«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: (i) William de la Curt, de la Cort 1242 Ipm (Sa); Richard atte Curt, William de la Court 1296 SRSx. From residence or employment at a large house or manor-house, castle, from OFr cort, curt, ME curt, courte (1297 NED). cf. COURTMAN. (ii) Reginald Corte 1181 P (Sf); Richard le Curt 1199 FF (Sr); Richard le Cort 1279 RH (O). OFr curt ‘short, small’.
: William de Curtehope 1296 SRSx. cf. Courtup Fm, Curtehope (1310 PN Sx 231), but, as the well-known Sussex family is commonly found in East Sussex, it derived, perhaps, from an unidentified Curting(e)hope in the eastern part of the county.
: Nicholas le Curter 1279 RH (O). A derivative of ME curt, identical in meaning with COURT and COURTMAN, rather than the common courtier (ME courteour, courtyer), which has influenced the spelling.
: Adam, Robert Curtman 1275 RH (C), 1296 SRSx; John Courtman 1327 ib. ‘Dweller near or one employed at a castle or manor-house.’ v. COURT, COURTIER.
: Robertus filius Cous 1297 MinAcctCo (R); Robert, William Couse 1185 P, 1211 Cur (L). ON Kouse, Kause, corresponding to ON Kausi, a nickname meaning ‘tom-cat’, the first element of Cowesby (NRYorks).
Cousen, Cousens, Cousans, Cousin, Cousins, Couzens, Cosens, Cosin, Cosyns, Cossins, Cossons, Cozens, Cozins, Cusins, Cussen, Cussins, Cussons, Cuzen : Æthelstano chusin, id est, cognato suo (i.e. of Wlfstan) c977 (c1200) LibEl (C);
Sumerda, Roger Cusin 1166, 1169 P (Nf, L); Simon Cosyn 1260 AssC; Thomas Cossin 1275 RH (Lo); Agnes Cousseyns 1327 SRSf. OFr cusin, cosin, in ME ‘a kinsman or kinswoman’, ‘cousin’ (c1290 NED). v. CUSSEN.
: John de Cove 1219 P (Nf/Sf); Henry de Cove 1355 LLB G; John Cove 1642 PrD. From
Cove (D, Ha), or North, South Cove (Sf. Sometimes, perhaps, from OE cōf ‘bold, eager’:
Walter Cove 1249 AssW; Robert Cove 1282 LLBA.
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: (i) Robert le Cuver 1210 FrLeic; Richard Couer 1219 AssY. A derivative of ME, OFr cuve ‘cask, vat’, or OFr *cuvier ‘cooper’. (ii) Walter le Cuverur 1200 Cur (Sr); Hamund le Coverur 1262 For (Ess). OFr couvreor, covreor ‘one who covers or roofs buildings’ (1393 NED). This would inevitably become Cover.
: Thomas le Cuherde 1255 MEOT (Ess); John Kuhirde 1274 RH (Hu); Adam le Couherd 1317 AssK; John Cowherde 1327 SRWo; John Coward 1540 Whitby (Y). OE cūhyrde ‘cow-herd’. A rare variant is evidenced in the forename of Cuward de Blakepet 1198 FF (Bk). OE *cū-weard ‘cow-guard’. Cowherd is uncommon.
: Laurence Cowbron 1563, William Cowban 1585 LaWills; Richard Cowburne 1624 OtleyPR (Y); James Cowbone 1662, Francis Cowborne 1663 LaWills. From Cowburn (La).
: Engelram de Coudrai c1170 Riev (Y); Richard de Coudrey 1220 Cur (Ha); Henry de la Coudrey 1279 AssSt. OFr coudraie ‘hazel-copse’. The earliest bearers of the name came from France, e.g. Coudrai (Seine-Inférieure), Coudray (Eure), etc. As Cowdray (Sussex), which has replaced the earlier English name of Sengle, is found as la Codray in 1285 (PN Sx 17), the French coudraie was also used in England and the surname may derive from the Sussex place or denote residence near a hazel-copse. Later forms show confusion with CORDEREY.
: (i) Henry de Cuwell 1196 MemR (Nth); Thomas de Cuhull’ 1221 AssGl; John Cowell 1401 AssLa. From Cowhill (Lancs, Glos), or Cowleigh Park (Worcs). (ii) In Manx for Mac Cathmaoil ‘son of Cathmaol’, Cionaidh Ua Cathmhaoil 967, Conor Mac Cawel 1252, McCowle, McCowell, Cowle 1511, Cowell 1690 Moore.
: Robert de Cowhey 1275 PetreA; John de Cowey 1270 FFC; Felicia de Coweye 1279 RH (Hu). From Cowey Green in Great Bromley (Ess). Scottish Cowie is from the barony of Cowie (Kincardine).
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: Osbert de Couela 1167 P (O); Juliana de Kulega 1199 AssSt; John de Couele 1230 P (Mx); William de Coule 1314 LLB E; William de Cottey 1327 SRDb. From Cowley (Bucks, Devon, Oxon, Staffs; Derby, Lancs; Glos, Middlesex), of varied origins.
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: Allan Coigne 13th Ronton (St); John Coyne 1242 FFSt; John Coyn 1327 SRC. ME coyn, coigne, AFr coigne, Fr coin ‘a die for stamping money’ (1362 NED), ‘a piece of money’ (c1386). Metonymic for coiner, minter, a common occupation name: William le Coiner 1327 SRSo. cf. CONYER.
: Walter le Coyt 1275 RH (O); John Coyt 1327 SRSf; William Coyte 1681 ER 62. OFr coit ‘flat stone’. cf. Coyter, or caster of a Coyte c1440 PromptParv. cf. also Alice Coyteman 1327 SRSf; John Coiter 1327 SRSx. Metonymic for a player of the game.
: Walter, Steffanus Crabbe 1188 P (Do), 1217 Pat. OE crabba ‘crab’, either for one who walked like a crab (cf. Crabeleg 1148 Winton) or, as in German and East Frisian, for a cross-grained, fractious person; or ME crabbe ‘wild apple’ (c1420 NED), of persons ‘crabbed, cross-grained, ill-tempered’ (1580).
: Simon Crakebone 1279 RH (C); William Crakebon 1378 FFEss; Thomas Crackbome 1635 ER 61. ‘Break bone’, OE cracian, bān. A nickname for a quarrelsome person, or for the official who inflicted this punishment of medieval law. cf. ‘Quikliche cam a cacchepol and craked a-two here legges’ (Langland). Also Richard Crakepole 1242 AssDu ‘crack pole’; William Crakepot’ 1299 FFY ‘break pot’; Andrew Crakescheld 1378 KB (Nf) ‘break shield’; Simon Craketo 1279 RH (Hu) ‘break toe’. v. also BRISBANE.
: Elias de Crackenhal’ 1220 Cur (Y); Robert Craknell 1524 SRSf. Crakehall and Crakehill (NRYorks) are explained by Smith as ‘Craca’s nook’. This would be OE Cracanhale, a form which has survived in the surname although not evidenced in the place-name forms. cf. CRACKEL.
: Adam Crakenot 1296 SRNb. Crak-en-ot, a double diminutive of OE Craca.
Craddock, Cradduck, Cradock, Cradick : Cradoc (Caradoch’) 1177 P (He), 1185 P (Glam); Craddoc Arcuarius 1187 P (Sa);
William, Philip Craddoc 1205 P (Wo), 1296 SRSx; Robert Cradock 1301 SRY. Welsh Caradawc, Cradawc, Caradoc, Caradog, an old and famous name, familiar in its Latin form Caractacus for Caratācos who was taken as prisoner to Romec. 51 A.D.
: (i) Aluric Craft 1185 Templars (Ess); Basil Craft 1283 SRSf. OE craft ‘skill, art’, especially ‘guile, cunning’. (ii) Roger de Craft 1213 Cur (Wa), de Croft (Craft) 1214 ib.;
Robert de Craft 1222 AssWa. From Croft (Lei), earlier Craft. Probably also local. v.
: Henry Crag 1204 AssY; Hudde del Crag 1260 AssLa; Peter del Kragg, John Cragges 1301 SRY. ‘Dweller by the steep or precipitous rugged rock(s)’ (ME crag).
: Simon, Walter Crakebon 1279 RH (C), 1327 SR (Ess). ‘Crack bone’, ‘break bone’, a nickname for the official who inflicted the cruel punishment of medieval law. cf.
‘Quikliche cam a cacchepol and craked a-two here legges’ (Langland). cf. BRISBANE.
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: A Huguenot name. Jean-Louis Cramer, a Protestant refugee from Strasburg, became a captain in the English army, while Jean-Antoine Cramer was a professor at Oxford and Dean of Carlisle (Smiles 380). Flemish kramer ‘merchant, colporteur’.
: William Cramphome 1324 LLB K; Abraham Cramppone, Thomas Crampporne 1642 PrD. OFr crampoun ‘a grappling iron’, or a nickname, ‘curved horn’. v. CRAMP.
: Osbert Crane 1177 P (C); Jordan Cran 1219 Cur (Ess); William le Crane 1235 FFEss;
Thomas le Cran 1243 AssSo. OE cran ‘crane’, no doubt ‘long-legged’.
: William Craneschank 1383 ERO; John Craneshank 1507 FFEss. ‘Crane shanks’, OE cran, scanca, a nickname for a long-legged person. cf. Nicholas Cranebayn 1219 AssY ‘crane bone’.
: Roger de Cranford a1150–83 MCh; Nicholas de Cranford 1259 FFO; Thomas Cranford 1466 FFEss. From Cranford (D, Ess, Mx, Nth).
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: Nigel de Cranemore 1235 PN Wt 209; Hugh de Cranemere 1275 RH (Herts); Thomas de Cranmer 1373–5 AssL; Edmund Cranmere 1422, John Cranmer 1447 IpmNt. From Cranmere (Sa), Cranmore (So), or Cranmore in Shalfleet (Wt).
: Godith Crasc 1197 P (Nf); Ralph Craske 1207 Cur (Nf). ‘The fat, lusty’. cf. c1440 PromptParv ‘craske, or fryke of fatte (K. crask, or lusty), crassus’.
: Normannus Crassus 1086 DB (L); Hervey le Cras 1130–2 Seals (St); Rogerus Crassus, Roger le Cras 1203 Cur (Lei); Robert Krase 1277 Ely (Sf). OFr cras ‘fat, big’, Lat crassus. v. also GRACE and GROSS with which this name was early confused: Rogerus Crossus, Crassus, Grassus 1202 AssL; Hugo Grassus, Crassus 1211–12 Cur (W).
: William de Crathorne 13th Guisb; William de Crathorn 1345 FFY; Robert Crauthorn, Craythorn, Crattorn, Crawthorn or Crathorn 1509 LP (L). From Crathorne (NRY).
: Helias de Creuequor 1158 P (Sf); Robert (de) Creuequoer 1195 P (K); Robert de Crouequoer 1200 P (K); Rainald, Alexander de Creuker 1212 Fees (L); Robert de Crequer 1284 FA (C). From Crevecoeur (Calvados, Oise, Nord). The baronial family A dictionary of english surnames 786 came from Calvados. Occasional examples with le suggest the possibility also of a nickname, Fr crève-cæur ‘break heart, heart-breaker’. cf. Richard Brekehert 1327 SRSo.
The surname has probably been partly absorbed by Craker, Croaker, Croker and Crocker. Hamo de Creueker has left his name in Crockers (Sussex) and The Creakers in Great Barford (Beds), Crewkers 1539, Crecors 17th, Crakers 1766 (PN Sx 524, PN BedsHu 52).
: Ralph Crouleboys 1251–2 FFWa; Peter Croilleboys 1290 IpmW; Thomas Croyleboys 1344 FFW. ‘Overturn the wood’, OFr crouler, bois, a nickname for a wood-cutter. cf. Fr Croullebois.
: Pagan de Craweleia 1130 P (Bk); Thomas de Crowele c1280 SRWo; William Craweley 1397 IpmGl. From Crawley (Bucks, Essex, Hants, Oxon, Sussex), or Crawley in Membury (Devon).
Crawshaw, Crawshay, Croshaw, Crowsher : John de Crouschagh 1308 Wak (Y); Adam de Craweshaghe 1332 SRLa; Ralph de Croshawe 1379 PTY; Susanna Crawshay 1760 Bardsley. From Crawshaw Booth (Lancs).
: (i) John ate Creche 1327 SRSx; Robert Creche 1327 SRSf. ‘Dweller by the creek’; OE *cricc, ME crich(e), with lengthening of ī in the open syllable became crēche. v. PN C 254–6. (ii) Peter de Cryche 1327 SRSo. From Creech (Dorset, Som). (iii) Douenaldus de Creych 1204–41 Black. From Creich (Fifeshire).
: (i) Creda 1198 FFNf; Crede 1279 Barnwell (C); Wadin Crede 1191 P (Wa); Theynewin Crede 1242 AssSo. OE Creoda (Redin). (ii) John de Crede 1370 LoPleas. From Creed Fm in Bosham (Sussex).
: (i) Bartholomew de Crek 1187 P (Nf); John de Creke 1298 PN C 117; John Creek 1365 LoPleas. From Creake (Nf). (ii) Godwin Critc 1166 P (Nf); Algar Chrech’ 1179 P (Nf);
The dictionary 789 Thomas Crek 1268 AssSo. OFr creche, ME creke ‘basket’. Metonymicfor a maker of baskets.
: A metathesized form of Crennell, a Manx name from MacRaghnaill ‘son of Raghnall’, from ON RQgnvaldr ‘ruler of the gods’, the name of several kings of Man: Godfrey MacMicRagnaill, king of Dublin, 1075, MacReynylt 1511, Crenilt 1627, Cremil 1646, Crellin 1610 Moore.
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: Adeliz de la Kersunere c1190 BuryS (Sf); John de la Cressonere 1331 FFY; Alexander Cressener 1479, Thomas Cresner 1487 FFEss. From La Cressoniere (Calvados), v. ANF, or ‘dweller by the cress-bed’, OFr cressonière.
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: The first immigrant, Claude Champion and his sons, after the family settled in England, were still named Champion only. Two of Claude’s sons became British officers, and adopted the name of Crespigny, but without the de. Gabriel Crespigny had a commission in the Foot Guards in 1691, and Thomas Crespigny was a cornet of dragoons and captain in a regiment of foot in 1710. Far into the 18th century Crespigny without the de remained the family name, the first baronet’s father and mother being so named in the obituaries. v. J.H. Round, Family Origlns 109–20.
: Thomas de Cresacre 1303 FFY; James de Cressaker 1407 IpmY; Thomas Crisaker 1464 TestEbor. ‘Dweller by the field where water-cress grows’, OE cresse, æcer.
: John Kerswellere c1405 FS; Austen Cressweller 1525 SRSx; John Cressweller 1558 SxWills. ‘The man from Cresswell’ (Db, Nb, St), or ‘dweller at the stream where waterA dictionary of english surnames 792 cress grows’, from a derivative of Cresswell, OE cresse, wiella.
: Hugo, Osbert Cribbe 1195, 1200 P (So). OE crib(b) originally ‘a barred receptacle for fodder in cow-sheds’ (used of the manger of Christ c1000), ‘a stall or cabin of an ox’ (a1340 NED). cf. dial crib ‘cattle-fold’. The surname is metonymic for a cow-man.
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