WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |

«Demographic Research a free, expedited, online journal of peer-reviewed research and commentary in the population sciences published by the Max ...»

-- [ Page 5 ] --

The results suggest that co-residence with a grandparent may reflect particularly vulnerable conditions of families. For instance, a divorced single mother who does not have her parents in households may indicate more favorable economic and psychological conditions of the single mother than the other single mother who has her parents in households to take care of her children. In other words, when single parents and their children have more serious problems, grandparents may likely move in the households to help them. Therefore, even if some observed socioeconomic characteristics are taken into account, unobserved characteristics of families with a grandparent present may renGiven the results in this study that the cause of single parenthood, rather than the gender of single parent, is more relevant in explaining the single-parenthood effect, I also compared the effect of co-resident grandparents across three types of family: two-parent, divorced single-parent (divorced single mother and father combined), and widowed single-parent families. The results were robust showing that the effect of co-resident grandparents was negligible or even slightly negative.

400 http://www.demographic-research.org Demographic Research: Volume 18, Article 13 der negative the association between co-resident grandparents and children’s education.

This kind of selectivity cannot be appropriately addressed with cross-sectional data. By comparing changes over time in educational outcomes between children with and without co-resident grandparents using longitudinal information, the causal effect of co-resident grandparents may be better assessed.

7. Conclusion In this study I compared educational aspiration and student disengagement between students from two-parent families and those from single-parent families with the detailed distinction among single-parent families by the causes of single parenthood and gender of the parent with whom the student lives. The findings highlight the heterogeneity among single-parent families. For both single-mother and single-father families, divorce has more detrimental impacts on children’s educational aspiration and disengagement than does the death of a parent. The lower likelihood of aspiring to four-year university education and the higher likelihood of disengagement among students from divorced singleparent families, regardless of gender of the parent, remain significant even after household income, parent-child interaction and other background variables are taken account. On the other hand, the gross difference between students with a widowed single parent and students with two parents disappear once gender, number of siblings, and parental education are held constant.

In understanding consequences of single parenthood, researchers have been concerned about selectivity associated with single parenthood. In the United State or some European countries where single fatherhood is much less normative than single motherhood (Downey et al. 1998; Borgers et al. 1996), the effect of single fatherhood is particularly likely affected by selectivity. Hence, the finding that children from divorced single-father families fare better or at least do not show worse outcomes than children from divorced single-mother families may reflect selective, omitted characteristics of divorced single fathers, rather than show the causal effect of single fatherhood.

In interpreting the effects of divorce on children’s education in Korea, therefore, it is important to understand the distinctive feature of post-divorce arrangements of children as pointed out earlier. Considering that a substantial number of custody is still given to father in Korea, single fathers in Korea may be far less selective than single fathers in the United States and some European countries. On the other hand, the substantial number of paternal custody suggests that Korean women who get custody may be more or less a selective population, especially compared to single mothers in the United States and some European countries. However, if selectivity plays a role in explaining the effect of single motherhood, it likely reduces, rather than increases, the negative effect of single http://www.demographic-research.org 401 Park: Effects of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement in Korea motherhood, suggesting that the detrimental effects as reported here might be actually underestimated.

In order to explore some of mechanisms through which the effect of single parenthood originates, this study examined the extent to which differences in socioeconomic conditions accounted for variation in educational outcomes among children from different types of family. The result for educational aspiration shows that lower household income is an important factor for accounting for the difference in the likelihood of aspiring to four-year university education between students with a single parent and those with two parents. Compared to educational aspiration, the explanatory power of household income for the difference in student disengagement seems to be rather weak.

Finally, parent-child interaction explains little of the difference in educational aspiration between students with a single mother and students with two parents once other control variables are held constant. The difference in disengagement between students with a widowed single mother and those with two parents hardly changes even if parent-child interaction is additionally taken into account. In contrast to the pattern for single-mother families, however, the mediating role of parent-child interaction is relatively substantial for single-father families. The extent to which parent-child interaction mediates the effect of single fatherhood is similar to or even greater than the extent to which household income does.





The relative insignificance of parent-child interaction for single-mother families reect the fact that once other control variables, particularly parental education, are held constant, differences in the four indicators of parent-child interaction between students with a single mother and students with two parents are substantially reduced or even disappear. In the Korean context, single mothers seem to be involved in monitoring and supervising children’s education and other activities as much as parents in intact families, once parental education is held constant. Descriptive statistics presented in Table 1 already showed the relative advantages of students with a single mother over those with a single father in regard to parent-child interaction. It seems that single mothers may compensate for their disadvantaged environments for children’s education by becoming more interested in and more involved in children’s education. Although this tendency may reect the overall high level of Korean mothers’ involvement in children’s education, widely documented in literature (Sorensen, 1994), it deserves more research to investigate in detail the pattern and the cause of involvement in children’s education among Korean single mothers.

In conclusion, the significant disadvantages of children from single-parent families, especially those who experienced parental divorce, have important implications for stratification and inequality in Korea in the recent trend of increasing divorce. Under the current context of minimal governmental support for families, increasing numbers of children from single-parent families due to parental divorce are vulnerable, facing significant 402 http://www.demographic-research.org Demographic Research: Volume 18, Article 13 educational and other disadvantages. In the changing demographic environment, family structure is emerging as an important mechanism through which intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status occurs. Given that household income explains a part of the negative effect of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement, income support for single-parent families seems to be a critical policy. However, the finding that the negative effects of single parenthood especially due to divorce remain significant even after controlling for household income suggests that other social and cultural programs should be available for parents and their children to deal with parental divorce. Moreover, the relative importance of parent-child interaction for single-father families implies that special policy focus should be directed to strengthen the positive relationship between a single father and his children.

Finally, some limitations of this study should be addressed. First, as discussed in the supplementary analysis above, future research should pay more serious attention to the role of extended family system in explaining the well-being of children in singleparent families with longitudinal data that have information on the timing and duration of co-residence, and outcomes of well-being measured at several time points. Another important aspect of family that may condition the effect of living with a single parent is sibship configuration. The presence of older siblings, for instance, may help children go through emotional difficulties associated with parental divorce and the death of a parent.

In the current study, I only included the number of siblings without reference to their birth order. My preliminary analysis (not shown) revealed that having an older sibling was negatively associated with educational outcomes consistently across all different types of family. However, the data used for the current study do not provide information on specific age and gender of siblings, which prevents more detailed analyses of how sibship configuration may mediate the effect of single parenthood.

Second, family structure was identified as of the time of the survey conducted. Some studies have raised questions about these kinds of “window” measurements of family structure at a given point in time in that they may not reflect the entire childhood experience and thus may offer misleading results (Wolfe et al., 1996; Ginther & Pollak, 2003).

A better approach would be to look at the effect on the change in children’s outcomes of a change in family structure from one type to another (e.g., Sandefur et al., 1992;

Wu, 1996). Furthermore, in order to better understand the role of household income in mediating the effect of single parenthood, models should take into account a change in household income before and after family change (Pong & Ju, 2000; Wu, 1996). These limitations associated with the cross-sectional feature of the current baseline-year KEEP data can be overcome significantly as the next waves of KEEP data become available.

http://www.demographic-research.org 403 Park: Effects of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement in Korea

8. Acknowledgements I thank the participants of the Workshop “Changes in living arrangements and family relationships in the context of strong family ties. Southern Europe and Eastern Asia: Trends, causes, and consequences” held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Rostock, 20-21 April 2007). I also wish to thank Laura Bernardi and Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna for their editorial feedback. I thank the Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (KRIVET) for making the data available for this study, and Dongbeom Ju for his helpful comments on the earlier version of this manuscript.

–  –  –

References Amato, P. R. (1993). Children’s adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55:23–38.

Amato, P. R. and Keith, B. (1991a). Separation from a parent during childhood and adult socioeconomic attainment. Social Forces, 70:187–206.

Amato, P. R. and Keith, B. (1991b). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110:24–46.

Astone, N. M. and McLanahan, S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 56(309-320).

Biblarz, T. J. and Gottainer, G. (2000). Family structure and children’s success: A comparison of widowed and divorced single-mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62:533–548.

Biblarz, T. J. and Raftery, A. (1999). Family structure, educational attainment, and socioeconomic success: Rethinking the “pathology of matriarchy”. American Journal of Sociology, 105:321–365.

Borgers, N., Dronkers, J., and Van Praag, B. M. S. (1996). The effects of different forms of two- and single-parent families on the well-being of their children in dutch secondary education. School Psychology of Education, 1:147–169.

Bosman, R. and Louwes, W. (1988). School careers of children from one-parent and two-parent families: An empirical inquiry into the effects of belonging to a one-parent family on the educational attainment of children. Netherlands’ Journal of Sociology, 24:98–116.

Brinton, M. C., editor (2001). Women’s Working Lives in East Asia. Stanford, CA:

Stanford University Press.

Byun, H. (1996). A study of measures for divorced families. Research report, Korean Women’s Development Institute (in Korean).

Chang, H. and Min, G. (2002). A study on policies for helping divorced women’s parental roles and childrearing. Research report no. 240-13., Korean Women’s Development Institute (in Korean).

Colorado Foudation For Families and Children (2002). Youth out of school: Linking absence to delinquency. Educational Policy Paper. Denver, CO.

Downey, D. B., Ainsworth-Darnell, J. W., and Dufur, M. (1998). Sex of parent and children’s well-being in single-parent housholds. Journal of Marriage and the Family, http://www.demographic-research.org 405 Park: Effects of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement in Korea 60:878–893.

Ermisch, J. F. and Francesconi, M. (2001). Family structure and children’s achievement.

Journal of Population Economics, 14:249–270.

Fields, J. (2003). Children’s living arrangements and characteristics: March 2002. Current population reports, US Census Bureau.

Ginther, D. K. and Pollak, R. A. (2003). Does family structure affect children’s educational outcomes? National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 9628.

Goh, C., Kang, S. J., and Sawada, Y. (2005). How did korean households cope with negative shocks from economic crisis? Journal of Asian Economics, 16:239 – 254.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |


Similar works:

«April 30th, 1936. Halifax, N. S. • April 21st, 1936. His Worship the Mayor, and Members of City Council. GentlemenSr Attached hereto is a copy of a resolution passed-at yesterday's meeting of the Halifax Direct Relief Committee, requesting the approval of the City Council for an appropriation of Ninety Thousand. Dollars (00,000.00) for cost of direct relief and Four Thousand Five Hundred Dollars (04,500000) for administration thereof, for three months from the first day of May 1936 to the...»

«TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I: IDENTIFYING CROP DAMAGE CORN: EARLY STAGE DEVELOPMENT Small mammal damage PAGE 1 Pheasants PAGE 2 Deer PAGE 2 CORN: MID GROWTH Deer PAGES 3 4 Raccoon PAGES 4 5 Birds PAGE 5 CORN: MATURE Deer PAGE 6 Squirrels PAGE 6 Beavers PAGE 6 SECTION II: IDENTIFYING DAMAGE TO TREES VOLES PAGE 7 RABBIT PAGE 7 DEER PAGE 7 SECTION III: ABATEMENT TECHNIQUES Deer, fencing PAGES 8 10 Canada geese, fencing PAGE 10 Pheasants PAGE 11 Repellants (deer, rodents) PAGE 11 IOWA DEPARTMENT OF...»

«(MAGIC, SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT) BY: MUJLISUL ULAMA OF SOUTH AFRICA PO BOX 3393 PORT ELIZABETH 6056 SOUTH AFRICA SIHR (Magic, Sorcery and Witchcraft) CONTENTS SIHR OR SAHR DEFINITION OF SIHR THE REALITY AND EXISTENCE OF SIHR.8 WAYS AND METHODS OF SIHR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIHR AND MU’JIZAH THE AHKAAM OF THE SHARIAH ON SIHR.15 JADOO OR BLACK MAGIC HAARUT AND MAARUT RUQAA OR TA’WEEZ TA’WEEZ IN THE LIGHT OF THE AHADITH 26 PROTECTION AGAINST SIHR PRECAUTIONS ALLAH’S NAME 1) FOR EVIL...»

«0 Distribution Agreement In presenting this thesis or dissertation as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree from Emory University, I hereby grant to Emory University and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive, make accessible, and display my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known, including display on the world wide web. I understand that I may select some access restrictions as part of the online submission...»

«Encounters with Eternal Truth INDEX S.No Chapter Dates Pageno 1. Encounters with eternal truth 14 2. Tapas is our way 10-08-98 518 3. To the W.T.T. visitors from abroad 1926 4. The sun rises in the West 27-102 5. Religious hatred 23-09-99 103-108 6. I am time 23-09-99 109-120 7. Ramana Lila 17-06-96 121-124 8. The sun goes south East 125-190 9. Who is a jeevanmukta? 25-10-99 191-206 10. God is peace, be him 17-12-99 207-212 11. The difficulties in kali and 20-12-99 213-220 the definite path 12....»

«UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Before the SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Release No. 9581 / May 1, 2014 SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Release No. 72073 / May 1, 2014 INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 Release No. 3828 / May 1, 2014 INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Release No. 31037 / May 1, 2014 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDING File No. 3-15518 In the Matter of ORDER MAKING FINDINGS AND IMPOSING REMEDIAL SANCTIONS DIEGO F. HERNANDEZ, THE AND A CEASE-AND-DESIST ORDER WEALTH MANAGEMENT...»

«i   THE PHILJA JUDICIAL JOURNAL Speeding Up Quality Justice A Speedy Trial Is Not Faster Than Light The Fair Cost of Justice R.A. No. 9160 Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. No. 9160 OCTOBER DECEMBER 2001 VOL. 3, ISSUE No. 10 iv v SUPREME COURT OF THE PHILIPPINES CHIEF JUSTICE Hon. HILARIO G. DAVIDE, Jr. ASSOCIATE JUSTICES Hon. JOSUE N. BELLOSILLO Hon. JOSE A.R. MELO Hon. REYNATO S. PUNO Hon. JOSE C. VITUG Hon. SANTIAGO M. KAPUNAN Hon. VICENTE V. MENDOZA Hon. ARTEMIO V. PANGANIBAN Hon....»

«Program Contents Page About MABUG.. 1 Acknowledgements.. 2 Gree ngs.. 3 Par cipa ng Ins tu ons.. 7 Code Camp.. 10 Program at a Glance..11 Conference Highlight..12 Concurrent Sessions..21 Sponsor Recogni on..45 Exhibitors Directory..47 Complementary Wi-Fi Available Network Name: MABUG Password: MABUG About Mid-Atlan c Banner User Group “MABUG” T he Mid-Atlan c Banner Users Group (MABUG) is an associa on of Colleges and Universi es in Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia,...»

«DATE: Friday 6 December, 2013 BRISBANE COMEDY FESTIVAL LINE-UP ANNOUNCED Brisbane Powerhouse and The Courier Mail present Brisbane Comedy Festival 2014 Brisbane audiences are set to cackle, chortle and hoot with laughter at Brisbane Powerhouse for the 2014 Brisbane Comedy Festival, featuring over 50 comedians from Tuesday 25 February – Sunday 23 March 2014. Brisbane Comedy Festival features a wide variety of comedy, from Australian household names Wil Anderson, Peter Helliar and Fiona...»

«Re-examining habitual residence as the sole connecting factor in Hague Convention child abduction cases Danielle Bozin-Odhiambo* This article critiques the usefulness of habitual residence as the sole connecting factor in Hague Convention child abduction cases. This is achieved by examining the quality of this jurisdiction in light of changes in the gender dynamics underpinning international parental child abduction and the transnational family phenomenon. Arguably, the child’s habitual...»

«AGENDA Regular Meeting of the Bedford City Council Tuesday, March 8, 2016 Bedford City Hall Building A 2000 Forest Ridge Drive Bedford, Texas 76021 Council Chamber Work Session 5:30 p.m. Council Chamber Regular Session 6:30 p.m. COMPLETE COUNCIL AGENDAS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION ARE AVAILABLE FOR REVIEW ONLINE AT http://www.bedfordtx.gov COUNCIL CHAMBER WORK SESSION • Review and discuss items on the regular agenda and consider placing items for approval by consent. EXECUTIVE SESSION To...»

«COSMETIC SURGERY AND THE TELEVISUAL MAKEOVER A Foucauldian feminist reading Cressida J. Heyes I argue that the televisual cosmetic surgical makeover is usefully understood as a contemporary manifestation of normalization, in Foucault’s sense—a process of defining a population in relation to its conformity or deviance from a norm, while simultaneously generating narratives of individual authenticity. Drawing on detailed analysis of “Extreme Makeover,” I suggest that the show erases its...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.