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«International 17 Workshop th Nitrogen The was jointly organised by Teagasc and AFBI Printed by Print Depot Suggested citation Authors, 2012. Title ...»

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3. Results & Discussion Regular daily observation of cow urination and soil sampling of urine patches showed that the DCD was returned in the urine patches across a range of rates that represented a skewed (upper tail) distribution. The median rate of DCD in the urine patches varied with weather conditions and was generally in the range of 15-45 kg DCD ha-1.

Nitrate concentrations in leachate collected from the ceramic cups were significantly lower in the DCD-treatment plots than in the control over the winter drainage period

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(Figure 1). This resulted in annual values of nitrate-N leaching of 19.2 vs. 32.0 kg ha-1 (P0.05) for the DCD-treatment and control farmlet systems, respectively.

* Figure 1. Nitrate-N concentration (mg L-1) in soil solution at 60 cm depth for nil-DCD control and DCD treatments. Significant treatment differences are indicated by * and represent P0.05.

Nitrous oxide emissions showed significant treatment differences over approximately six weeks and during the main winter period (June-August). They were 44% (P0.05) lower for the DCD treatment.

4. Conclusion This grazing system study showed that DCD can be administered to water troughs, consumed by grazing cattle and delivered in an unaltered form predominantly in urine. This resulted in a significant reduction in nitrate leaching (by 40%) and nitrous oxide emissions (44%) from the DCD treatment relative to the control.

References Amberger, A. 1989. Research on dicyandiamide as a nitrification inhibitor and future outlook.

Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 20, 1933-1955.

Ledgard, S.F., Menneer, J.C., Dexter, M.M., Kear, M.J., Lindsey, S., Peters, J.S. and Pacheco, D. 2008.

A novel concept to reduce nitrogen losses from grazed pastures by administering soil nitrogen process inhibitors to ruminant animals: A study using sheep. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 125, 148-158.

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A synergistic mitigation technology for nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions for pastoral agriculture Di, H.J.a, Cameron, K.C.a, Roberts, A.b a Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand. bRavensdown, P O Box 608, Pukekohe, New Zealand

1. Background & Objectives In grazed grassland, most of the nitrate (NO3-) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions come from the animal urine-N returned to the pasture by the animal during outdoor grazing (Di and Cameron, 2002a). The N loading rate under a dairy cow urine patch in intensively grazed dairy grassland can be as high as 1000 kg N ha-1 (Di and Cameron 2002a). Most of the N in the urine is urea which, when deposited onto the soil, is oxidized to ammonium (NH4+), and then to NO3-. The excess NO3- remaining after plant uptake or immobilisation is prone to leaching during the wet season or lost as N2O. Here we present a mitigation technology that is synergistic in decreasing both NO3- leaching and N2O emissions, while at the same time, increasing pasture production. The mitigation technology involves the use of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), to treat grazed pasture soil (Di and Cameron, 2002b; 2003; 2004; 2005; 2006; 2007; Di et al., 2007; 2009a;

2009b; 2010a; 2010b).

2. Materials & Methods Soil samples (0-0.1 m depth) were taken from different sites across New Zealand and were used to study the inhibition effect of DCD on ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). Soil DNA was extracted and the amoA gene, which encodes the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme, was quantified using primers and probes coupled with real-time PCR analysis. Large undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (0.5 m diameter and 0.7 m deep) were also collected and used to determine NO3- leaching and N2O emissions (Cameron et al., 1992; Di et al., 2009b; 2009c). A standard closed chamber method was used to determine N2O emissions from the treated lysimeters (Di et al., 2009c). The lysimeters were exposed to the same climatic conditions as the soil and pasture in the surrounding field. Pasture was harvested at typical grazing heights and intervals to determine pasture yield. Pasture responses have also been measured on commercial dairy farms under realistic grazing conditions (Moir et al., 2007).

3. Results & Discussion The AOB population abundance and activity grew rapidly following the application of animal urine at 1000 kg N ha-1, with the amoA copy numbers increasing by 3.2-10.4 fold the different soils (Di et al., 2009a). However, when the nitrification inhibitor, DCD, was applied, the AOB population growth was significantly inhibited. In contrast, the AOA population abundance and activity did not change with the supply of the large dose of urine-N substrate. The addition of the urine-N substrate significantly increased the nitrification rate, as indicated by the rising NO3--concentrations, but the nitrification rates were reduced by the DCD treatments. DCD did not adversely affect other soil microbial populations, such as methanotrophs (Di et al., 2011).

Fourteen datasets on NO3- leaching from a range of soil and environmental conditions published in internationally peer reviewed journals show that the DCD nitrification inhibitor technology reduced NO3- leaching from urine patch areas by an average of 64%, with a standard error of ± 3.6% (Cameron et al., 2009). The small standard error of 3.6% indicates that there is a high level of





Nitrogen Workshop 2012

consistency in the effectiveness of this technology in reducing NO3- leaching losses. Similarly, de Klein et al. (2011) reported that twenty three datasets of N2O emissions from a range of soil and environmental conditions across New Zealand published in international peer reviewed journals showed that the nitrification inhibitor technology reduced N2O emissions from urine patch areas by an average of 57%, again showing the high efficacy in reducing N2O. Pasture yield increases up to 20% have also been recorded when DCD is applied (Moir et al., 2007).

Acknowledgments We thank the New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI), Ravensdown Ltd, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), the Pastoral 21 Consortium, and the Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium for funding.

References Cameron, K.C., Smith, N.P. McLay, C.D.A., Fraser, P.M., McPherson, R.J., Harrison, D.F. and Harbottle P. 1992.

Lysimeters without edge-flow: an improved design and sampling procedure. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56, 1625-1628.

Cameron, K.C., Di, H.J. and Moir, J.L. 2009. The effectiveness of nitrification inhibitor technology to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Primary Industry Management 13, 19-23.

De Klein C., Cameron,\ K.C., Di H.J., Rys G., Monaghan R. and Sherlock R.R. 2011. The effect of long-term use of the nitrification inhibitor DCD on reducing N2O emissions from cow urine. Animal Feed Science and Technology 166-491.

Di, H.J. and Cameron K.C. 2002a. Nitrate leaching in temperate agroecosystems: sources, factors and mitigating strategies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 46, 237-256.

Di, H.J. and Cameron K.C. 2002b. The use of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), to reduce nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in a simulated grazed and irrigated grassland. Soil Use Manage 18, 395-403.

Di, H.J. and Cameron K.C. 2003. Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in spray-irrigated grazed grassland by treating the soil with dicyandiamide, a nitrification inhibitor, Soil Use Manag 19, 184-290.

Di, H.J. and Cameron, K.C. 2004. Treating grazed pasture soil with a nitrification inhibitor, eco-nTM, to decrease nitrate leaching in a deep sandy soil under spray irrigation. N Z J Agric Res 47, 351-361.

Di, H.J. and Cameron K.C. 2005. Reducing environmental impacts of agriculture by using a fine particle suspension nitrification inhibitor to decrease nitrate leaching from grazed pastures. Agric, Ecosyst Environ 109, 202-212.

Di, H.J. and Cameron, K.C. 2006. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pasture soils as affected by different rates of a fine particle suspension nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD). Biology and Fertility of Soils 42: 472-480.

Di, H.J. and Cameron, K.C. 2007. Nitrate leaching losses and pasture yields as affected by different rates of animal urine nitrogen returns and application of a nitrification inhibitor – a lysimeter study. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 79, 281-290.

Di, H.J., Cameron, K.C. and Sherlock, R.R. 2007. Comparison of the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in reducing nitrous oxide emissions in four different soils under different climatic and management conditions. Soil Use Manage 23, 1-9.

Di H.J., Cameron, K.C., Shen, J.P., He J.Z. and Winefield C.S. 2009b. Nitrate leaching from grazed grassland as affected by a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, and relationships with ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Soil Use Manage 25, 454-461.

Di, H.J., Cameron, K.C., Shen J.P., Winefield C.S., O’Callaghan M., Bowatte S. and He, J.Z. 2010a. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 72, 386Di, H.J., Cameron, K.C., Shen, J.P., Winefield C.S., O’Callaghan M., Bowatte S. and He, J.Z. 2009a. Nitrification driven by bacteria and not archaea in nitrogen rich grassland soils. Nature Geoscience 2, 621-624.

Di H.J., Cameron, K.C., Sherlock, R.R., Shen J.P., He J.Z. and Winefield C.S. 2010b Nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland as affected by a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, and relationships with ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. J Soils Sediments 10, 943-954.

Di, H.J., Cameron, K.C., Shen, J.P., Winefield C.S., O’Callaghan M., Bowatte S. and He, J.Z. 2011. Methanotroph abundance not affected by applications of animal urine and a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, in six grazed grassland soils. J Soils Sediments. 11, 432-439.

Moir, J., Cameron, K.C. and Di, H.J. 2007. Effects of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on soil mineral N, pasture yield, nutrient uptake and pasture quality in a grazed pasture system. Soil Use Manage 23, 111-120.

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Agricultural measures has reduced the nitrogen surplus by almost 50% in Denmark Vinther, F.P., Børgesen, C.D.

Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Denmark

1. Background & Objectives For nutrients, where a loss can have an adverse impact on the environment, the surplus is a good indicator of the development in the potential environmental impact of agriculture seen over a number of years. The nutrient surplus corresponds to the total quantity of excess nutrients on the farm when the amount of nutrients exported via sales of plant and animal products have been deducted from the amount in imported feedstuffs and inorganic fertilizers or in other ways has been added at farm level. The surplus thus consists of what can be lost via ammonia volatilisation from housing and stores or during field application, denitrification, leaching or surface runoff, or through changes in the soil pool. One of the tools used in Denmark to follow how the situation develops and to evaluate environmental action plans has been the annual estimates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) surplus from the agricultural sector (Vinther and Olsen, 2011). The purpose with this paper is to describe how the N surplus has developed in Denmark during the last 25 years and to pinpoint measures that have been most effective in reducing the surplus.

2. Materials & Methods

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Nitrogen Workshop 2012

3. Results & Discussion In many countries the environmental regulation is to a great extent based on volunteer and subsidized measures to reduce nutrient loads to the aquatic environment, whereas in Denmark, basically all environmental regulation concerning handling and application of manure and fertilizers is based on legislation that can be controlled by the authorities either during control visits at the farm or via the mandatory fertilizer accounts. The legislation include maximum N-quotas at farm level, maximum amount of total N applied as animal manure, minimum utilization of N (plant available N) in animal manures, restrictions on spreading time and minimum storage capacity of animal manure, ban on tillage in autumn and on ploughing of grass fields in autumn, obligatory fertilizer plans and fertilizer accounts for all farms, and minimum acreage with catch crops.

–  –  –

4. Conclusion The nitrogen surplus in the agricultural sector has been reduced significantly during the last 25 years, and the most important measures has been

- the introduction of maximum N-quotas at farm level, i.e., maximum amount per acreage of total N applied as animal manure and mineral fertiliser

- the tightening of the legal minimum utilization of N (plant available N) in animal manures, which for pig slurry has been increased from about 20% to 75% over the years. If for example a crop needs 140 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg total N ha-1 is added as pig slurry, of which 75 kg N ha-1 is considered to be plant available, then only 65 kg N ha-1 is allowed as mineral fertiliser References Kyllingsbæk, A. 2005. Nutrient balances and nutrient surpluses in Danish agriculture 1979-2002. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Foulum. DJF Report no. 116 pp. 103 (In Danish).

Vinther, F. P. and Børgesen, C.D. 2010. Nutrient surplus as a tool for evaluating environmental action plans in Denmark. OECD Workshop on Agri-Environmental Indicators, Leysin, Switzerland, 23-26 March, 2010, pp. 8.

Vinther, F. P. and Olsen, P. 2011. Nutrient balances and nutrient surpluses in Danish agriculture 1989-2009 (2010).

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University. Internal report no. 102 pp. 22 (in Danish).

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Ammonia emission after on-farm application of additives in pig slurry lagoons Viguria, M.a, Arriaga, H.a, Merino, P.a a NEIKER-Tecnalia, Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Derio, Spain



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