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«Lappeenranta University of Technology LUT School of Energy Systems Degree Programme in Electrical Engineering Joonas Koponen Review of water ...»

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High-pressure PEM water electrolysis renders the first hydrogen gas compression stage unnecessary. The PEM technology provides electrochemical compression in the electrolytic cell, which means that the feedwater pressure does not have to be significantly increased. Additionally, there is no need for liquid electrolyte and the associated equipment.

Water electrolysers are still expensive, and therefore the proposed system will be smallscale. The proposed hydrogen generator will be capable of producing 1 Nm 3/h of hydrogen gas, which can be stored in composite cylinders. The hydrogen system will include a fuel cell to reconvert the produced hydrogen into electricity and heat. The hydrogen system will be integrated into the existing LUT Green Campus to form a practical environment to research and demonstrate the integration of chemical energy storages into renewable power generating systems.

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APPENDIX 1: Loss-estimate model of an alkaline electrolysis cell %% Alkaline electolysis simulation in MATLAB % Model fitting parameters for loss-estimate model from (Milewski et al. 2014) clear all; close all; clc;

–  –  –

for(j = 1:length(t)) pw(j) = getWaterPressure(t(j))*0.986923267; % [atm] end pKOH = exp(0.01621 - 0.138*m + 0.1933*m^0.5 + 1.024.*log(pw));

% Calculate the reversible cell voltage according to T and p Urev1 = 1.5184 - 1.5421e-3.*T + 9.523e-5.*T.*log(T) + 9.84e-8.*T.^2;

Urev = Urev1 + 4.309e-5.*T.*log(((p-pKOH).^1.5.*pw)./pKOH);

% Activation losses Uact alpha_a = 0.0675 + 0.00095.*T; % anode (Ni) charge-transfer coefficient alpha_b = 0.1175 + 0.00095.*T; % cathode (Ni) charge-transfer coefficient i0 = 3.15e-4; % exchange current density [A/cm^2] Uact_a = 2.306*R.*T./(z*F.*alpha_a)*log10(i./i0);

Uact_b = 2.306*R.*T./(z*F.*alpha_b)*log10(i./i0);

Uact = Uact_a + Uact_b;

% Ohmic losses Uohm delta = 0.66; % electrolyte thickness [cm] sigma = -2.041*M - 0.0028*M^2 + 0.001043*M^3 + 0.005332*M.*T + 207.2*M./T M^2.*T.^2; % conductivity of KOH solution [S/cm] % Calculate the effect of bubble phenomena eps = 0.0153*(i./ilim).^0.3; % void fraction of the electrolyte sigma_eps = (1-eps).^1.5*sigma; % electrical conductivity in the presence of bubbles [S/cm] r = delta./sigma_eps; % area specific resistance [cm^2/S] Uohm = r.*i;

% Cell voltage Ucell = Urev + Uact + Uohm;

APPENDIX 2: Technical details of commercial water electrolysers APPENDIX 3 : Process and instrumentation diagram of a high-pressure hydrogen system (IRD 2015)

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