FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 |

«Jukka-Pekka Nikolajeff Trafin tutkimuksia Trafis undersökningsrapporter Trafi Research Reports 7/2014 Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 Analysis of the Bird ...»

-- [ Page 7 ] --

5.1 Introduction For over a hundred years, bird strikes have been a serious safety issue for the aviation business. Year after year the sky is becoming busier, both for aircraft and the birds, and the risk of bird strikes is increasing. Many studies have been carried out on this subject and a lot of different practices and tools have been developed to prevent bird strikes. Even so, bird strikes do occur every day, and unfortunately their number is increasing.

5.2 Conclusion of this Study In this study, many interesting observations and conclusions have been made. Some recommendations are also given based on the findings.

5.2.1 Quality of Bird Strike Reports The quality of bird strike reports varies a lot. In this study nine variables were followed and every year was different. The major differences in reporting were easy to find out. As in any occurrence reporting, good quality is more valuable than a large number of reports.

A poorly completed bird strike report is like an empty lot; it provides no information or only very little information for further research. Persons filling up bird strike report forms should make sure that they complete the form properly. Especially those reports where the bird strike did not cause any damage and had no effect on the flight are often filled up poorly, and a lot of valuable data is missing. One interesting finding was how poorly weather details were reported in the bird strike reports for year 2011. A significant improvement was that the phase of flight was marked a lot better in the reports for year 2011 than for year 2000.

One solution for improving the quality of reports could be to make certain fields on the web-based bird strike report form mandatory to fill in before the report can be sent. In this way the bird strike reports would become more useful for future studies and prevention activities.

The report is often the only source of information for those involved in airport wildlife management and for regulators, for example. As in any other incident reporting, a large number of reports are not a sign of many problems – rather just the opposite;

it indicates a good reporting culture. The benefits of bird strike reporting are more easily achieved if the quality and quantity of the reports is high. In conclusion, bird strike reporting should be made mandatory.

5.2.2 Quantity of Bird Strike Reports The quantity of bird strike reports has been increasing since the year 2008 (n = 117).

The number of bird strike reports received by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency was over 300 in the year 2012. This means a nearly 180% improvement in reporting activity. At the same time, the number of aircraft movements at Finnish airports has decreased. The total number of landings in the year 2000 was 225,025, while the Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 corresponding figure for the year 2011 was 210,230 (Table A1.7). Concluding from this, there were altogether 14,795 (7%) less landings but 50 (23%) more bird strike reports in the year 2011 compared to the year 2000. Pilots, air traffic controllers and airport maintenance staff have clearly lowered the threshold for filing a bird strike report.

5.2.3 Identification of Bird Species This study proved that the birds are identified poorly. In the year 2011, the bird was correctly identified only in 22 (10%) out of 222 bird strikes.

The problem of identifying the birds is common everywhere. It cannot be expected that pilots, air traffic controllers and airport maintenance staff would be able to identify all the bird species, but some kind of training should be provided on the subject.

Bird strikes often occur at the airport or in its vicinity, and the people who are working at the same airport for years often learn to know the local birds. For example Helsinki-Vantaa Airport has a flock of crows (Corvus corone), some of which have been ringed. The oldest crows in that flock are over 15 years old and familiar to many of the workers.

Stenman and Joutsen (2013) have written a booklet that introduces all the species of seagulls living in Finland and contains information on how to prevent them at airports. This is an excellent idea to increase the aviators’ knowledge about birds. In the near future, the Finnish Transport Safety Agency’s web-based reporting system will also have an option to add a picture to the online report. This will give a possibility, for instance, to add a picture of a bird that the pilot could not identify. Those pictures could then be forwarded to the Finnish Natural Museum’s ornithologists or they could be discussed in the Finnish Bird Strike Committee meetings, where there are members with better competence in identifying various bird species. In some cases, DNA testing should also be a possibility.

5.2.4 Types of Aircraft and Reported Bird Strikes Aircraft types operating in Finland are now different than over ten years ago. This can also be seen in bird strike reports. It is obvious that aircraft which have the largest share of landings and take-offs also have the most bird strikes. A clear rule of thumb is that modern turbojet aircraft are the most sensitive to bird strikes. In Finland, one operator also uses many ATR72 and ATR42 aircraft on domestic flights. A significantly larger number of take-offs and landings shows clearly as an increasing number of bird strike reports. An interesting observation was that concerning helicopters. Helicopters do not have many operations in Finland, but the probability of bird strikes is nearly as high as for turbopropeller aircraft.

5.3 Recommendations for Future Research This study brought up some questions and areas of study that could be interesting subjects for future research.

 What are the differences between mandatory and voluntary bird strike reporting?

Is the quality of reports better if bird strike reporting is mandatory and is the number of reports higher in relation to aircraft movements?

 What would be the best way to give information to the pilots about heavy bird activity? Should the air traffic controller, for example, suggest another runway for approaching aircraft if a flock of birds is seen in the approach sector?

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014 References Airbus (2012), “Demand spurs need for over 28,000 aircraft in the next 20 years”, available at: http://www.airbus.com/presscentre/pressreleases/press-releasedetail/detail/demand-spurs-need-for-over-28000-aircraft-in-the-next-20-years/ (accessed 18th September 2012).

Baxter, A.T. and Robinson, A.P. (2007), “Monitoring and influencing feral Canada goose (Branta Canadensis) behaviour to reduce birdstrike risk to aircraft”. International Journal of Pest Management, Vol. 53, No. 4, p. 341-346.

BBC News (2012), “Nepal plane crash: UK dead remembered”, available at:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19754351 (accessed 29th September 2012).

Benton, T.G. et al. (2002), “Linking Agricultural Practice to Insect and Bird Populations: A Historical Study Over Three Decades”. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol.

39, p. 673-687.

BirdLife Suomi – Finland (2012), “Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) and Great

Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)” (in Finnish), available at:

http://www.birdlife.fi/suojelu/lajit/valkoposkihanhi.shtml and http://www.birdlife.fi/suojelu/lajit/merimetso.shtml (accessed 7th September 2012).

BirdLife Suomi – Finland (2012), “Birds in Finland” (in Finnish), available at:

http://www.birdlife.fi/havainnot/rk/suomessa_tavatut_lintulajit.shtml (accessed 7th September 2012).

Brown, J. and Hickling, G. (2000), “The problems of analysis of pilot-reported birdstrikes as an index for actual bird-strikes at airports”. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 27, p. 45-47.

caa.co.uk (2008), United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, CAA Introduces

Online Birdstrike Reporting System, available at:

http://www.caa.co.uk/application.aspx?catid=14&pagetype=65&appid=7&newstype =n&mode=detail&nid=1548 (accessed 25th August 2012).

Chilvers, B.L. et al. (1997), “Factors affecting pilot-reported bird-strike rates at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand”. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 24, p. 1-7.

Dolbeer, R.A. (2006), “Height Distribution of Birds Recorded by Collisions with Civil Aircraft”. Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 70, No. 5, p. 1345-1350.

Dolbeer, R.A. (2011), “Increasing trend of damaging bird strikes with aircraft outside the airport boundary: implications for mitigation measures”. Human-Wildlife Interactions, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 235-248.

Dove, C.J. (2008), “Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Bird Species Involved in Birdstrikes”. Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 72, No. 5, p.1231-1236.

Dove, C.J et al. (2010), “Using Whatman FTA cards to collect DNA for bird-strike identifications”. Human-Wildlife Interactions, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 218-223.

European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) (2009), “Bird population trends and their impact on aviation safety 1999 – 2008”. EASA safety report 2009.

European Commission (2008), Commission Regulation (EC) No 859/2008 of 20 August 2008 amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 as regards common technical requirements and administrative procedures applicable to commercial transportation by aeroplane. Official Journal of the European Union.

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014

European Union (2003), Directive 2003/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 June 2003 on occurrence reporting in civil aviation. Official Journal of the European Union.

European Union (2010), Regulation (EU) No 996/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 on the investigation and prevention of accidents and incidents in civil aviation and repealing Directive 94/56/EC. Official Journal of the European Union.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. et al. (2011), “Bird strikes and aircraft fuselage color: a correlation study”. Human-Wildlife Interactions, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 224-234.

Finnish Aviation Act (2009), No. 1194/2009. Issued in Helsinki, 22 December 2009.

Finnish Aviation Regulation (1997) AGA M3-13, “Lintujen ja muiden eläinten torjunta lentoasemilla”. Issued in Helsinki, 23 January 1997. Also available in English:

Prevention of birds and other wildlife at airports, http://www.trafi.fi/filebank/a/1320403265/59250a8145d7ce529b9e5901428fcfb7/55 3-agr3_13.pdf Finnish Aviation Regulation (2011) GEN M1-4, “Onnettomuuksista, vakavista vaaratilanteista ja poikkeamista ilmoittaminen”. Issued 16 March 2011 in Helsinki. Also available in English: Reporting of accidents, serious incidents and occurrences, http://www.trafi.fi/filebank/a/1320403287/5dc8ecf182fea60aaed16d5aa7db2396/62 7-GEN_M1-4_2011_eng.pdf Finnish Aviation Regulation (2009) OPS M1-18, “Vaarallisten aineiden ilmakuljetus”, (Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Air) (In Finnish). Issued in Helsinki, 15 June 2009.

Safety Investigation Act (2011), No. 525/2011. Issued in Helsinki, 20 May 2011.

Gauthreaux, S. A. Jr and Belser, C. G (2003), “Overview Radar Ornithology and Biological Conservation”. Auk Vol. 120, No. 2, p. 266-277.

International Air Transport Association (IATA) (2012), Annual Report 2012, 68th Annual General Meeting, Beijing – June 2012.

International Bird Strike Committee (IBSC) (2006), “Recommended practices No. 1.

Standards for Aerodrome Bird / Wildlife Control”. Issue 1 – October 2006.

International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO Annex 13, “Aircraft accident and incident investigation”. Tenth Edition 2010.

International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO Annex 14, “Aerodromes”. Fourth Edition 2004.

Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), Administrative & Guidance Material, Leaflet No 44, Section 4 / Part 3 (JAR-OPS). June 2008.

Jonzén, N. et al. (2006), “Rapid Advance of Spring Arrival Dates in Long-Distance Migratory Birds”, Science AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science), Vol. 312, p.1959-1961.

Kelly, T.A. (2009), “Beware of the birds”. IEEE Potentials, Vol. 28, No. 5, p.31-35.

Koistinen, J, interview by Jukka-Pekka Nikolajeff. Senior Research Scientist in Meteorology (Nov 2013).

Layborne, R.C. (1974), “Collision Between a Vulture and an Aircraft at an Altitude of 37,000 feet”. Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 86, No. 4, p. 461-462.

LeMieux, J. Dr. (2009), “One Bird Strike & You’re Out!”, Solutions to prevent bird strikes. Victoria, BC, Canada.

Trafin tutkimuksia 7-2014

Martin, G.R. (2011), “Understanding Bird Collisions with Man-Made Objects: a Sensory Ecology Approach”. IBIS (The International Journal of Avian Science), Vol. 153, p. 239-254.

Miller, F. P et al. (2010), “Bird Strike”, Alphascript Publishing, Mauritius.

Njå, O et al. (2012), “Risk of bird strikes A discussion of current tools and practices”. Study presented in International Bird Strike Committee (IBSC) meeting in Stavanger, Norway, 25 29 June 2012.

Parsons, J.G et al. (2009), “Bat Strikes in the Australian Aviation Industry”, The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 526-529.

Päärni, J. (2010), “Lintujen syysmuuttoa pääkaupunkiseudulla”, (Birds’ autumn migration in the Helsinki metropolitan area), Kariston kirjapaino Oy, Hämeenlinna, Finland (In Finnish).

Raulot, M. (2009), Bird strike management at airports: a case study in French airports (published MSc thesis), Cranfield University, Cranfield.

Shamoun-Baranes, J. et al. (2006), “A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Weather on the Flight Altitudes of Birds”, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 87 p. 47-61.

Shamoun-Baranes, J. et al. (2008), “Avian Information Systems: Developing WebBased Bird Avoidance Models”, Ecology and Society, Vol.13, No. 2, Art.38.

SKYbrary (2012), Category: Bird Strike, available at:

http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Category:Bird_Strike (accessed 17th of September 2012).

Stenman, O. and Joutsen, J (2013), “Lokkien tunnistaminen ja torjunta lentoasemilla”, (Identification and prevention of seagulls at airports), Finavia, Libris Oy, Helsinki (In Finnish).

Thorpe, J. (2012), “100 years of fatalities and destroyed civil aircraft due to bird strikes”, Study presented in International Bird Strike Committee (IBSC) meeting in Stavanger, Norway, 25 29 June 2012.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 |

Similar works:

«10 Reasons Why Supplemental Protectors Can Not be Used to Provide Branch Circuit Protection Why can’t Supplemental Protectors be used for branch circuit protection? In order to provide an answer to this very popular question, a review of the standard used for evaluation of the device will have to be conducted. The standard used for evaluation of supplemental protectors is UL1077 Supplemental Protectors. Let’s look into the standard and analyze the requirements in order to provide an answer...»

«Chapter 3 Ilorin as a Slaving and Slave-Trading Emirate Ann O'Hear I lorin, situated in northernmost Yorubaland, was the southwesternmost emirate in the Sokoto Caliphate. Its population, very largely Yoruba, included powerful Fulani and Hausa minorities.1 Before the early nineteenth century, Ilorin appears to have been a small town, on the eastern rim of the Oyo Empire, apparently a base from which to watch the Igbomina to the east and the Nupe to the northeast. It came to prominence as the...»

«RULES FOR INNOVATION IN THE NEW WORLD OF CRAFTERS, HACKERS, AND TINKERERS MARK HATCH New York Chicago San Francisco Athens London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Singapore Sydney Toronto Contents •■    ■    ■  Acknowledgments vii Maker Movement Manifesto (Short Version) 1 Introduction 3 1. Maker Movement Manifesto 11 2. Free Innovation! 33 3. Communities of Practice 51 4. Knowledge, Learning, Control, and Intelligence 69 5. Fueling Innovation 91 6. Democratization of Tools...»

«  Available online at http://www.anpad.org.br/bar BAR, Curitiba, v. 7, n. 3, art. 2,   pp. 242-259, July/Sept. 2010   Empirical Evidence of Trade Credit Uses of Brazilian  Publicly‐Listed Companies    Richard Saito * E-mail address: rsaito@fgvsp.br Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo/Fundação Getulio Vargas São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Márcia Lima Bandeira E-mail address: marciabandeira@gvmail.br Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo/Fundação...»

«661959C US0010.1177/1749975516661959Cultural SociologyHarambam and Aupers research-article2016 Article Cultural Sociology 1–17 ‘I Am Not a Conspiracy © The Author(s) 2016 Reprints and permissions: Theorist’: Relational sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1749975516661959 Identifications in the cus.sagepub.com Dutch Conspiracy Milieu Jaron Harambam Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands Stef Aupers University of Leuven, Belgium Abstract Despite their popularity and...»

 Is there a supernatural dimension, a world beyond the one we know? Is there life after death? Do angels exist? Can our dreams contain messages from Heaven? Can we tap into ancient secrets of the supernatural? Are healing miracles real? Sid Roth has spent over 35 years researching the strange world of the supernatural. Join Sid for this edition of It’s Supernatural. SID: Hello. Welcome to my world where it's naturally, it is naturally supernatural. I'm kind of upset over something. I...»

«EIOPA-BoS-15/112 EN Guidelines on exchange of information on a systematic basis within colleges EIOPA – Westhafen Tower, Westhafenplatz 1 60327 Frankfurt – Germany Tel. + 49 69-951119-20; Fax. + 49 69-951119-19; email: info@eiopa.europa.eu site: https://eiopa.europa.eu/ 1. Introduction 1.1. According to Article 16 and 21(3) of Regulation (EU) No 1094/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (hereinafter EIOPA Regulation)1 and with regard to Article 249 of Directive 2009/138/EC of...»

«[EMBARGOED FOR: 7 December 2005] Public amnesty international ERITREA Religious Persecution AI Index: AFR 64/013/2005 Amnesty International December 2005 Contents 1. Introduction: basic human rights denied Fears of new armed conflict with Ethiopia 2. Religions in Eritrea – background to arrests 3. Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses 4. Crackdown on evangelical churches 5. Cases of arrests of religious prisoners of conscience, 2003-2005 6. Detention of Muslims 7. National military service and...»

«Altium Limited ASX Announcement ` ALTIUM LIMITED ACN 009 568 772 3 Minna Close Belrose NSW 2085 Australia Investor Relations Contact Details: Kim Besharati VP Investor Relations & Corporate Affairs Phone: +1 858 864 1513 Mobile: +1 760 828 3567 2015 Chairman’s Address Altium Annual General Meeting Sydney, Australia 17 November 2015 Good morning ladies and gentlemen and welcome to the Altium Limited 2015 Annual General Meeting. The financial year ended 30 June 2015 has been a productive period...»

«Publish data Professional Asp Net Design Css Mes And Master Pages Programmer To books document, also Download PDF Professional Asp Net Design Css Mes And Master Pages Programmer To digital file PROFESSIONAL ASP NET DESIGN CSS MES AND MASTER PAGES PROGRAMMER TO PDF Enjoy ways of help documentation is really a hard copy manual that's printed professional asp net design css mes and master pages programmer to PDF nicely bound, and functional. It operates as a reference manual skim the TOC or index,...»

«SONS OF ENCOURAGEMENT SONS of Five stories of faithful men who changed eternity encou gement F R A NC I NE RIVERS Ty n da l e Ho u s e Pu b l i s h e r s, In c., C a r o l St r e a m, Il l i n o i s Visit Tyndale’s exciting Web site at www.tyndale.com. Check out the latest about Francine Rivers at www.francinerivers.com. TYNDALE and Tyndale’s quill logo are registered trademarks of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Sons of Encouragement The Priest copyright © 2004 by Francine Rivers. All...»

«Page |1 Central Highlands Council AGENDA – ORDINARY MEETING – 16 AUGUST 2016 Agenda of an Ordinary Meeting of Central Highlands Council scheduled to be held at Bothwell Council Chambers, on Tuesday 16th August 2016, commencing at 9am. I certify under S65(2) of the Local Government Act 1993 that the matters to be discussed under this agenda have been, where necessary, the subject of advice from a suitably qualified person and that such advice has been taken into account in providing any...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.