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1. Background & Objectives Ammonia (NH3) has achieved importance in animal production from the point of view of environmental and health protection. Around 75% of European NH3 emission comes from livestock production (Webb et al., 2005). In pig farms, aproximately 50% of the NH3 emission is from pig housing and slurry storage (van der Peet-Schwering et al., 1999). Slurry additives could reduce NH3 volatilization from manure storage, as they are used to influence certain properties (stimulate or inhibit microbial conversion processes), but few on-farm studies have been carried out to support their benefits. The urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) was evaluated in a laboratory experiment when applied to pig slurry, but contradictory results were obtained (Panetta et al., 2004). In this study, an on-farm experiment was performed in order to estimate the effects of Agrotain® (NBPT commercial product) and Gel Biopolym® (aromatic plants and bacterial-enzyme complex, used by farmers in the Basque Country, Spain) additives on NH3 emissions from pig slurry storage.
2. Materials & Methods Agrotain® (AG) and Gel Biopolym® (GB) were simultaneously tested in 2 slurry lagoons (768 m3 and 1000 m3) placed in a fattening pig farm, from 11th of May to 2nd of June. AG was split in two doses, which were calculated based on Dell and Brandt (2011): 29 mg AG kg-1 slurry at the beginning (period 1, from day 1 to day 6) and 57 mg AG kg-1 slurry (period 2, from day 7 to day 17). GB was applied at 0.02 ml kg-1 once, following suppliers recommendations. A control treatment (CT) without additive was established (3 m3 slurry). NH3 emission from lagoons was measured using a dynamic chamber system similar to that described by Peu et al. (1999). Samples were determined in situ by a Bruel & Kjaer 1302 photoacoustic analyzer during 5 hours each day, with a frequency of 3-4 days a week. Two slurry replicates were analysed from each lagoon for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), total N (TN), ammonium-N (NH4+-N) and Corg/Ntotal ratio.
During two days before additive application, NH3 emission averaged 25.20 ± 2.31 mg NH3 m-2 h-1 in the three treatments. After the first application of additives and during the following three days, NH3 volatilization was similar for GB and AG, with 0.08% of TN, while for CT was 0.14%. Under optimal climatic conditions for NH3 volatilization (warm temperature and no rainfall), a decrease in NH3 emission was observed from GB treatment after the first three days (Figure 1). In period 2, with a second AG application, NH3 loss represented 0.05%, 0.06% and 0.09% of TN from GB, AG Nitrogen Workshop 2012 and CT, respectively. At this time, rainfall from day 5 to day 14 could have also influenced the reduction on NH3 emissions from lagoons in all treatments.
During 17 days, NH3 volatilization was 0.15%, 0.16% and 0.25% from GB, AG and CT, respectively, related to TN content presented in slurries before additive application. The proportional deviation on NH3 emission was -0.47 and -0.03 for GB and AG, respectively, considering a value equal to 1 for CT.
4. Conclusion NH3 volatilization from GB treatment was reduced by 47% with respect to CT until 17 days after additive application. GB additive could be considered a usable product for NH3 abatement from slurry lagoons in actual farms. The effect of AG additive on NH3 emission was not observed at the dose studied.
References Dell, C. and Brandt, R. 2011. Effect of AgrotainPlus application rates on ammonia emissions from liquid dairy manure.
Panetta, D.M., Powers, W.J. and Lorimor, J.C. 2004. Direct measurement of management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure. ASAE Paper No. 044107 Peu, P., Beline, F. and Martinez, J. 1999. A floating chamber for estimating nitrous oxide emissions from farm scale treatment units for livestock wastes, Journal of Agricultural Enginering Research 73, 101-104.
Van der Peet-Schwering, C.M.C., Aarnink, A.J.A., Rom, H.B. and Dourmad, J.Y. 1999. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The Netherlands, Denmark and France. Livestock Production Science 58, 265-269.
Webb, J., Menzi, H., Pain, B.F., Misselbrook, T.H., Dammgen, U., Hendriks, H. and Dohler, H. 2005. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe, Environmental Pollution 135, 399-406.
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
Ammonia emissions from bovine slurries during storage Rochford, N.M a, b, Lanigan, G.J. a, Lalor, S.T.J. a Byrne, K.A. b a Crops, Environment and Land Use Programme, Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Wexford, Rep. of Ireland.
b Department of Life Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Rep. of Ireland.
1. Background & Objectives Agriculture is responsible for 98% of Ireland’s total ammonia (NH3) emissions, with land-spreading and housing/storage of manures contributing the majority of these emissions (Hyde et al., 2003).
The Irish herd has approximately 6.3 million animals, with 37 million tonnes of manure being produced during the winter housing period. Of this, 29.3 million tonnes of manure is slurry (79.2 %), with the remaining 7.7 million tonnes being solid manure (20.8 %), (Lalor and Schulte, 2008).
Important factors that determine the amount of NH3 emitted from animal operations include:
number, age and type of animals; housing design and management; type of manure storage and treatment; land application technique; and environmental conditions (Leneman et al., 1998). Zhang et al. (2005) reported NH3 emission rates from slurry in storage that were four times higher at temperatures of 13 °C compared with storage at 2°C. A dietary change with feed of a lower crude protein is considered to be an efficient way of reducing N loss from manure thus reducing NH3 emissions (Külling et al., 2001; Oenema et al., 2007). Currently, national ammonia inventory calculations do not account for animal type, diet or climatic conditions. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the effect of animal type, diet and storage temperature on ammonia (NH3) emissions from bovine slurry in storage.
2. Materials & Methods Slurry collection Manure was collected from bovine animals of four different age groups: two 7 year old dry dairy cows; two 7 year old beef cows; two 13 month old beef steers; and two 8 month old beef heifers.
All the animals were fed each of the three different diets ad-lib over a two to three week period or until approximately 200 litres of slurry had been collected. Manure was collected daily and stored in sealed containers to minimise NH3 losses. This was then divided up into 25 litre batches and frozen until incubation. The three diets were chosen to represent different C:N ratios of typical Irish livestock diets. Diet 1 was ad-lib grass silage. Diet 2 was 50 % grass silage and 50 % concentrates.
Diet 3 was ad-lib concentrates and straw.
Slurry incubation Slurries were incubated in 5 litre open cylinders at temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20 °C and all at 80 % relative humidity. The experiment was conducted as a randomised block design with four replications. Ammonia emissions were measured on days 0, 5, 9, and 14 of incubation, using a static chamber coupled to an Innova 1412 Photoacoustic Field Gas Monitor (LumaSense Technologies, Inc.). Fluxes were calculated based on concentration accumulation within the chamber over a five minute period. The effects of diet, animal type and temperature and their interactions on cumulative emissions were analysed by Analysis of Variance using Proc Mixed in SAS.
3. Results & Discussion Ammonia emissions were significantly affected by animal type (P0.001), diet (P0.001) and temperature (P=0.05). All two-way interactions were also significant (P0.05). Manure from the Figure 1. (a) Interactive effects of diet and animal type, temperature and diet (b), and temperature and animal type (c) on NH3 emissions from bovine slurry in storage. (Letters indicate differences at P0.05).
4. Conclusions Animal type, diet and temperature had a significant effect on NH3 emissions during manure storage, indicating potential benefits to including these factors in national NH3 emission inventories. Further work is required to relate these emissions data to varying manure characteristics and farm-scale housing systems.
Acknowledgements The authors greatly acknowledge funding from the Atlantic Area Programme 2007-2013, the European Regional Development Fund and the Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Fund.
References Hyde, B.P., Carton, O.T., O'Toole, P. and Misselbrook, T.H. 2003. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture. Atmospheric Environment 37(1), 55-62.
Külling, D.R., Menzi, H., T.F, K., Neftel, A., Sutter, F., Lischer, P. and Kreuzer, M. 2001. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from different types of dairy manure during storage as affected by dietary protein content.
The Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge University Press 137(2), 235-250 Lalor, S.T.J. and Schulte, R.P.O. 2008. Low-ammonia-emission application methods can increase the opportunity for application of cattle slurry to grassland in spring in Ireland. Grass and Forage Science 63(4), 531-544.
Leneman, H., Oudendag, D.A., Van der Hoek, K.W. and Janssen, P.H.M. 1998. Focus on emission factors: a sensitivity analysis of ammonia emission modelling in the Netherlands. Environmental Pollution 102, 205-210.
Oenema, O., Oudendag, D. and Velthof, G.L. 2007. Nutrient losses from manure management in the European Union.
Livestock Science, 112(3) 261-272.
Zhang, G., Strom, J.S., Li, B., Rom, H.B., Morsing, S., Dahl, P. and Wang, C., 2005. Emission of ammonia and other contaminant gases from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. Biosystems Engineering 92(3), 355-364.
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
Ammonia volatilization losses from urea treated with N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) stored at different temperatures Soares, J.R.a, Cantarella, H.a a Soils and Environmental Research Center, Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP, Brazil
1. Background & Objectives Nitrogen loss through NH3 volatilization is a main concern when urea (UR) is surface-applied.
Studies in Brazil report average losses of 30% of the applied N (Cantarella et al., 2008).
Many organic and inorganic compounds have been tested as urease inhibitors to reduce NH3 volatilization but the best results have been obtained with urea analogues, particularly N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) (Trenkel, 2010). However, the stability of NBPT added to urea remains unclear; there is evidence that the inhibitor can degrade during storage and before fertilizer application (Watson et al., 2008), which could affect the ability of NBPT to reduce NH3 volatilization. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of NBPT-treated urea as a function of storage conditions.
2. Materials & Methods Two experiments were conducted in volatilization chambers under controlled laboratory conditions with temperature maintained at 25±3° C. The chambers were filled with samples of a Typic Hapludox (or Red Latossol) soil, moistened to 60% of the water retention capacity. Key chemical and physical properties were pH (CaCl2) 5.9; organic matter 24 g dm-3; clay 403 g kg-1 and sand 503 g kg-1. The fertilizer used was prilled urea (UR) coated with NBPT (1060 mg kg-1), in the form of the commercial product AGROTAIN (200 g/kg active ingredient). Prior to the volatilization study urea with or without NBPT was placed in sealed plastic bags, simulating fertilizer bags, and was stored for 1 to 9 months, in laboratory incubators at 25oC or 35oC. The NH3 volatilized from the chambers was trapped into boric acid solution, which was replaced daily, and was determined by potentiometric titration (Cantarella and Trivelin, 2001). Residual NBPT was determined according with Douglass & Hendrickson (1991) Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by the Tukey test, p ≤ 0.10.
3. Results & Discussion In experiment 1, NH3 losses from urea without inhibitor reached 36% of the total N applied whereas losses from UR+NBPT stored for just 1 day were only 15%. In the treatments with UR+NBPT stored at 25ºC for 1 and 3 months and stored at 35ºC for 1 month, the NH3 losses did not differ from those of UR+NBPT stored for 1 day. On the other hand, the treatment with UR+NBPT stored for 3 months at 35ºC had 27% of N losses which were higher (p ≤ 0.10) than those of UR+NBPT stored for 1 day (Figure 1). In experiment 2, the NH3 losses from urea and UR+NBPT freshly prepared (1 day) were similar to those of experiment 1 (Figure 1). In the treatments with UR+NBPT stored at 25ºC for 6 and 9 months the NH3 losses reached 23% and were higher than those of UR+NBPT stored for 1 day, but lower than those of UR without the urease inhibitor. However, the NH3 losses in the treatments with UR+NBPT stored at 35ºC for 6 and 9 months did not differ from those of UR without NBPT (Figure 1). Some degradation of NBPT took place during storage (Table 1), mainly in the treatments stored at 35ºC for 3 months (exp. 1), and in all treatments with UR+NBPT stored in experiment 2, similarly to that reported by Watson et al. (2008). This probably explains the loss of efficiency of the NBPT in these treatments. But, despite the very low concentration of NBPT after a long storage time, some inhibitory effect remained, probably due to the residues of NBPT or the product of its decomposition.
Days after fertilizer application to soil Figure 1. Cumulative losses of NH3 after surface application of urea (UR) with or without the urease inhibitor (NBPT) stored at different temperatures and time periods. Data with overlapping vertical bars do not differ (Tukey, p ≤ 0.10).
4. Conclusion NBPT applied to urea gradually lost its efficiency to reduce NH3 volatilization with time and temperature of storage. However, even after 3 months of storage at 25oC or 1 month at 35oC, urea+NBPT reduced NH3 losses by a similar amount to urea freshly treated with the inhibitor.
References Cantarella, H., Trivelin, P.C.O., Contin, T.L.M., Dias, F.L.F., Rossetto, R., Marcelino, R., Coimbra, R.B. and Quaggio J.A. 2008. Ammonia volatilisation from urease inhibitor-treated urea applied to sugarcane trash blankets. Scientia Agricola 65, 397-401.