«Change Management with Lean approach How the benefits from Lean can be applied in Change Management Master of Science Thesis in the Master’s ...»
CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 4 Figure 2.1 Lewin's three-step model The underlying principle with Lewin´s model is that driving forces must overweight resisting forces in any change situation. In a situation of change as mentioned, the driving forces must overweight the resisting ones, this can be done by increasing the driving forces or decreasing the resisting ones. Or in best scenario, both of them must happen (Cameron and Green, 2004, p.97). However, as Hayes (2007, p. 80) has observed, it is better to decrease the restraining forces within the individual, group or organization. This approach would result in a more sustainable and more permanent change than trying to increase the driving forces with pressure for change.
It is important for the management to communicate and inform the end users before introducing new technology. But merely top active communication is not sufficient to ensure success. This has to be done both ways. Levasseur (2001, p. 72) states that the fundamental principle of effective management is that people support what they help to create. Participation by the people affected in the change process is the major factor in effective change. When it comes to the second step, Move, it is still essential to remain the feeling and sense of teamwork and active communication among the people affected by the change process. As mentioned earlier that the success of change process depends on people supporting what they help to create is critical in all of the three steps of the process.
The third step, Refreezing, is not successfully accomplished until new behaviours have replaced those that existed prior to the change. This is not done overnight, it requires active involvement and support, from all part involved in the process.
CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 Do not let the simplicity of the model fool you. Lewin's three-step model is according to Levasseur (2001, p. 71) an elegant and infinitely practical guide of complex and unsure situations in the change process. Cameron and Green (2004, p.98) thinks Lewin´s model is a very useful tool when considering organizational change. Making a force field analysis is an exceptional way for the managers to see the driving and resisting forces that exists in any change situation. They also add that this model is sometimes used by managers as a planning tool instead of an organizational development process. This approach ignores the basic idea of people only changing if there is a felt need to do so. So instead of doing good for the organization, if this method is not done properly it can harm more than it helps (Cameron and Green, 2004, p. 99).
A good thing with the model is that it does not spell out in details what needs to be done in a change process. Instead it describes the major steps which must be followed in order to be successful. This is why it is the most powerful and fundamental tool, that every change leader should possess, according to Levasseur (2001, p. 73).
Lippitt’s Phases of Change Theory 2.1.2 Lippitt, Watson and Wastley thought there was a need for expanding Lewin's threestep model. So, they created a seven-step theory, based on Lewin's model, but with more focus on the role and the responsibility of the change leader, than the evolution
of change itself. First they divided the Move phase into three sub-stages:
"The clarification or diagnosis of the client's problem."
"The examination of the alternative routes and goals, and establishing goals and intentions for action."
"The transformation of intentions into actual change efforts."
(Hayes, 2007, p. 81) They also believed that the change would be more stable if they spread it to neighbouring systems or to subparts of the system. This led them to the introduction
of two further stages:
Determining roles, so that all parties knows the expectations clearly.
Examples of roles are: cheerleader, facilitator and expert.
CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 6 Gradually terminate from the relationship. At this step the change leader are expected to withdraw and hand over responsibilities from their role, over time. This stage happens when the change starts to become a part of the organizational culture.
(Kritsonis, 2005, p. 3) Hayes (2007, p. 82) summarizes the model by highlighting the important part of it which is to state how the organization's condition is now and how the desired state will look like. To form strategies and plans to see how to move towards the desired goal and also the importance of managing the personal and political issues associated with change.
2.1.3 Dalziel and Schoonver Model This model is created by Daziel, M. and Schoonver, S. (1988, p. 15) and is divided into three areas; organizational readiness, change-team roles and the implementation
process, which consists of three key questions:
Is our organization ready for planned change?
Are there the right mix of skills required to make the change possible?
Is the implementation process prepared properly to ensure success?
According to the Dalziel and Schoonver Model, these three steps consists of different factors which the project leader has to deal with and manage to ensure a successful change process. First, change leaders or managers have to prepare the organization for change. Next, they have to ensure that the right mix of skills are available and lastly an action plan must be established so that the organization can ensure success.
Compared to Lewin's three-step model this model is also divided into three parts, but unlike many other models this one goes more into depth and describes in details how to handle the whole process and its critical success factors.
The following three areas (organizational readiness, change-team roles and the implementation process) must be manage and handled properly to make the change process effective and successful.
CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 184.108.40.206 Organizational Readiness As mentioned earlier, Daziel and Schoonver (1988, p. 51) describes the fists steps of change as very essential. By following a simple, tested, step-by-step method for preparing managers and their co-workers, the change process can become more effective. Investigating an organization's readiness for change is the first step in finding barriers to planned innovation and developing effective strategies for change across five dimensions. It is particularly important to look at critical factors in an organization's culture when introducing change. If this is not done properly, the change effort may be done in vain. There are five attributes that represents
"History of Change: The prior experience of the organization in accepting change."
"Clarity of Expectations: The degree to which the expected results of change are shared across various levels of the organization."
"Origin of the Idea or Problem: The degree to which those most affected by the change initiated the idea or problem the change solves."
"Support of Top Management: The degree to which to management supports the change."
"Compatibility with Organizational Goals: The degree to which the proposed change corresponds to past and present organizational practices and plans."
(Daziel and Schoonver, 1988, p. 15) The authors elucidates the importance of success in the start. This can be achieved by stimulating the affected people towards change, meeting key problems and sharing information. The most important thing is not to fail at the start, even if it is necessary to move more slowly or only start a small part of the change.
220.127.116.11 Change team-roles In change efforts or process, the leader must allocate people for the six key team roles defined. Even though there are different roles, they are all dependent on one another and work tight together in the change process. However, if the team has a well working and effective communication, it is fully possible for them to work independently, with the change leader coordinating their common effort. According to Daziel and Schoonver (1998, p. 72) these six roles does not have to be allocated to six CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 8 different individuals. In some cases roles may be shared and in other cases one person may perform more than one role. It is of little importance who fills the role, but role coverage is the factor believed to be one of the aspects to ensure success.
"Inventor: Integrates trends and data into concepts, models and plans;
envisions the "big picture" first; adapts plans."
"Entrepreneur: Instinctively focuses on organizational efficiency and effectiveness; identifies critical issues and new possibilities; actively seeks advantages and opportunities."
"Integrator: Forges alliances; gains personal acceptance, as well as acceptance of the team and their program; relates practical plans to strategic plans and organizational issues."
"Expert: Takes responsibility for the technical knowledge and skills required for change; uses information skilfully and explains it in a logical way.
Manager: Simplifies, delegates, assigns priorities; develops others; gets the job done at all costs."
"Sponsors: Ensures support and resources from the highest levels of the organization; communicates where the change fits in the overall organizational "vision"."
(Daziel and Schoonver, 1988, p. 18) According to the authors, role coverage is the factor that ensures success. Each role, including the different skills and behaviours, must be performed. Who fills the role is of little importance. Choosing the team is not an easy task for the leader, however, they have the responsibility to discover and understand the concrete qualities of each person to be able to sense how to gather these human resources and skills needed for change.
18.104.22.168 Implementation Stage Now to the third and last area of the model, the Implementation stage. According to Daziel and Schoonver (1988, p.108), in successful implementations the primary benefits of the change are made apparent to end users. To achieve this, as the change effort evolves, change leaders create concrete plans including a number of key issues, which are translated into proposed actions in ongoing organizational practices.
CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 "Clarifying Plan is the process in which implementers define, document and specify the change."
"Integrating New Practices is the process in which an organization incorporates change into its operations."
"Providing education includes those programs in which end users learn about and use new processes and procedures."
"Fostering Ownership is the process through which end users come to identify new processes and procedures as their own, rather than regarding them as changes imposed upon them."
"Giving feedback is the process in which a detailed objective is monitored and used to judge the effectiveness of the implementation plan."
(Daziel and Schoonver, 1988, p. 20) 2.1.4 The Organizational Change Framework This framework is made by two authors, Oakland et.al (2007) based on their research about the critical factors in successful change management. Senior managers, from 28 different organizations participated in the research. Interviews, questionnaires and literature reviews are examples of methods they used. The research resulted in a development of a framework for successful change, which is presented below.
The Organizational Change Framework, is unlike the other methods presented earlier, not a method. As the name says, it is a framework, a powerful aid with guidelines for organizations wishing to initiate a change program or to increase their success.
The framework consists of two main parts of change management. These parts can be described as two cycles which the organization experiences during the change;
Readiness for change and Implementing change.
The experience from many of the managers is that the first part of the cycle, readiness, is not well understood or developed. This is a frequent event in many change programs, such as the six sigma and is often due to the rush into implementation. To brake this bad habit and get in to the top circle, the first thing to start with is to understand what the key drivers for change are, both inside and outside the organization. This is done in order to make clear for the stakeholders why there is a Need for Change. At this stage, the leader must emphasize and show meaning to the change, otherwise there is a risk that the enthusiasm and the will, quickly disappears.
This is why clear and consistent Leadership and Direction is needed. The Need for Change which has been developed must be turned into expectations, in form of values, aims, measured objectives and targets. Based on these steps, the circumstances then allows the leader to make the Planning which focuses on the strategic objectives.
The implementation stage is often a potential failure for many attempts of change.
This is why the next call must be the organizational Processes in which people live and work. The process drive the way the Organization & Resource work, including the structure, roles, competencies and resources. Then the performance measures and technology supports the organization's Systems and Controls. And eventually, the CHALMERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master’s Thesis 2012:35 Behaviour, which is triggered by all the things mentioned above - structure of the organization, the manager, measurements of employees, processes and systems, etc.
all of those included in the organization.
Furthermore the author states that the attitudes, beliefs and values of the employees are the change leaders responsibility to manage. It is important for the leaders to be aware of them and in these cases most often it is the systems and environment that causes problems and deterioration. The behaviour is critical for the process to work or not. This affects the achievements in quality and time which is crucial for success.