«Reestablishing roots and learning to fly: Kazakh church planting between contextualization and globalization. by Dean Frederick Sieberhagen submitted ...»
Anwar is in his thirties, married with children, lives in the capital city and pastors a Kazakh language church. Many of the members have come from the poorer areas and he is trying to figure out how to reach the growing middle-class of Modern Kazakhs. Employment rates are high in this city and people have little free time. Traditions are reserved for special occasions with the rest of life being devoted to making a good living. He has studied at a one year Bible School and is affiliated with the church planting from that school.
Bolat is in his forties, married with children, and pastors a house church in Almaty.
He speaks Russian, Kazakh, and English; and has completed a Master of Divinity degree in the USA. He has a strong interest in theology and hermeneutics. He has been active in a Bible School and sees the House Church model as the most effective amongst the Kazakhs.
He believes that the church must make the most of what modernization and westernization has to offer. His background is Russian Baptist but he is now part of the House Church Fellowship of Kazakhstan.
Arman is in his forties, married with three children, and pastors a church in Almaty.
He has a vision for a registered Kazakh Bible School offering up to a Masters level degree.
He also runs his own business and argues that believers need to find good employment or business opportunities so that they fit into society. He has a number of young people in his church. He has studied at a one year Bible School and has been affiliated with the Presbyterian denomination.
3.3 Codes and Categories arising from the Data At the end of the interviewing process the data is ready for the process of comparative analysis. George Allan (2003:1) explains that in grounded theory, analyzing the data involves looking for codes within the data and then the related concepts and categories that are revealed by these codes. Coding involves analyzing the data for issues of importance to the topic which can be described in a short phrase. Charmaz describes coding as “categorizing segments of data with a short name that simultaneously summarizes and accounts for each piece of data. Your codes show how you select, separate, and sort data to begin an analytic accounting of them” (2006:43). There are those such as Juliet Corbin and Strauss (2008:58) who propose a word-by-word micro-analysis of the data whereas others such as Glaser hold to a key-point or focused coding. This study follows Glaser and the coding of the data has involved identifying key points. Using what Glaser and Strauss call the Constant Comparative Method, the codes are compared to each other and grouped into categories which produce theoretical ideas. This comparison is between codes within a particular set of data as well as with codes from other sets of data.
Axial coding provides a means for relating categories to their sub-categories and so begins to sort and re-organize the data within a category, thereby giving dimensions and coherence to the category. As Charmaz (2006:61) explains, axial coding helps to provide a structure or frame for the developing theory. Charmaz makes an additional important point where she explains that there may now be some valuable and appropriate categories that have emerged, but nevertheless seem to lack sufficient data so that they appear under-developed (:96). This raises the idea of saturating a category with additional data, where relevant data is sought out and synthesized into the existing category until it appears completely developed.
This is what Glaser and Strauss (1999:45) refer to as Theoretical Sampling.
Using Glaser’s key-point coding approach, the analysis of the data names the following
categories and the codes that were used to create them:
3.3.1 Category 1: Kazakh Cultural Traditions
Worship must be in Kazakh.
Traditional instruments are not important.
Traditional songs are not important.
Dance and appropriate costumes should be used.
There needs to be a combination of modern and traditional Customs and traditions should be used in evangelism.
The use of traditions must not contradict the Bible.
Traditions must be adapted to the context.
Traditions are less important in a modern world.
Traditions are less important for believers.
Traditions are important in the village.
Traditions are less important in the city.
Using traditions keeps the church in the culture.
Using traditions identifies the church with Kazakh culture.
Traditions must not be used in a way that excludes others who don’t identify with them.
National celebration days are an opportunity for the church to embrace culture.
Use the Dombra.
Use original Kazakh songs and melodies.
Giving Christian meaning (functional substitutes) to traditions must not offend.
3.3.2 Category 2: Commitment to Islam
Orthodox Islam is having some effect.
For at least half of Kazakhs, money is their real god.
Most Kazakhs want to live like the West.
Being able to live like the West is more important than religion.
Religion is most important at retirement.
Most Kazakhs are not becoming stronger Muslims.
Money is more important than religion.
Religion is important at a surface level only.
Practicing religion is not important.
Kazakhs like to be seen as modern.
Most Kazakhs do not identify with radical Islam.
Some Kazakhs acknowledge other religions.
Religion is for the elderly.
Some younger people are becoming more Islamic.
Do not offend by criticizing Islam.
The church must avoid persecution due to offense.
Reaching Muslim leaders is not important.
Talking to Muslim leaders can overcome negative stereotypes towards believers.
The Quran is useful as a door to the Bible.
The Quran is useful with Kazakhs who use it.
The Quran is dangerous if seen as equal to the Bible.
Use the Quran for evangelism.
Use the Quran in limited circumstances.
Use of the Quran is dangerous in creating interest in it.
Use the Quran only if relevant.
The Quran should not be used, it causes confusion.
3.3.3 Category 3: The Influence of the West
Western influence is not significant.
Western influence has helped Kazakhs be more compassionate.
Western influence has lowered moral standards.
Western influence has caused a lot of change.
Kazakhs living in the cities have become westernized.
Kazakh cities are westernized.
Westernization has brought openness.
The West has helped Kazakhs understand a healthy family.
First generation churches are too western.
Western influence has helped Kazakhs care for the community.
Westernization has opened the world for Kazakhs.
Westernization has emphasized surface level relationships.
Westernization has made Kazakhs more materialistic.
Westernization has helped business, education, and politics.
Believers from the West have helped the church with worship and preaching.
Believers from the West have helped to emphasize grace.
The influence of the West is positive for those under forty years of age.
The influence of the West is negative for those over forty years of age.
Western influence is seen as negative in the village.
Globalization is feared in the village.
Learn from what works in other countries.
3.3.4 Category 4: New technology
It is very important to keep up, or risk being left behind.
It must not replace personal contact.
It can be overused by the church where people are not ready.
It is needed in city churches.
It is very important for the younger generation.
The church must use new technology or become irrelevant.
Use of the internet in particular is becoming important.
New technology must be used for evangelism and discipleship.
The advances of instant communication must be used by the Kazakh church.
The church must not run after new technology.
New technology must only be used when applicable.
New technology itself has a neutral effect on culture.
Churches must use the internet and computer technology.
Television and satellite must be used with caution.
Satellite television can be used to create interest.
Satellite television is limited in evangelism and discipleship.
Satellite television can be used for evangelism and discipleship.
Television is dangerous if it replaces church.
3.3.5 Category 5: Reaching the Next Generation
Worship should use modern instruments.
Worship must appeal to young adults.
Modern songs and melodies should be used.
Music is the language of youth.
Modern worship styles are more important than traditional.
Russian worship trends are influential.
Worship must feel right to the younger generation.
Young people’s music style is significant.
Young people have a different worldview.
Use technology with young people.
Young people need social interaction.
Use facebook and my world.
Use special events such as concerts and picnics.
Use the internet for networking young people.
Use the internet for dialogue with young people.
3.3.6 Category 6: Key Segments for the Growth of the Church
University students are very important.
University students can reach relatives in the village.
University students are the future.
Reaching businessmen has the potential for financial support.
Reach cities first due to greater openness.
Kazakhs living in the city seek intimacy.
Modern Kazakhs in the city value participation.
A church in the city needs a variety of programs.
There needs to be creative small groups for business people such as at coffee shops.
3.3.7 Category 7: Specific Methods of Discipleship, Evangelism, and Church Planting
Use testimonies that focus on Jesus.
Stories and testimonies are highly relevant in evangelism.
Testimonies help reach others in a cultural way.
Hospitality is very important.
Using hospitality is of the highest importance.
Family connections must be used.
Families must be used in church planting.
The church must have family-oriented ministry.
Kazakhs are reached through families.
Use cultural celebrations.
Particularly with family, believers must live out (show) their faith before telling.
3.3.8 Category 8: Challenges to the Growth of the Church
Materialism is the greatest challenge to the growth of the church.
Materialism is dangerous for the church.
If restrictive laws are passed they will threaten the church.
Materialism and Islam are the church’s greatest challenges.
There are some signs of interest in Islam.
The church must try to counter materialism.
God’s culture must replace a material one.
Materialism and leadership issues are the greatest challenges.
The lack of commitment by leaders is the greatest challenge.
Leaders have not been empowered.
Apathy in the church is a threat to growth.
There is not a great threat of syncretism in the church.
Christianity’s foreign image is somewhat challenging.
There is a slowdown in the commitment of believers.
3.3.9 Category 9: Three Categories of Kazakhs
Modern Kazakhs are the most influential.
Traditional Kazakhs are important, but modern the most influential.
Russified Kazakhs are the least influential.
The Russian language is influential.
Russian is still spoken by many.
Use of the Kazakh language is essential.
Modern Kazakhs will have the greatest impact on the future.
Modern Kazakhs can help to reach the others.
3.3.10 Category 10: Small Groups and House Churches
House church is appropriate where the traditional church has registration difficulties.
House church is seen as a sect.
Some do not see house church as real church.
Traditional churches must have small groups.
Small groups must have strong leaders.
Small groups are essential for discipleship.
House churches are needed for reproducibility.
Diverse models are good and give Kazakhs a choice.
Kazakhs must be reached using house churches.
House churches are able to use hospitality.
House churches emphasize the importance of the home.
Larger Sunday meetings are important.
Full-time pastors are not always necessary.
A separate building is not essential.
Churches follow the model they are first exposed to.
3.3.11 Category 11: Baggage from the Past
The past must be renounced early in discipleship.
Baggage from the past must be dealt with.
The pastor must set the example in dealing with baggage.
Individual counseling is needed in dealing with shame.
Almost all believers have to deal with baggage.
A group setting is too embarrassing.
Baggage will stop spiritual growth if not dealt with.
Intimacy is needed to deal with the past.
3.3.12 Category 12: Five Self Paradigm
Bi-vocational pastors have more credibility.
First churches were too foreign.
Few Kazakh leaders were empowered in the first churches.
The first churches did not use the Kazakh language.
Second generation and beyond churches are more Kazakh.
The Kazakh church is not financially independent.
Kazakhs were forced into leadership prematurely.
Leadership training emphasized skills and not character.
Some Kazakh church leaders failed because they were too young in the faith.
Mentoring is needed.
Good leadership models have been lacking.
Biblical leadership must be shown outside the classroom.
Expatriate pastors are not needed.
Expatriate missionaries need to help local pastors on a personal level.
The lack of discipleship is due to inexperienced pastors.
There is very little self-theologizing.