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Lark, R.M. and Wheeler, H.C. 2003. A method to investigate within-field variation of the response of combinable crops to an input. Agronomy Journal 95, 1093-1104.
Milne, A., Webster, R., Ginsburg, D. and Kindred, D. 2011. Spatial multivariate classification of an arable field into compact management zones based on past crop yields. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 80, 17-30.
Pringle, M.J., McBratney, A.B. and Cook, S.E. 2004. Field-scale experiments for site-specific crop management. Part II: A geostatistical analysis. Precision Agriculture 5, 625.
Sylvester-Bradley, R., Kindred, D.R., Blake, J., Dyer, C.J. and Sinclair, A.H. 2008. Optimising fertiliser nitrogen for modern wheat and barley crops. Project Report No. 438, HGCA, London. 116 pp.
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
Comparing the efficiency of CAN, urea and urea + agrotain (n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide) as N fertiliser in grassland Antille, D.L.a, Hoekstra, N.a, Lalor, S.T.J.a a Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Environmental Research Centre, Co. Wexford, Republic of Ireland.
1. Background & Objectives In Ireland, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and urea-based fertilisers account for c.60% of the total fertiliser N applied on managed grassland (Lalor et al., 2010). Urea-based fertilisers have relatively low cost, high N content and suggested lower susceptibility for NO3- leaching and denitrification than CAN (Jordan, 1989). They have, however, high potential for NH3 volatilisation resulting in lower yield potential (Watson et al., 1990). Agrotain acts as an effective inhibitor of urease activity reducing N-losses through ammonia volatilisation. A general view is that the agronomic efficiency of urea-based fertilisers is more uncertain than CAN; however, their relative efficiencies can vary significantly when the fertilisers are applied in the spring (Bussink and Oenema, 1996). This can be unequally affected by meteorological conditions around the time of fertiliser application. At present, limited information is available explaining these relationships under Irish conditions as well as the effect of the use of agrotain on dry matter yield (DMY). The aim of this work was to determine the relative efficiency of urea, and urea + agrotain compared with CAN in relation to the weather and soil conditions for a range of fertiliser application timings.
2. Materials & Methods The experiment used 3 fertiliser treatments (urea (U), urea coated with agrotain [n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide at 0.48 g kg-1] (UA) and CAN (C)), 4 N-application rates (0 – control, 25, 50 and 75 kg [N] ha-1), and 19 application timings which were performed once every week from February to April and once every fortnight from May to September. A complete block design with 4 blocks was used; within each block, application timing was the plot factor resulting in 19 strips so that fertiliser treatment × rate was randomised within the strip. Plots dimensions were 3 m by 1 m marked out on a moderately well drained soil at Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Wexford, in February
2010. Grass was cut for DMY at weeks 4 and 8 after fertiliser application. The statistical analysis of the data involved ANOVA and the LSD (5% level) to compare the means. The relative DM yields (RY) and relative N-uptake (RNupt) of U and UA compared with C were estimated based on Eq. :
F NF 100 RY, RN upt  CAN NF where: F and NF correspond to DMY or Nupt of the fertiliser treatment and the control (zero-fertiliser) respectively.
3. Results & Discussion Figures 1 & 2 show, respectively, the relative DMY and N-uptake of U and UA compared to CAN (100%) corresponding to the cuts made at 4 and 8 weeks after fertiliser application. Overall, there were significant differences (p0.05) in DMY with respect to the timing, the N-application rate and the fertiliser type (except for 2nd cut made at week 8; p0.05). The interaction timing × fertiliser type was nonsignificant (p=0.96) indicating that the differences in DMY encountered between the control (zero-N) and the treatments were of similar order of magnitude at any given time. The use of U and UA resulted, overall, in relative DMY values between 7%-11% and between 0%-7% lower compared with CAN. The use of UA improved the agronomic performance of urea-N by c.5% across the entire range of timings and fertiliser rates used in this experiment.
Figure 2. N-uptake of U and UA relative to CAN four weeks (left) and during the period between four and eight weeks (right) after fertiliser application.
4. Conclusions In general, the use of CAN performed marginally better than U and UA regardless of the timing of fertiliser application except for N-applications made, approximately, between middle of March and early April. Economic analyses are also required to justify the fertiliser choice.
References Bussink, D.W. and Oenema, O. 1996. Differences in rainfall and temperature define the use of different types of nitrogen fertilizer on managed grassland in UK, NL and Eire. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 44, 317-338.
Jordan, C. 1989. The effect of fertiliser type and application rate on denitrification losses from cut grassland in Northern Ireland. Fert. Res. 19, 45-55.
Lalor et al., 2010. A survey of fertilizer use in Ireland from 2004-2008 for grassland and arable crops. Teagasc, 21pp.
Watson et al., 1990. Efficiency and future potential of urea for temperate grassland. Fert. Res. 26, 341-357.
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
Effect of a green compost extract added to rabbit feed on nitrogen balance and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from stored slurry Dinuccio, E.a, Biagini, D.b, Rosato, R.c, Balsari, P.a, Lazzaroni, C.b, Montoneri, E.c a DEIAFA, University of Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy b Dipartimento di Scienze Zootecniche, University of Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy c Dipartimento di Chimica Generale e Chimica Organica, University of Torino, Corso M. D'Azeglio 48, 10125 Torino, Italy
1. Background & Objectives Much of the nitrogen in animal diets is not retained but is found in manure, the major source of N pollution. Increasing efficiency of N use by the animal and reducing N losses to the environment from manure handling are objectives to increase livestock system sustainability. Green compost, rich in humic acid-like substances resulting from decomposition of organic matter, could influence chemical forms of N and their fate (Islam et al., 2005). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a green compost extract as an additive to fattening rabbit diets on N balance, and ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from stored slurry.
2. Materials & Methods Three groups of homogeneous rabbits were reared from 35 to 98 d of age under the same environmental conditions, fed iso-energetic (digestible energy 9.1 MJ kg-1 fresh weight) and isonitrogenous (crude protein 160 g kg-1 fresh weight) diets containing a green compost extract, with a high content of soluble bio-organic (SBO) substances (Montoneri et al., 2011), obtained by an experimental plant. The SBO content of the diets varied: control (DC, no SBO), low (DL, 0.5g kg-1) and high (DH, 2.5 g kg-1). During the experimental period (63 d), individual live weights and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Nitrogen balance was calculated according to ERM/AB-DLO (1999). Total N excreted over the experimental period was calculated as the difference between N in consumed feed and N retained in body weight gain (Maertens et al., 2005). To assess the effect of SBO addition to diets on NH3 and N2O emissions from stored slurry, after a period of adaptation to diets (31 d), faeces and urine excreted by 6 rabbits per diet were collected separately during 6 consecutive days. After the collection period, faeces and urine within the same diet were accurately mixed in a ratio of 1:4 by fresh weight. Then, samples of 0.50 kg of each mix (slurry) were placed in 1.5 L vessels ( 11.3 cm) and stored for a period of 25 d at room temperature (24.41.6 °C).
Ammonia and N2O emissions were measured by a dynamic chamber method using a gas trace analyser (1412 Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor, Innova Air Tech Instruments), following Dinuccio et al. (2008), in 21 sessions on 6 replicates per diet. At the beginning and end of the trial, representative slurry samples were analysed for pH, total solids (TS), total Kjeldhal N (TKN), and total ammonia N (TAN). Data were analysed by GLM univariate according to diet, and differences were tested by Duncan’s test (SPSS Statistics 17.0).
3. Results & Discussion The SBO addition to diets did not affect (P0.05) live performance or N utilization efficiency, the latter averaged 30.392.04 % between treatments. Likewise, there was no effect (P0.05) of SBO addition on the amount of faeces and urine produced by rabbits. The main chemical characteristics of slurries obtained from the different groups, at the beginning and at the end of the storage experiment, are showed in Table 1. At the beginning, the slurries had similar pH and TKN content;
however, increasing levels of dietary SBO increased (P0.05) TS and lowered (P0.01) TAN concentration in slurry from 2.4 g kg-1 (DC) to 1.8 g kg-1 (DH), while the proportion of TKN
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
present as TAN ranged (P0.05) from 37% (DH) to 44% (DC). At the end of storage, there was a general increase in TS, still different between diets (P0.01) but higher in DL than in DH, while increased levels of dietary SBO still lowered (P0.01) TKN content, without affecting (P0.05) the TAN/TKN ratio.
Total NH3 emission from stored slurry decreased as SBO level in the diet increased (Table 2). Total NH3 emission was 27% lower (P0.01) for DH compared to DC treatment, reflecting the difference in TAN content of the slurries at the beginning of the storage. Total N2O emissions were not influenced (P0.05) by SBO addition to diet.
4. Conclusion Addition of SBO to fattening rabbit diets (0.25%) reduced TAN in slurry at the beginning of the trial, thereby lowering NH3 emissions during storage. To estimate the effect of SBO addition to diets on NH3 and N2O emissions during the overall manure management, further experiments are currently in progress to evaluate the soil application stage.
References Dinuccio E., Berg W. and Balsari P. 2008. Gaseous emissions from the storage of untreated slurries and the fractions obtained after mechanical separation. Atmospheric Environment 42, 2448-2459.
ERM/AB-DLO (1999). Establishment of criteria for the assessment of nitrogen content in animal manures - Final Report. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
Islam K.M.S., Schumacher A. and Gropp J.M. 2005. Humic acid substances in animal agriculture. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4, 126-134.
Maertens L., Cavani C. and Petracci M. 2005. Nitrogen and Phosphorus excretion on commercial rabbit farms:
calculation based on the input-output balance. World Rabbit Science 13, 3-16.
Montoneri E., Boffa V., Savarino P., Perrone D., Ghezzo M., Montoneri M. and Mendichi R. 2011. Acid soluble bioorganic substances isolated from urban bio-waste: chemical composition and properties of product. Waste Management 31, 10-17.
SPSS 2007. Statistics Base 17.
0 User’s Guide. SPSS Inc, Chicago., IL, USA.
Nitrogen Workshop 2012
Effect of grapevine canopy management strategies on nitrogen contents in leaf petiole and must nitrogen organic composition of dryland Chardonnay grapes Pascual, M.a, Villar, J.M.a, Rufat, J.b, Fonseca, F.b, Lordan, J.a,b, Astrain J.c a Universitat de Lleida (UdL), ETSEA, Av Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain b Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries, IRTA, Av Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain c Bodega Pirineos, c/ Barbastro-Naval. 22300 Barbastro, Spain
1. Background & Objectives More than 50% of world grapevine growth under semiarid conditions and are dependents on rainfall. Grapevine management practices have strong effects on grape yield and wine quality.
Techniques for water saving are a key factor to improve plant water status and nutrients uptake efficiency. Optimizing canopy management strategies affect the grapevine water availability and nutrients uptake along growing season, contributing to wine quality (Guitart et al., 1997) by enhancement of canopy microclimate characteristics and physiological responses to water status during grapes maturation period (Choné et al., 2001; Van Leuwen et al., 2010). The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of canopy management strategies on plant and grape nitrogen (N) and grape composition.
2. Materials & Methods A two-year field experiment (2009–2010) on grapevine was conducted on an eleven aged Chardonnay vineyard in Somontano region (Northeast Spain). Vineyard was selected according the homogeneity on culture practices and cellar performance classification. Two points into vineyard were selected according the presence of differences on soil texture and organic matter contents.
Both soils were classified as Typic Calcixerepts. Three canopy management treatments were random arranged (four replications of 10 plants) on each point (T0, canopy management according common practice: vertical shoot positioning and topping after veraison; LR, leaf removal of fruiting zone at veraison and ST, repeat shoot topping from fruit set). N, N-NO3, P, K, Mg, Ca and minor elements were analysed in petioles on veraison time. Plant water status was measured as stem water potential (s) on veraison and at harvest time. Exposed leaf area of canopy was measured by image analysis. Yield, crop load, weight of clusters and berries, berry juice mineral contents, sugars, pH, acids, phenolic compounds, yeast available nitrogen (YAN) and amino acids were analysed at harvest time. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using the SAS-STAT package (SAS®, Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1989-2009).