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«Jukka-Pekka Nikolajeff Trafin tutkimuksia Trafis undersökningsrapporter Trafi Research Reports 7/2014 Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 Analysis of the Bird ...»

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Analysis of the Bird Strike Reports

Received by the Finnish Transport Safety

Agency between the Years 2000 and 2011

Jukka-Pekka Nikolajeff

Trafin tutkimuksia

Trafis undersökningsrapporter

Trafi Research Reports

7/2014

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014

Analysis of the Bird Strike Reports

Received by the Finnish Transport Safety

Agency between the Years 2000 and 2011

Mr. Jukka-Pekka Nikolajeff, Cranfield University, School of Engineering

Liikenteen turvallisuusvirasto Trafi

Trafiksäkerhetsverket Trafi Helsinki Helsingfors 2014 ISBN 9789523110069 ISSN 2342-0294 (verkkojulkaisu) Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 ALKUSANAT Tämä tutkimus on tehty yhteistyössä Cranfieldin yliopiston ja Trafin kanssa osana JukkaPekka Nikolajeffin MSc in safety and accident investigation -opintoja.

Lintutörmäystietoutta on alettu keräämään Suomessa jo vuodesta 1978, mutta siitä ei ole koskaan aikaisemmin tehty analyysiä.

Mr. Rodney Fewingsin ohjaama analyysi pureutuu lintutörmäysraportteihin, joita Trafille on ilmoitettu vuosina 2000 – 2011.

Helsingissä, 24. kesäkuuta 2014 Inkeri Parkkari Johtava asiantuntija Liikenteen turvallisuusvirasto Trafi Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 Sisällysluettelo Index Tiivistelmä Abstract Acknowledgements List of Figures List of Tables Glossary 1 Introduction to the Thesis

1.1 Main Reasons to Study Bird Strikes in Finland

1.2 Methodology

1.3 Aims and Objectives

1.3.1 Aims

1.3.2 Objectives

1.4 Chapter Structure

2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

2.2 What are Bird Strikes?

2.2.1 Definitions of Bird Strike

2.2.2 Bat Strikes

2.3 Which Part of the Aircraft the Birds Normally Hit?

2.3.1 Which Part of the Aircraft is the Most Sensitive?..................4

2.4 Why are Bird Strikes Dangerous?

2.5 Aircraft Certification

2.6 History of Bird Strikes

2.7 Bird Strikes – Growing Problem in the Future

2.8 Altitudes Where Bird Strikes Happen

2.9 Climate Change and Bird Strikes

2.10 Understanding the Birds

2.11 How to Prevent Bird Strikes?

2.11.1 Web-Based Bird Avoidance Systems

2.12 History of Bird Strike Reporting in Finland

2.12.1 Bird Strike Reporting in Finland Today

2.12.2 What is Known about Bird Strikes in Finland?

3 Results

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Number of Bird Strike Reports Submitted

3.3 Types of Aircraft and Engines

3.4 Time of Day When the Bird Strikes Occurred

3.5 Phase of Flight When the Bird Strikes Occurred

3.6 Damage to Aircraft and Effect on the Flight

3.7 Weather

3.8 Bird Size and Identification of Species

3.9 Number of Birds Seen and Number of Birds that Hit the Aircraft... 20

3.10 Time of Year When the Bird Strikes Occurred

3.11 Were Pilots Warned about the Birds?

3.12 Airports Where the Bird Strikes Occurred

3.13 Altitudes (QNH) Where the Bird Strikes Occurred

4 Discussion

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Reporting of Bird Strikes

4.3 What Kind of Aircraft is the Most Sensitive to Bird Strikes?........... 30

4.4 Time of Day When the Bird Strikes Occurred

4.5 Arctic Migrations

4.6 Weather

4.7 Phase of Flight When the Bird Strikes Occurred

4.8 About Heights and Altitudes

4.9 Trends

5 Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Conclusion of this Study

5.2.1 Quality of Bird Strike Reports

5.2.2 Quantity of Bird Strike Reports

5.2.3 Identification of Bird Species

5.2.4 Types of Aircraft and Reported Bird Strikes

5.3 Recommendations for Future Research

References

Tables

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 TIIVISTELMÄ Siitä lähtien kun ihmiset alkoivat lentää, lintutörmäyksistä tuli merkittävä turvallisuusongelma. Tällä hetkellä raportoidaan vuosittain satoja lintutörmäyksiä, ja niiden seuraukset vaihtelevat pelästyneestä lentäjästä ilma-aluksen täydelliseen tuhoutumiseen.

On arvioitu, että lintutörmäysten vuosittaiset materiaaliset kustannukset voivat olla yli miljardi euroa. Lisäksi mukaan pitää laskea menetettyjen ihmishenkien mittaamaton hinta.

Kuinka voisimme lentää turvallisesti samalla taivaalla lintujen kanssa? Tähän kysymykseen on hankala vastata siksi, että lintutörmäysten syyt ovat moninaiset. Lentojen kasvava määrä ja lisääntyvä lintupopulaatio tuovat myös uusia haasteita tulevaisuudessa.

Tämä tutkielma lähestyy aihetta keskittymällä lintutörmäyksistä raportoinnin hyötyihin Suomessa. Tutkielmaa varten on tutkittu kaikki lintutörmäysilmoitukset, jotka Liikenteen turvallisuusvirasto on vastaanottanut vuosien 2000 ja 2011 välillä. Tämän tietoaineiston mukaan lintutörmäysilmoitusten määrä on noussut merkittävästi muutaman viime vuoden aikana. Samaan aikaan niiden laatu on valitettavasti ollut Suomessa laskussa.

Analysoitujen ilmoitusten perusteella laadukkaan lintutörmäyksistä raportoinnin merkitys ei ollut vielä selvä kaikille sidosryhmille. Lintulajit olivat usein huonosti tunnistettuja, ja monesti ilmoituksista puuttui muutakin arvokasta tietoa, kuten tietoa sääolosuhteista. Lisäksi sellaisista lintutörmäyksistä, jotka eivät aiheuttaneet vahinkoja, ei useinkaan ilmoitettu.





Tämä johtuu siitä, että lintutörmäyksistä ilmoittaminen ei ole vielä pakollista Suomessa.

Lintutörmäyksistä raportoinnissa päämääränä pitäisi olla parempi laatu ja tiheämpi julkaisuväli verrattuna Suomen nykyiseen tilanteeseen. Tämä parantaisi varmasti lentoturvallisuutta.

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 ABSTRACT As soon as people started to fly, bird strikes became a significant safety issue. At present, hundreds of bird strikes are reported every year, and the consequences vary between a scared pilot to a total aircraft hull loss.

It has been estimated that the material cost of bird strikes may be more than one billion Euros annually. But in addition, there is the immeasurable cost of losing human lives.

How could we fly safely sharing the same sky with the birds? The question is difficult to answer because of the complex reasons why bird strikes happen. The increasing number of flights and growing bird population will also bring new challenges in the future.

This thesis approaches the subject by concentrating on the benefits of bird strike reporting in Finland. The thesis reviews all bird strike reports received by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency between the years 2000 and 2011. According to this data, the number of bird strike reports has been increasing significantly during the past few years. Unfortunately, at the same time, the quality of bird strike reports has been decreasing in Finland.

Based on the reports analysed, the importance of good bird strike reporting was not yet clear for all stakeholders. The bird species were often poorly identified, and a lot of other valuable data, such as weather details, were frequently missing from bird strike reports. In addition, bird strikes that did not cause any damage were often not reported. This was because bird strike reporting is not yet mandatory in Finland. The aim in bird strike reporting should be better quality and higher frequency than what is currently found in Finland. This could certainly improve aviation safety.

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First I would like to thank my Supervisor Mr. Rodney Fewings. He showed great flexibility, understanding and support, giving me valuable comments whenever I was asking. It was an honour to be supervised by him.

Many thanks to all those people who supported me when I was writing my thesis. I would especially like to thank my colleagues at the Finnish Transport Safety Agency’s Analysis Department. They managed to listen to my bird strike stories day after day as if they were really interested. I would also like to thank Mr. Pentti Korkalainen and Jussi Sorsa, who attend to the bird strike report files at the Finnish Transport Safety Agency, and Ms. Leila Iikkanen, who kindly helped me when my English was not good enough to write this.

Thanks also to the employees of the Finnish airport operator, Finavia Corporation, for giving me all the information that I needed, and thanks to all the members of the Finnish Bird Strike Committee, who always believed that my thesis would be completed in time.

A very special thanks goes to my family and friends. I was always supported by one of them when things were not going so well.

There are no words to tell how grateful I am for this opportunity to study in Cranfield University. For me this has been an adventure to something totally different and new. I would love to thank all the people with whom I was working in the Department of Air Transport. I will never forget the time I spent in Cranfield.

–  –  –

1 Introduction to the Thesis

1.1 Main Reasons to Study Bird Strikes in Finland Bird strikes in Finland have not been analysed in any previous studies. This study attempts to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the existing Finnish reporting system and culture. In addition, recommendations will be given with regard to the reporting system and in an aim to improve aviation safety as regards bird strikes in Finland.

1.2 Methodology The bird strike reports analysed were collected from the Finnish Transport Safety Agency’s files for three separate years: 2000, 2006 and 2011. The number of reported bird strikes during the years 2001 - 2005 and 2007 - 2010 is also observed. This study is both quantitative and qualitative. Due to the difference in reporting activity for different years, more attention has been paid to the quality of the reports. All bird strikes involving Finnish-registered aircraft or reported at Finnish airports have been taken into account. The archivist kindly gave permission to use this data for research purposes in this thesis. The study was carried out in co-operation with the Finnish Transport Safety Agency.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

1.3.1 Aims The aims of this thesis were to analyse the data of bird strikes reported in three different years in Finland, and to use this data to improve the Finnish bird strike reporting system and the flight safety in Finland. The analysis was carried out for three separate years (2000, 2006 and 2011), because the bird strike reports received in different years were useful for showing any changes in the reporting culture as well as in the quality and quantity of the reports. The years between 2001 - 2005 and 2007 are also taken into account by reviewing the number of bird strikes reported in each year.

–  –  –

6. Weather.

7. Bird species / size of bird.

8. How many birds were seen? / How many hit the aircraft?

9. Were pilots warned about the birds? / Heavy Bird Activity announcement.

10. Additional data The years between 2001 - 2005 and 2007 - 2010 are also taken into account by reviewing the number of bird strikes reported in each year.

1.4 Chapter Structure Chapter 1 is an introductory part, which gives the reader a general idea about the aims and objectives of this study and explains why it has been carried out.

Chapter 2 is a literature review, which briefly looks at some interesting general literature about collisions between birds and aircraft.

Chapter 3 shows the results of the research part in written form. Chapter 3 provides answers to all ten variables that were analysed in the bird strike reports received by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency in the years 2000, 2006 and 2011: 1. Type of the aircraft and engines, 2. Time and location, 3. Flight parameters / phase of flight,

4. Any damage to aircraft, 5. Effect on the flight, 6. Weather, 7. Bird species / size of bird, 8. How many birds were seen? / How many hit the aircraft?, 9. Were pilots warned about the birds? / Heavy Bird Activity announcement and 10. Additional data. The years between 2001 - 2005 and 2007 - 2010 are also taken into account by reviewing the number of bird strikes reported in each year.

Chapter 4 is the discussion part. The main findings are analysed here and compared with other similar studies at an international level.

Chapter 5 is the closing part. It contains the conclusions of this study and gives some ideas for future research.

2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction This chapter briefly looks at some interesting general literature, which is available about collisions between birds and aircraft. When writing the words “bird strike” in Google, it gives over 24.000,000 hits. Due to the wide amount of different literature on the topic of bird strikes, this review is carefully limited in consideration of the aims and objectives and the problem statement of this study.

2.2 What are Bird Strikes?

–  –  –

in the future as the number of aircraft and birds increases. Bird strikes are very frequent and may occur to all aeroplane categories.

There are several definitions for bird strikes. The main idea is the same, but slight differences can also be found. To give an example, SKYbrary has a definition stating that: “A bird strike is a collision between an airborne animal (most often a bird, but sometimes another species) and a man made vehicle, especially aircraft” (SKYbrary, 2012).

According to the International Bird Strike Committee (IBSC), bird /wildlife incidents are divided into three categories as follows:

“Confirmed strikes:

 Any reported collision between a bird or other wildlife and an aircraft for which evidence in the form of a carcass, remains or damage to the aircraft is found.

 Any bird/wildlife found dead on an airfield where there is no other obvious cause of death (e.g. struck by a car, flew into a window etc.).

Unconfirmed strikes:

 Any reported collision between a bird or other wildlife and an aircraft for which no physical evidence is found.



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