FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 82 | 83 || 85 | 86 |   ...   | 92 |

«International 17 Workshop th Nitrogen The was jointly organised by Teagasc and AFBI Printed by Print Depot Suggested citation Authors, 2012. Title ...»

-- [ Page 84 ] --

knowledge profit interest for employees and owners, interaction with college (2) Have on-farm crop research plots been helpful to your operation? How?

Yes, reduced fertilizer inputs, reduced fuel use, yields, again, employee interest in results (3) What are some key ingredients for a successful project?

The project should give measured answers to the questions and decisions made on farm.

(4) How much do plot harvests slow down your field crew?

There is a little slow down at harvest - 60 acres chopped on study day rather than 75 (5) Replicated studies sound complicated and seem like overkill-what do you say?

Good answers with low standard deviations justify replicated study

Lessons learned through working in this farm partnership illustrated some key principles:

Involve farm in topic selection, trial implementation, and data collection.

Keep the research targeted and simple but scientifically sound:

 • 3-4 treatments at a maximum.

• 4 replications at a minimum.

• Annual reports to farmer and meeting to discuss results – make plan for next year.

Farmer, Consultant and University Partnerships Although the example of Table Rock Farm is an illustration of a very effective (and intensive) extension and knowledge transfer model and a partnership that is a solid foundation for progress in future years, the approach initially impacted one farm only. Although farms do learn from each other even if they do not participate in such projects, the main expansion of the work at Table Rock Farm came through the development of preliminary data that allowed the university extension team and its farmer and farm advisor on-farm research partnership to successfully apply for additional funding and to expand the trials beyond Table Rock Farm. To date, 21 starter N trials have been completed (Ketterings et al., 2012b) while nine other farms have participated in manure application method comparisons in past years (Place et al., 2005). Other examples included a statewide project on starter P fertilizer that resulted in completion of 71 trials (Ketterings et al., 2005) and a sharp reduction in P

Nitrogen Workshop 2012

fertilizer use in New York State (Ketterings et al., 2011; 2012a), further illustrating the effectiveness of such on-farm research partnerships. In a recent survey among certified nutrient management planners in New York State, the confidence gained due to such on-farm research was identified as a major driver in reductions in farm and state P balances (Ketterings and Czymmek, in review). Statewide projects like this are essential for improvement of Land Grant University fertility and environmental management guidelines, enabling farmers and their advisors to learn alongside researchers and be partners in development of guidance for all farms.

Stick or Carrot Approach?

New York State’s P story is a good example of the need for both a stick and carrot approach. In 2003, the state implemented the New York State Phosphorus Index (PI; Czymmek et al., 2003) as a tool for manure and fertilizer P management. This PI was developed based on federal regulatory pressure beginning in the late 1990’s. Starting in 2003, a PI assessment for each field became mandatory for all regulated farms. The introduction of the PI, the on-farm research partnership that led to completion of the 71 starter P trials, and P related extension programing were all conducted simultaneously. Recent interviews of certified nutrient management planners in New York State related to P use on farms and

the PI as a tool for management evaluation revealed two key ingredients for this successful on-theground impact (Ketterings and Czymmek, 2012):

“The history of collaboration and trust between the public, academic, and private sector  stakeholders in New York State has led to a track record of efficient problem solving. Involve stakeholders in the process and hold them accountable to create real solution.” “The New York phosphorus index has been the most effective planning tool for evaluating the  risks associated with applying manure to cropland. The Institution of the CAFO regulatory program was the main driver for changes in nutrient management and soil conservation, however.” This feedback identified the importance of (1) ownership among those impacted by policy changes, research findings etc. for adoption of alternative practices, and (2) accountability that leaves the farms with greater confidence and options for management. The starting point for such impact was knowing the initial baseline data and the point of view of the receiver of information. For a successful knowledge transfer program, the actual message is not as important as the partnership and understanding farmer reality that leads to asking the right questions and an adaptive management process that leads to answers and on the ground impact.

Key Lessons Based on New York Experiences

Keys to farm level impact:

• Understanding of the concerns and recognition that change is necessary among all.

• Identification of win-win situations first.

• Use of technology where possible.

• Ask relevant questions, generate believable results, collect reliable data (replicated trials).

• Farmer involvement and accountability in the process (on-farm research, farmers as drivers of the adaptive management process).

Nitrogen Workshop 2012

• Development and maintenance of a trust-based farmer, advisor, researcher relationship.

For state level impact, key ingredients are:

• Recognition that change is necessary among all involved.

• Application of common sense to influence sound decision-making (farmers, regulators).

• Implementation of change via policy, incentives, measuring and monitoring; hold people accountable but allow for flexibility.

3. Conclusions For the sustainability of agriculture anywhere, it is important to find ways to reduce the cost of production, increase yields and/or outputs, and enhance profitability while minimizing environmental loss of nutrients. The examples of New York State discussed in this presentation illustrate key ingredients for success: (1) statewide awareness of the issues driven by regulations and extension programming; (2) science-based tools that allow for farm-specific responses to the environmental challenges (not one approach fits all); (3) demonstrated risk (relevant questions and credible answers obtained through an on-farm research partnership); (4) accountability for all players; (5) enforcement of regulations; and (6) existence of economically feasible solutions. The case study farms recognized the potential for improvement, and explored alternative management through on-farm research and technology use, while looking for win-win approaches (such as reduced fertilizer use). Future models for effective, impact oriented extension and knowledge transfer should start from the viewpoint of the farmer and hold farmers, their advisors and the research community accountable for finding solution, as a partnership.

References Czymmek, K.J., Q.M. Ketterings, L.D. Geohring, and G.L. Albrecht. 2003. The New York Phosphorus Index. User's guide and documentation. CSS Extension Bulletin E03-13. 64 pp.

Ketterings, Q.M. and K.J. Czymmek. 2012. P Index as a P awareness tool: Documented P use reduction in New York State.

Journal of Environmental Quality (in review).

Ketterings, Q.M., K.J. Czymmek, and S.N. Swink 2011. Evaluation methods for a combined research and extension program used to address starter phosphorus fertilizer use for corn in New York. Canadian J. of Soil Science 91(3), 467-477.

Ketterings, Q.M., S.N. Swink, G. Godwin, K.J. Czymmek, and G.L. Albrecht. 2005. Maize silage yield and quality response to starter phosphorus fertilizer in high phosphorus soils in New York. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 3, 360Ketterings, Q.M., G. Godwin, W. DeGolyer, and K. J. Czymmek. 2012a. Trial results for manure injection at Table Rock Farm. What’s Cropping Up? 22(2), 17-22.

Ketterings, Q.M., G. Godwin, S.N. Swink, J. Foster, E. Hong, K.J. Czymmek, C. Albers, P. Barney, B. Boerman, S. Canner, P. Cerosaletti, A. Gabriel, M. Hunter, T. Kilcer, J. Lawrence, E. Young, and A. Wright. 2012b. Can manure replace the need for starter nitrogen fertilizer? 3-year summary. What’s Cropping Up? 22(1), 8-12.

Place, A., Q.M. Ketterings, G. Godwin, P. Barney, J. Lawrence, B. Aldrich, T. Kilcer, K.J. Czymmek, and B. Gloy. 2010.

Shallow incorporation of manure minimizes soil disturbance and conserves nitrogen. What’s Cropping Up? 20(3), 3-5.

Nitrogen Workshop 2012

A framework for designing and evaluating nitrogen-efficient farming systems at the catchment scale by combining process studies, integrated modelling and participatory approach.

Durand Pa, Ruiz La, Vertès Fa, Delaby Lc, Moreau Pa, Hubert-Moy Ld, Gascuel-Odoux Ca a INRA, UMR1069 Sol Agro et hydrosystème Spatialisation, F-35000 Rennes, France b ULCO, UPRES EA 4029 Laboratoire d’Informatique du Littoral, F-62228 Calais, France c INRA, UMR1080 Production du Lait, F-35590 St-Gilles, France d Université Rennes 2, UMR 6554 COSTEL

1. Background & Objectives In someclosed bays, the maximum nitrogen concentration, in the tributary streams, required to control the impacts of eutrophication coastal water, is very low compared to the concentrations currently observed where intensive agriculture is the dominant land use (e.g. Billen, 2011).

Consequently, such territories must reduce drastically their emissions, which often implies redesigning the production systems. This may involved acute socio-economical issues. The objective of this contribution is to present the rationale and some results of a four-year study (ACASSYA project ANR-08-STRA-01, http://www.inra.fr/acassya) aiming at developing a comprehensive body of knowledge and tools able to facilitate such evolution. The main challenge was to combine in a coherent and interactive way three different approaches : i) process studies, aiming at quantifying the response time and buffering capacity of the biophysical system, ii) integrated modelling approaches designed to simulate and assess complex and coherent innovative scenarios of farming system changes and iii) a participatory approach, based on a multi-disciplinary diagnostic, involving the design and implementation of systemic changes in selected farms.

2. Materials & Methods

The ACASSYA project consists in three interactive workpackages:

Most of the WP1 work was conducted in long term experimental sites ORE Agrhys (http://www.inra.fr/ore_agrhys) and ZA Armorique (http://osur.univ-rennes1.fr/zoneatelierarmorique/) and combined field observations of water and N species dynamics (including isotopes) with modelling. Both WP2 and WP3 were performed in a 120 km² catchment (Lieue de Grève, Brittany, W France) strongly affected by green tides since the early 70s, which are controlled by the nitrate fluxes from the rivers feeding the bays (Menesguen and Piriou, 1995). The nitrate stream concentrations are currently around 7 mg.L-1 and a 60% reduction should be required to hope a significant reduction of the frequency and intensity of algal blooms. The catchment comprises 190 Nitrogen Workshop 2012 farms (85% cattle farms), and the agricultural area (71% of total area) is occupied for nearly half by grasslands, followed by maize and wheat.

3. Results & Discussion The main original results concerning N dynamics in shallow aquifer are detailed in Gascuel et al (this meeting), and the CASIMOD’N model is presented by Moreau et al. (this meeting). Farm systems diagnosis and first ways to re-design production systems were presented in Moreau et al.


In this presentation, we will illustrate the value of this type of integrated project by focusing on a

few examples highlighting the added value of the interactions between the different tasks:

- the experimental studies on the effect of hedgerows on water and N fluxes in the hillslope led to the implementation of a specific module into the TNT2 model. Results showed that hedgerow spatial distribution affect water and N fluxes at the catchment scale and provided hints to design more effective hedgerow networks.(tasks 1 feeding task 2 and then task 3)

- remote sensing approaches combined with local expertise brought new ways to characterise pasture at different scales: at the catchment scale, identification of the ley-crop rotations; at the plot scale, information on grassland management and grass status. These data were used to calibrate and validate the CASIMOD’N model (task 3 feeding task 2).

- the participative construction of scenarios of evolution of farming systems led to propose two key-indicators that were tested with CASIMOD’N. The iteration between simulation results and participatory research with stakeholder is now tested in 10 pilot farms, before its implementation in the whole Lieue de Grève catchment. (task 3 feeding task 2 and feedback) We will use these examples to discuss the following questions: How does modelling facilitate collaboration with stakeholders? How the feasibility of changes can be assessed both i) in the pilot farms and ii) in the whole territory? Is prospective modelling able to predict whether the problem will be solved or not?

4. Conclusion Trans-disciplinary approach is required to address such a complex issue at the landscape level. This site and the tools developed in this program could be used as a generic framework to support programmes of mitigation of agricultural pollution..

References Billen, G. Nitrogen flows from European regional watersheds to coastal marine waters. In: Sutton MA, Howard CM, Erisman JW, Billen G, Bleeker A, Grennfelt P, et al., editors. The European Nitrogen Assessment. Sources, Effects and Polilicy Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 48 p.

Gascuel C. et al. (this meeting) The complexity of the recharge processes and their effect on the seasonal variations of nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater and streams: observations and modeling Moreau, P., et al. 2012 Reconciling technical, economic and environmental efficiency of farming systems in vulnerable areas. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. (in press), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.06.005

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 82 | 83 || 85 | 86 |   ...   | 92 |

Similar works:

«METRE, RHYTHM AND VERSE FORM Nobody can write about poetry without some idea of how it works, especially how it differs from prose. The principal distinction between prose and poetry is rhythm. This volume demonstrates the way in which rhythm interrelates with metre. It analyses the effects of rhythm in action and describes the forms of metre through which it manifests itself. Metre, Rhythm and Verse Form is an invaluable introduction to the study of poetry. Philip Hobsbaum defines the...»

«PROTOCOL ON THE STATUTE OF THE AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS TABLE OF CONTENTS PROTOCOL PREAMBLE Chapter I: Merger of The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and The Court of Justice of The African Union Article 1 – Replacement of the 1998 and 2003 Protocols Article 2 – Establishment of a Single Court Article 3 – Reference to the single Court in the Constitutive Act Chapter II: Transitional Provisions Article 4 – Term of Office of the Judges of the African Court on...»

«GEOFIZIKA VOL. 28 2011 Professional paper UDC 550.8 Investigation of the behavior of the cable-stayed bridge under test load Rastislav Mandi} 1, Gordana Had`i-Nikovi} 2 and Stanko ]ori} 1 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia 2 Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Serbia Received 25 March 2011, in final form 18 May 2011 A field load testing is an effective method for understanding the behavior and fundamental characteristics of cable-stayed bridges....»

«CONRAD A. FJETLAND* Possibilities for Expansion of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act for the Protection of Migratory Birds ABSTRACT In 1916, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) was passed to address concerns about the indiscriminate killing of migratory birds. The MBTA has proven to be an effective tool in regulating hunting, the main concern of the early 1900s. However, since the 1970s, attempts to expand the MBTA to protect migratory birds from indirectkilling resultingfrom modem environmental...»

«Allision of Liberia‐Registered Fruit Juice Carrier M/V Orange Sun  with U.S.‐Registered Dredge New York  Newark Bay, New Jersey  January 24, 2008          Accident Report NTSB/MAR-09/03 PB2009-916403 National Transportation Safety Board (This page intentionally left blank) NTSB/MAR-09/03 PB2009-916403 Notation 8018A Adopted December 2, 2009 Marine Accident Report Allision of Liberia-Registered Fruit Juice Carrier M/V Orange Sun with U.S.-Registered Dredge New York...»

«1 Aesthetic Cosmopolitanism The ‘war on terror’ distributed the spectacle of war and the spectre of fear into almost every feature of everyday life, and also provided the justification for new forms authoritarian control over public debate. From the outset artists and other public figures complained that the ‘war’ was fought without public dialogue and consensus. As the public was being told that it could not be fully informed of the events, there was a feeling of resentment that the...»

«The Keyway ROTARY CLUB OF WAGGA WAGGA SUNRISE Inc. DISTRICT 9700 PO Box 5430 Wagga Wagga 2650 NSW Meeting Venue: elements @ the gardens, Tom Wood Drive, Wagga Wagga, (02) 69255660 Meeting Time: Breakfast 7.00am for 7.15am, completed by 8.30am 29th June 2016 Rotary Fellowship Month PROGRAM: International Fellowship of Cricket Loving Rotarians ATTENDANCE NO: 21 members. VISITING ROTARIANS: David Benn, Jim Gibson and John Gray (Wollundry RC – above) APOLOGIES: Denis & Louise Blackett, Wendy Day,...»

«WOMEN IN POWER PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT APRIL 12, 2016 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by Melanie M. Hughes, Darcy Ashman and Milad Pournik, Management Systems International.WOMEN IN POWER PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT Management Systems International Corporate Offices 200 12th Street, South Arlington, VA 22202 USA Tel: + 1 703 979 7100 Contracted under: AID-OAA-I-10-00002, AID-OAA-TO-15-00033 Women in Power II:...»

«“Holding a Grudge” Mark 11:25-26 Baxter T. Exum (#927) Four Lakes Church of Christ Madison, Wisconsin June 24, 2007 Introduction: Certainly most of us here this morning believe in the power of prayer, and hopefully most of us consider prayer to be an important part of our daily lives. Sometimes we pray when we wake up in the morning, sometimes we pray before going to bed at night, sometimes we pray as we work or as we go to school, and probably most of us pray before we eat. And yet if we...»

«The Password Test – Design, Development And Reliability Dr Tony Green, Reader in Language Assessment, CRELLA, University of Bedfordshire Introduction English Language Testing Ltd (ELT), the creators of the Password tests and the Centre for Research in English Language Learning and Assessment (CRELLA) at the University of Bedfordshire, its academic designers and managers are committed to on-going research into the Password test’s performance. This study into Password’s reliability and...»

«Midland colleagues: Go Team Canada The Midland Campus was full of cheer for Team Canada. Pictured above: Chris Heels, Mike Carter and Cindy Bergey. Get a gourmet meal to go: Barrie Campus The Monday Night Marketplace, hosted by the Georgian Dining Room at the Barrie Campus, makes purchasing a meal for you or your family quick and easy. Get a gourmet meal to go – delicious dinners prepared by Georgian’s top chefs and culinary students. Get more details and order online. Orders can be picked...»

«School of Social Work Renison University College Bachelor of Social Work Student Handbook 2014 2015 Table of Contents DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE MISSION STATEMENTS CULTURE OF RESPECT SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK FACULTY AND STAFF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANT INFORMATION Assistance with Writing Students Accounts-Finance AccessAbility Services Health Insurance Counselling Services Housing and Residence UW Fitness QUEST WATcard (UW Photo ID) UW Email Account Fee Assessment Confirmation of Enrollment...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.