcheman 1307 RamsCt (Hu). OE cyriceman ‘custodian or keeper of a church’. The meanings ‘ecclesiastic, clergyman’ (a1400 MED) and ‘churchwarden’ (1523) are much later.
: Oscetel Circwærd 949 BCS 882 (Gl); Ælfnoð Cyrceweard 11th OEByn; William le Chirchewart 1275 SRWo. OE ciricweard ‘custodian of a church (building)’.
: Ciprianus monachus 1121–35 P (Sf); Ciprianus 1219 AssY; Nigel Ciprian 1327 SREss; Henry Ciprane 1338 KB (C). Lat Ciprianus.
Circuitt, Cirket, Serkitt, Sirkett, Surkett : John de Suthcote 1297 MinAcctCo (Herts). The rare Bedfordshire Cirket, formerly Surcot, Surcoate, etc., derives from Southcott in Linslade (Bk), Surcote 1826, now pronounced Cirket, or from a lost Southcott in Stone (Sircotes 1511 PN Bk 80, 165). The Berkshire Southcot occurs as Circuit c1728 (NQ 196). The surname may also be a nickname from the surcoat: John Surcote 1327 SRSf.
: Clac de Fugelburne c975 LibEl (C); Godwinus Clec 1086 DB (W); Godricius Clacca 1169 P (Berks); Simon Clac 1327 SRSo. OE Clacc or ODa Klak surviving as Clak in Lincolnshire temp. Hy 2 (Gilb), 1193 FF (L). The surname must sometimes be metonymic for Clacker: Walter le Clackere Ed 1 Malmesbury, Roger Clackere c1250 AD iv (W). This may be a nickname ‘chatterer’, from ME clacken (a1250 MED), or for a miller, from the clack or clatter of his mill, or for a bell-ringer, though these senses are not recorded until much later. cf. William Clacyere ‘belleyetere’ (c1425 Building 327), bell-founder.
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: MacLiag 1014, Gilla Macliag 1173, MacClewage 1511, Cloage 1601, Claige 1622, Clague 1655 Moore. Ir and Manx MacLiaigh ‘son of the leech’ (liagh).
: Simon Clapp’, Cloppe 1206 Cur (O); Adam, Godard, William le Clop 1219 AssY, 1222 Cur (C), 1227 AssBeds; Laurence Clappe 1230 P (O); John Clap 1327 SR (Ess). There is no evidence for the post-Conquest use of OE Clappa which has been suggested as the source of this name. Le Clop is a nickname, identical with OE *clop ‘lump, hillock, hill’ which, Ekwall has shown, is found in the common place-names Clapham, Clapton and Clopton. In some of these, Clop- had become Clap- early in the 13th century. The surname means ‘bulky, heavily-built’.
: John atte Clapere 1332 SRSx. ‘Dweller by the clapper bridge’, a rough or natural bridge across a stream. Matilda de la Claper’ (l330 PN D 359) lived at Clapper Bridge.
Ingram Clapere 1267 Pat may be an early example with loss of the preposition, or a nickname from ME clappe ‘chatter’ (c1230 MED), ‘chatterer’.
: Turstan de Cloptuna 1154 Bury; Alan de Clapeton c1185–1210 YCh; Robert de Cloptun 1228 FFEss; Roger de Clapton 1298 AssL. From Clapton (Berks, Cambs, Glos, Middlesex, Northants, Som), or Clopton (Glos, Suffolk, Warwicks, Worcs), both names having OE clop ‘rock, hill’ as the first element.
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: (i) Clara 1210 Cur (Hu); Robertus filius Clarae 1240, 1255 Rams (Nf, Hu); Goditha, Richard Clare 1317 AssK, 1327 SRSo. Fr Claire, Lat Clara, ‘bright, fair’, a woman’s name, common, probably, owing to the popularity of St Clare of Assisi. (ii) Richard de Clara 1086 DB (Sf). From Clare (Suffolk). (iii) Simon le Clayere 1279 RH (C); Richard le Cleyere 1305 Pinchbeck (Sf). A derivative of OE ‘clay’. The clayer was engaged in plastering with mud in wattle and daub work, called torching in 1278, plastering in 1368 and claying in 1486 (Building 189).
Clermond 1275 RH (O); Margeria Clermond 1297 MinAcctCo. OG Clarmunt, Claremunda, OFr Claremonde. (ii) Bernard de Claromonte 1148 Eynsham; Aelicie de Clermunt 1185 Templars (Beds); Hugh de Clermund 1279 RH (O). From Clermont (Calvados), or Clairmont (Auvergne).
: Richard Clarence 1453 LLB K. The name of a dukedom created in 1362 for Lionel, the third son of Edward III, who had married the heiress of Clare in Suffolk. Clarence did not come into use as a christian name until the end of the 19th century.
: Richard (le) Clergis 1279 RH (Beds); Nicholas, Richard Clergys 1309 SRBeds. In ME clergy was used as a singular, with a plural clergis ‘clergymen’. cf. A clerge, clerus, clerimonia CathAngl. The surname is probably a parallel to Parsons and Vickers, ‘the clergyman’s servant’.
Claringbold, Claringbould, Claringbidl, Clarabut
: Clarumbald medicus a1116 ELPN; Clarebaldus c1150 DC (L); Clarenbaldus pincerna 1177 P (Sf); Clerebaud del Aune 1200 Cur (Sf); Roger Clerenbald 1223 FFSf; Nicholas Clarebold 1274 AD i (Ha); William Cleribaud 1275 RH (K); John Claringbold 1485 KentW; Pascall Clarebote 1565 Bardsley; Elizabeth Clarabutt, Clanngbull 1735–6 Bardsley. OFr Clarembald, Clarebald, Clarembaut, from OG Clarembald, a hybrid from The dictionary 669 Lat clarus ‘famous’ and OG-bald ‘bold’.
: Claricia 1150–60 DC (L); Clericia 1175–86 Holme (Nf); Clarice (nom.) 1191 P (Mx);
Rogerus Claritia Hy 3 Colch (Sf); Walter Clarice 1275 SRWo; Richard Clarisse 1279 RH (O). Clarice, a well-established woman’s name. It has been regarded as a derivative of Clara, but the formation is difficult. It may be from an abstract noun claritia, based on Lat clarus ‘bright, shining’, used as a personal name on the analogy of Lettice, from laetitia ‘joy, gladness’.
Clark, Clarke, Clerk, Clerke
: Richerius clericus 1086 DB (Ha); Willelm ðe Clerec c1 100 OEByn (So); Reginald Clerc 1205 Cur (R); John le Clerk 1272 Gilb (L). OE clerec, clerc (Lat clericus), OFr clerc ‘clerk’. The original sense was ‘a man in a religious order, cleric, clergyman’. As all writing and secretarial work in the Middle Ages was done by the clergy, the term came to mean ‘scholar, secretary, recorder or penraan’. As a surname, it was particularly common for one who had taken only minor orders. Clerk(e) is now rare.
: Clarekin le Lumbard 1287, Clarekin Felin 1287 LLB A; Clarkin de Wolcherchehagh 1290 AssNu. Clare-kin, a diminutive of Clare, used both as a masculine and a feminine name.
: Alan le Clerkissone 1306 FFSf; William Clerksone 1332 SRCu; Ralph Clarkson 1491 GildY. ‘Son of the clerk.’ v. CLARSON.
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: (i) Johannes filius Claroe 1240 Rams (Nf); John Clareson 1326 Wak (Y). ‘Son of Clara’. (ii) William Clariceson 1327 SRSo; Thomas Clerysson 1467 Shef. ‘Son of Clarice.’ (iii) Thomas Clerson 1431 FrY; John Clarson 1553 RothwellPR (Y); Margaret Clarsome wife of Francis Clarsom 1588 ShotleyPR (Sf); Francis Clarkson husband of Margaret Glarkson 1608 ib. Identical with CLARKSON.
: Michael de Clervaus, de Clereuals 1208 FFHu, 1209 P (Hu); John Clervaus 1320 FFHu; Margaret Clarevas 1446 GildY; Henry Clerves 1524 SRSf. From Clairvaux (Aube, Jura).
: John Clavel 1218 P (Sx); Robert Clauel 1296, William Clauel 1327 SRSx. OFr clavel ‘keystone of an arch, lintel over a fireplace, especially a beam of wood so used’, but the particular sense in which this is used as a surname is not known.
: Walter clavigerus 1195 FFSf; Herbert Clavigerus 1210 Cur (Do); William Clauigerus 1296 SRSx. The Lat form of OFr clavier ‘keeper of the keys, mace-bearer’.
: Geoffrey de Claxton’ 1219 AssL; Roger de Clakeston 1287–8, de Claxton 1288–9 NorwLt; Hamo Claxton 1379 FFEss. From Claxton (Du, Nf, NRY).
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: Ralph de Clai 1172 P (Sf); Reginald de la Claie 1200 P (Ess); William Cley 1221 ElyA (C); Richard atte Cley 1296 SRSx; Nicholas del Clay 1302 SRY. ‘Dweller on the clay’ (OE ). As this would not be distinctive in a county like Essex, the surname may sometimes be occupational, for a worker in a claypit, v. CLAYMAN, CLARE.
: William de Cleydon’ 1275 SRWo; John de Claydon 1370 IpmW; John Claydone 1372 CorLo. From Claydon (Bk, O, Sf).
Claygate, Clackett, Claget, Claggitt, Cleggett : Roger de la Claigate 1198 FFK; Robert de Cleygate 1215 Wenlok; Gilbert ate Claygate 1317 AssK; Joane Cleget wife of William Clegget 1660 ArchC xxx. From Claygate (Surrey), or from some similarly named minor place, cf. Claygate Farm in Buxted (Sussex), Clacket in Tabsfield (Surrey), Clackett’s Place in Ryarsh (Kent), etc.
: John, Thomas Clayman 1327 SR (Ess), 1365 AD ii (Mx). ‘One who prepares clay for The dictionary 673 use in brickmaking’ (NED). PromptParv equates cleymann with dauber. v. CLAY, CLARE.
: (i) Hugh Clene 1195 P (Db/Nt); Richard Clan’ 1327 SRLei; William Clene 1642 PrD.
OE ‘clean, pure, chaste’. cf. Cristina Clenemayde 1297 MinAcctCo ‘pure maiden’. (ii) In Scotland for MACLEAN.
: (i) Gilbert filius Cler’ 1279 RH (O); William, Geoffrey Clere 1279 RH (Hu), 1296 SRSx. Clere was the French popular form of Clare. v. CLARE. (ii) Ralph de Clere 1319 A dictionary of english surnames 674 SRLo. From Clere (Hants).
: Richard Cletter 1545 SRW; John Cleator 1642 PrD. It could be a derivative of either
OE clēat ‘wedge’, or of OE ‘burdock’, but is probably usually from Cleator (Cu):
Richard de Cletre 1361 FFY.
: Richard, John le Cleuar 1332 SRSx. A derivative of OE clēofan ‘to cleave, split’, one who split boards with wedges instead of sawing. These were called clouenbord 1345, clofbord temp. Edward III (Building 243). The surname may also mean ‘dweller by the cliff.’ v. CLIFF.
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: (i) William de Clee 1359 LLB G; John Clee, Richard Cle 1327 SRSf. From Clee (Lincs, Salop), from OE The Suffolk name is for atte cley. (ii) John atte Cleo 1332 SRWo;
William atte Clee 1349 MELS (Wo). ‘Dweller by the river-fork or fork in a road’, from OE (Anglian) clēo ‘claw, cloven hoof’. v. MELS.
: (i) Robert del Cleg 1246 AssLa; Henry de Cleg 1309 Wak (Y). From Clegg (La). (ii) Matthew Clegge 1285 AssLa; Richard Clegge 1525 SRSx. A nickname from ON kleggi ‘gadfly, horse-fly’.
: (i) Nicholas Cleland 1642 PrD. Perhaps from Cleveland in Dawlish (D). (ii) William Kneland 1464, Andrew Cleland (seal: s. ANDREE KNELAND) 1612 Black. From the lands of Cleland or Knelard in Dalziel (Lanark).
Clem, Clemm, Clemans, Clemence, Clemens, Clement, Cletnents, Clemons, Clemas, Climance, Climas, Clemmans, Clemmens : Clemens monachus 1153–68 Holme (Nf); Clementia 1162 DC (L); Clemencia 1210 Cur (Herts); Clemens filius Clementis 1212 Cur (Ess); William, Richard Clement 1153 Templars (O), 1202 AssL; Robertus Clemens 1155 Templars (O); William Clement, Climent 1275 RH (Nf); Richard Clemence 1279 RH (Hu); Robert Clymant 1327 SRSx.
Fr Clement, Lat Clemens ‘mild, merciful’, the name of several popes, was popular in England from the middle of the 12th century and the corresponding woman’s name Clemence, Lat Clementia ‘mildness’ from about 1200. Both have contributed to the surnames. Clem is a pet-form found in 1273 (RH). Clim is not much later: John Climme 1327 SRC. v. also CLEMO, CLEMMEY.
: Hugh Clinche 1223 Cur (L); Richard, Robert Clench(e) 1275 RH (Sf), 1327 SRSf; John de la Clenche 1275 RH (W); Isabell atte Clenche 1332 SRSx. ‘Dweller by the hill’ as at Clinch Green (Sussex) or on elevated (dry) land in a fen as at Clenchwarton (Norfolk), from OE *clenc ‘lump, mass’, found in several minor place-names. v. MELS. v. also CLINK.
: God’ Clenehand 1066 Winton (Ha); Auice Clenhond 1319 SRLo; John Clenaunt, Clenhond 1387 LoPleas; Thomas Clenehonde 1418 LLB H. ‘Clean hand’, OE hand.
: Peter de Cliuelanda 1160–80 YCh; John de Cliueland 1327 SRY; Henry Cleveland 1530 FFEss; Richard Cleeveland 1642 PrD. From Cleveland (NRY), Cleveland in Dawlish (D), or Cleaveland’s Fm in Colchester, Cleveland’s Fm in Felsted (Ess).
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: Richard de Clifwara 1156 P (Berks); John Cluer 1307 KB (L); Richard Cluer 1674 HTSf. From Clewer (Berks, So). Cluer could also be a derivative of OFr clou ‘nail’, a maker of nails.
: Robert de Cleburne 1364, Oliver Clibburn 1475 FrY. Frora Cliburn (We). There was also a personal name: Clibern Biscop c1 150–69 MCh; C/iformtf 1202 FFY.