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«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»

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: Gislebertus de Cliua 1084 GeldR (W); Alecok del Clif 1274 Wak (Y); John Clif 1279 RH (O); Adam del Clef 1290 AssCh; John del Clyfes 1315 Wak (Y); William Underthedif 1327 SRDb; Walter atte Cliue 1327 SRSx; John ate Clif 1327 SRC; John de Cleue 1327 SRSf; Richard Clyft 1524 SRSf; Mary Cleft, Clift 1755, 1757 DenhamPR (Sf). OE clif ‘cliff, rock, steep descent’ is found in numerous place-names as Cliff(e), Cleeve, Cleve and Clive, any of which may have given rise to a surname. Its most common meaning seems to be ‘slope’ (not necessarily a steep one) or ‘bank of a river’ and many of the surnames are due to residence near such a slope or bank. John atte Clyve or atte Cleve 1361 ColchCt is called Clever in 1365 (ib.). His descendants may have been called Clive, Cleeve or Cleaver and his name proves that CLEAVER may mean ‘dweller by the slope’.

The dictionary 681

–  –  –

: Fulk, Roger de Clifford 1182 P (Wa, Lei), 1269 IpmW; John Clifford 1387–8 FFSr.

From Clifford (Devon, Glos, Hereford, WRYorks), or ‘dweller at the ford by the steep bank’.

–  –  –

: William de Cliftona c1145–65 Seals (Nb); Ignatius de Clifton’ 1249 AssW; James Clifton 1375 IpmGl. From Clifton (Beds, Ch, Cu, Db, Gl, La, Nb, Nt, O, We, NRY, WRY), Clifton Reynes (Bk), Clifton Maybank (Do), Clifton Hampden (O), Clifton Campville (St), Clifton on Dunsmore (Wa), or Clifton on Teme (Wo).

–  –  –

: Martin Clink, Roger Clynk 1327 SRSf. In the 14th century, clinch and clench were used The dictionary 683 of door-nails secured by clinching or riveting. In 1323 Richard Spark, clenchar’, was paid per day for clinching and riveting great nails. cf. also clencher, clenchours 1363, clencheres 1375 (Building 309). The ME verb clenchen, from OE clenc(e)an is found from 1250 and the corresponding northern form clink from 1440. Clink, and also CLENCH and CLINCH, are metonymic for ‘clincher, riveter’.

–  –  –

: Richard de Clipesbi 1196 Cur (Nf); Maud de Clipseby 1256 FFL; William Clippisby 1452 Paston. From Clippesby (Nf). Used as a christian name in the 16th century:

Clippesby Gawdy 1590 SfPR.

–  –  –

: Hervey de Clipston 1199 AssSt; William de Clipston’ 1327 SRLei; William Clipston 1392 FFEss; Christopher Clepson 1641 PrSo. From Clipston (Nt, Nth), or Clipstone (Beds, Nf, Nt).

–  –  –

: William de Clissebi 1202 AssL. From Clixby (L). Clist Hereberf on Clist a1093 Earle (D); Henry de Clisl 1230 P (D); Edwaid Clist 1642 PrD. From Clyst (D).

Clitheroe, Clitherow, Cleatherow, Cluderay : Thomas de Cliderhou 1176 P (Y); Robert Cletherowe 1439 FrY; Richard Cludre, Clydero 1526, 1541 GildY. From Clitheroe (Lancs).

–  –  –

: Achi, Adam Clod 1166 P (Nf), 1275 RH (Sf). ME clodde ‘clod of earth’, vb., ‘to free land from clods by harrowing, rolling, etc.’ (c1440 MED). ‘Harrower.’ cf. William le Clodder’ 1221 AssWo.

–  –  –

: Symond Clogg, Joan Clog 1524 SRSf. ME clog(ge) ‘a wooden-soled shoe’ (1390 MED), used for a maker of clogs: cf. Matthew Clogmaker 1367 ColchCt.

–  –  –

: (i) Nicholas de Clos 1296 SRSx; Thomas del Close 1327 SRY. ME clos(e). OFr clos ‘enclosure’ (a1325 MED), ‘farm-yard’ (1386). ‘Dweller by the enclosed place’ or, possibly, ‘worker in the farm-yard’. (ii) William le Clos 1214 Cur (C); John Cloos 1409 LoPleas. ME clos (adj.) ‘practising secrecy, reserved, reticent’ (c1400 NED).

A dictionary of english surnames 686

–  –  –

: Robert le Clother 1286 MESO (Nf). A derivative of OE clāþ ‘cloth’, maker or seller of cloth. cf. Richard le Clothmongere 1296 Oseney (O), Thomas Clothman 1416 LLB I.

–  –  –

: Wimarc’ de la Clude 1199 P (So); Robert atte Cloude 1327 SRSo. ‘Dweller by the rock or hill’ (OE clūd ‘mass of rock, hill’), as at Temple Cloud (Som), Cloud Bridge (Warwicks), Clouds Wood (Herts).

–  –  –

: Alan Bouenthecloue 1261 AssLa; Richard Clowe 1275 SRWo; Roger Clough 1279 RH (O); John del Clogh 1298 Wak (Y); Richard Clewe 1327 SRSf; Robert del Clough 1327 SRDb; Richard Cluff 1428 FA (St); Esabell Clughe 1555 RothwellPR (Y). ‘Dweller in a ravine or steep-sided valley’, OE *clōh. Cleugh is a Scottish form. For the development, cf. enough and enow, dough and (plum)duff.

–  –  –

: Adam le Clutere 1286 MESO (Nf); Robert (le) Clulere 1301 LLB C; Adam Clouter 1307 Wak (Y). A derivative of OE clūt ‘patch’, patcher, cobbler. cf. Robert le Cloutkemer 1327 Pinchbeck (Sf) ‘patch-cutter’. Also, possibly, but less likely, from OFr cloutier ‘nail-smith’.

–  –  –

: Williara Cloutyng 1327 SRSf; William Clowting 1524 SRSf; John Cloughtlng 1568 SRSf; John Cloutinge, Henry Clouton, Thomas Clouten 1674 HTSf. ME clouting ‘the action of patching, mending, etc.’ (1382 NED). Synonymous with CLOUTER.

–  –  –

: Robert le Clovier 1300 LoCt; Alen Clover, John Clovier, William Clovyer 1524 SRSf.





A variant of CLEAVER, from OE clēofan ‘to split’, with change of stress to cleōfan, cloven, whence Clover.

–  –  –

: William le Cloer, le Cloier 1201 P (So). A derivative of OFr clou ‘nail’, hence ‘nailer’.

Stephen le cloer 1292 SRLo is identical with Stephen le Naylere 1300 LoCt.

–  –  –

: Nicholas de Cluse 1275 SRWo; Thomas atte Cluse 1332 SRSx. ‘Dweller at the enclosure’ or ‘keeper of the mill-dam or sluice’, OE clūse, ME cluse, clowse ‘enclosure, narrow-passage’, ‘dam for water, sluice or flood-gate’.

The dictionary 689

–  –  –

: Rychard Closer 1526 SxWills; John Clouser 1549 ib.; Moulde Clowser 1546 ib. These three, with Thomas atte Cluse above, all lived in Warnham (Sussex), and their surnames are identical in meaning. v. CLOWES.

–  –  –

: William, Gilbert Clobbe 1166 P (C), 1202 Cur (Sf); Stephen, Walter Clubbe 1204 P (C), 1279 RH (Hu). ME clubbe, clobbe ‘club’, metonymic for clubber ‘maker of clubs’:

Richard clobbere 1222 DBStP; Walter le Clubbere 1260 AssC. In 1198–1212 (Bart i, 267), Robert clobbere of the text witnesses as Robert clobbe. By the Assize of Arms, every adult man had to be provided with at least a knife and a staff or club.

–  –  –

: (i) Ralph de Cluneia 1086 InqEl; William de Cluini 1195 P (D). From Cluny (Saône-etLoire). (ii) William de Cluny of Perthshire 1296 Black. Probably from Clunie in Stormont (Perthshire).

–  –  –

: v. CLOWES Clutterbuck The dictionary 691 : Michael Cloterbuck 1560 Pat (Ch); Toby Clutterbuck 1608 Oriel; Samuel Clutterbook 1662 HTEss; Freame Clutterbuck 1707 DKR. ‘The Clutterbucks…originally of Dutch origin, had fled from Holland in the sixteenth century’. H.P.Finberg, Gloucestershire Studies, Leicester 1957.

–  –  –

: (i) Adam de Cleynes c1280 SRWo; John Clynes 1327 IpmGl; Benjamin Cline 1664 HTSo. From North Claines (Worcs), Clevnes 1234, Clynes 1293. (ii) William de Clyn 1375 Black; Malcolm de Clyne 1390 ib. From Clyne (Sutherland).

–  –  –

: Cobba 1201 Pl (Co); Leuric Cobbe 1066 DB; Walter Cobbe 1234–5 FFEss; John Cobbe 1327 SRSo. OE *Cobba ‘big, leading man’, an original nickname, unrecorded in OE but not uncommon from the 12th century onwards, v. OEByn 305. In the eastern counties it may represent ON Kobbi, while a shortened form of Jacob is a further possibility.

Cobbald, Cobbold, Cutbill The dictionary 693 : Cotebaldus de Wigornia a1200 Dublin; Aluuinus Cubold 1066 DB (Nth); Ricardus Cubaldus 1174 P (He); John Cubald 1219 AssL; Thomas Cutebold’, William Cotebold 1292, 1332–57 PN K 492; John Cobald 1309 FFSf. OE Cūðbeald ‘famous-bold’.

–  –  –

: Thomas Coberd 1275 RH (Lo); William Cobard 1294 KB (Sx); Robert de Cobbar’ 1332 SRSx. ME cobbard ‘support for a spit’, perhaps a nickname for a cook or a scullion.

–  –  –

: Roger Cobet 1275 RH (Nf); John Cobat 1327 SRSf; Robert Cobbett 1583 PN Sr 104.

Cob-et, Cob-ot, diminutives of Cob, a pet-form of Jacob.

A dictionary of english surnames 694

–  –  –

: Henry Cobbing 1202 AssL; John Cobbyng 1298 KB (L); Richard Cobbyng 1345 FFEss.

‘Son of Cobb’, a derivative of either OE *Cobba or ON Kobbi. v. COBB.

–  –  –

: Robert de Cubbeldick’ 1242 Fees (L); John de Cupeldicke 1276 RH (L); Roger de Cobeldyk 1320 AD iv (L); John Copuldick Hy 6 AD v (L); Ambrose Cobledicke 1642 PrD. From an unidentified place, presumably in Lincs.

–  –  –

: John de Cobeley 1316 NottBR; Richard de Cobbelaye 1324 IpmNt; John Cobley 1642 PrD. From Cobley in Lapford, in East Worlington (D).

Cochran, Cochrane, Cochren, Colqueran : Waldeve de Coueran 1262 Black; William de Coughran 1296 ib.; Robert de Cochrane c1360 ib. From Cochrane (Renfrewshire).

–  –  –

: (i) Coc de domo Abraham 1192 P (Lo); Koc filius Pertuin 1230 P (L); Cock le Botiller 1281 LLB C; Koc Forester, Kok de mari 1296 SRSx; Aluuinus Coc 1066 DB (C); Osbern Cocc 1175–95 Seals (Db); Aki Coc 1177 P (Nf); Nicholas Cock 1297 MinAcctCo;

Petronilla Cockes 1327 SRWo; John Cocks 1332 SRCu; Walter Cocks, Cox 1515 Oxon.

The first example is the name of a Jew and is probably a diminutive of Isaac in its Hebrew form (Jacobs). Cock, a common personal name still in use about 1500, may partly be from OE Cocc or Cocca, found in place-names, although not on independent record. But as cock became a common term for a boy, it may also have been used affectionately as a personal name. (ii) William, Godard le Cock 1271 ForSt, 1281 LLB A;

Thomas le Cok 1285 Ass (Ess); John le Cockes 1327 SRWo. OE cocc ‘cock’, a nickname for one who strutted like a cock. This became a common term for a pert boy and was used of scullions, apprentices, servants, etc., and came to be attached to christian names as a pet diminutive (Simcock, Wilcock, etc.). Forms without the article may belong here;

cok is ambiguous and may be for Cook. The surname may also mean ‘watchman, leader’ and, according to Welsh writers, may also be from Welsh, Cornish coch ‘red’. (iii) Hugh ate Cocke, ate Coke 1319 SRLo, 1320 LLB E; William dil Cok 1327 SRSf; Thomas atte Cok 1380 FFSf. ‘Dweller by the hill’, OE cocc ‘haycock, heap, hillock’. In London it probably derived from the sign of a house or inn. Sometimes we may have ME cock ‘small ship’s boat’ (1319 MED), name for a boatman. cf. BARGE.

Cockayne

: William Cokein, Cocaine 1193 P (Wa), 1221 Cur (Bk); Hawisa de Cokaingne 1219 AssY; Geoffrey de Cokaygne 1228 FFEss; John Cokkayn 1332 SRCu. ME cokaygne, OFr coquaigne, the name of an imaginary country, the abode of luxury and idleness.

Cocken (Lancs), pronounced Cockin, is said to have been named in jest as the land there was cleared by the monks of Furness Abbey. The surname was probably given to one whose habits and manner of life suggested he had come from the fabulous land of Cockaigne. It has also become COCKIN and COCKING.

–  –  –

: William Cokben 1545 FrY. ‘Cock’s bone’, OE cocc, ON beinn. The second element is not uncommon in medieval nicknames: Walter Coltbayn 1256 AssNb ‘colt’s bone’;

Richard Schortbayn 1327 SRY ‘short bone’; William Longerbayne 1296 SRNb ‘longer bones’.

The dictionary 697

–  –  –

: Simon, Thomas Cockel 1198 P (Nth), 1202 P (K); Richard le Cokel 1279 RH (O);

William Cockyl 1327 SRSf; Ralph Kokyl 1327 SRC. Various explanations are possible:

OE coccul, coccel ‘cockle’, a weed particularly common in cornfields. For the taris of Wyclif s 1388 version, that of 1382 has dernel or cokil, and the Rheims and Authorized Versions have cockle. cf. DARNELL. Or ME, OFr cockille ‘a shell’, also ‘cockle’, the bivalve. cf. William le Cokeler 1281 MESO (L), which Fransson takes as OFr coquillier ‘fabricant de coquilles’ (Godefroy) a maker of head-coverings for women. Thuresson explains (William) Cockeler 1332 MEOT (L) as a gatherer of cockles. cf. MULLET. The Fr Coquille Dauzat takes to be a surname applied to pilgrims to the shrine of St James of Compostella who sewed shells on their clothes as a sign of their pilgrimage. cf. cocklehat (1834 NED), a hat with a cockle or scallop-shell stuck into it, worn for the same reason.

–  –  –

: Henry Cokere 1198 P (K); Geoffrey, Alexander Cokkere 1237 Fees (Bk), 1327 SRSf;

Adam le Kockere 1327 SRSt. Either a derivative of ME cocken ‘to fight’, a fighter, wrangler, or of ME coke ‘to put up hay in cocks’, haymaker.

–  –  –

: Stephen Cokerel 1166 P (Y); Adam Cokerell 1200 P (Sf). Cockerell ‘a young cock’ is not recorded in MED before 1440, though that is not an insuperable objection to its A dictionary of english surnames 698 appearance as a surname much earlier. The surname is common and early and is often, no doubt, from OFr cocherel, cokerel ‘cock-seller’, ‘poultry-dealer’.

–  –  –

: John de Kokerham 1349 FrY; Thomas Cokeram 1450 ArchC vii; Thomas Cockrom 1596 RothwellPR (Y); Nathaniel Cockerum 1674 HTSf; William Cockran 1756 FrY.

From Cockerham (Lancs).

–  –  –

: Lucia de Kokefeld 1198 FFO; Robert de Cockfeld 1236–47 YCh; Nicholas Cokefeld 1327 SRSx; Lewis Cqfield, Coefield 1611 ER 61. From Cockfield (Du, Sf), or Cuckfield (Sx), Cokefeld’ 1232.

–  –  –

: Thomas Cockehyll 1547 RothwellPR (Y); John Cockhill 1642 PrD. From Cockhill in Berrynarbor (D), or from one or other of the eight Cockhills in the West Riding.



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