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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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NMNW — National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek (Tharina Bird) NMSA — KwaZulu Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (Debbie Jennings, Audrey Ndaba) PPRI — ARC Plant Protection Research Institute, Gauteng, Pretoria (Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman) SAMC — Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town (Dawn Larson) SMF — Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main (Julia Altmann, Peter Jäger) SNSD — Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen, Dresden (Katrin Schniebs) ZMB — Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (Anja Friederichs, Jason Dunlop) ZMH — Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg (Hieronymus Dastych) ZMUC — Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen (Nikolaj Scharff) ZSM — Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich (Stefan Friedrich, Roland Melzer)

Identification key to species of Eusparassus

In the following key, a combination of the somatic and copulatory characters are used, nevertheless, species identification should be confirmed by checking the detailed diagnoses and descriptions given in the text for each species. The key should be used with special care when identifying females. Species descriptions of the doriae group as well as E. pearsoni (Pocock, 1901) (vestigator group), E. pontii Caporiacco, 1935 and E. xerxes (Pocock, 1901) (both incertae sedis), E. dufouri Simon, 1932 and E. levantinus Urones, 2006 (both dufouri group) are given in Moradmand and Jäger (2012a). The character ventral opisthosoma dark marking must be used with special care as preserved specimens could have been faded. Since Cercetius perezi is regarded congeneric (retained usage until ICZN decision on case 3596), this species is included in the Eusparassus key.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

1. Cheliceral furrow with intermarginal denticles (e.g. Fig. 1f)…………………………………...2 – Cheliceral furrow without intermarginal denticles (e.g. Fig. 13e)

2. Male [unknown in E. borakalalo spec. nov.]…………………………………………………..3 – Female……………………………………………………………………………………….......9

3. Palp with enlarged and bulged ST (e.g. Fig. 35a)…………………………………………........4 – Palp with small and hidden ST behind T (e.g. Fig. 1a)……………………………………….....6

4. dRTA bifurcated at its tip (Figs 35a, b) [Zimbabwe]………...……………....jocquei spec. nov.

– dRTA pointed and not bifurcated at its tip……………………………………………………....5

5. ET triangular and flattened proximally and pointed distally (Fig. 31c) [South Africa: Northern Cape Province]………………………………………………………….....schoemanae spec. nov.

– ET slender and curved at its distal end (Fig. 29c) [South Africa]

6. dRTA bent toward cymbium and pointed disto-ventrad (Fig. 4a) [Horn of Africa to Arabia]…………………………………………………………………………………..... laevatus – dRTA directed distad………………………………………………………………………...….7

7. Ventral opisthosoma with large solid black marking (Fig. 57b), ET directed distad (Fig. 42c, f) [Arabia and Horn of Africa]……………………………………………………….Cercetius perezi – Ventral opisthosoma pale, ET directed retrolaterad (e.g. Fig. 1d)……………………………....8

8. Palp and dRTA robust, PE and AE roughly subequal (Figs 1a–e) [Eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and Algeria]…………………………………………………………………….walckenaeri – Palp and dRTA elongated and slender, PE distinctly larger than AE (Figs 7a–d) [Arabian Peninsula]…………………………………………………...………………….arabicus spec. nov.

9. Epigyne with AMLL fused together anteriorly (e.g. Fig. 32a)………………………….……..10 – Epigyne with AMLL not fused together anteriorly (e.g. Fig. 2a)………………………...…....14

10. Epigyne with MS clearly visible posteriorly (Fig. 36a) [Zimbabwe]…….....jocquei spec. nov.

– Epigyne with MS not visible posteriorly (LL are in contact)...11

11. Vulva composed of several bulbous parts in TL (Figs 43c, d) [Horn of Africa to Arabia]……………………………………………………………………………..Cercetius perezi – Vulva different (with single large TL)………………………………………………...…….....12

12. MS as long as wide, CD and MS partially to fully sclerotized (Figs 30a–d) [South Africa]…………………………………….……………………………………...jaegeri spec. nov.

– MS longer than wide and membranous, CD hyaline…………………………...……...……….13 Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

13. EF longer than wide (Figs 32a, 33a) [South Africa: Northern Cape Province]

– EF wider than long (Figs 34a, f) [South Africa]…………………………..borakalalo spec. nov.

14. PE distinctly larger than AE (Fig. 7d), EF bridge present, (Fig. 8a) [Arabian Peninsula]……………………………………………………………………....arabicus spec. nov.





– PE and AE nearly equal, EF bridge mostly absent……………………………………………..15

15. MS as wide as long, MS length ¼ EF length, vulva with Gpo situated in a depression in connection with collar form a continuous ridge (Figs 5a–c) [Horn of Africa to Arabia]….laevatus – MS mostly longer than wide, MS length ½ of EF length, vulva with Gpo situated in a depression separated from collar part (Figs 2a–c) [Eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and Algeria]………………………………………………………………………………...walckenaeri

16. Male [unknown in syrticus, pearsoni, maynardi, pontii]………………………………….....17 – Female

17. Ventral opisthosoma with distinct dark marking……………………………………………..18 – Ventral opisthosoma lacking distinct dark marking…………………………………………....28

18. vRTA well developed: as long as one-third of dRTA (e.g. Fig. 25a)………………...……...19 – vRTA not well developed: less than one-third of dRTA

19. ET flat and wide with a pointed triangular process, dRTA robust and flattened dorso-ventrally (Figs 27a–c) [Burkina Faso and Nigeria]………………………………...…..reverentia spec. nov.

– ET and dRTA different (Figs 25a–c) [Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania]…………………………………............……………………………………....vestigator

20. EM with projecting bulge covering proximal end of ET in ventral view (Figs 20a–c) [Eastern Morocco]………………………………………………………………………………...…..fritschi – EM without any projecting bulge…………………………………………………………...….21

21. ET directed proximad (Fig. 11a)……………………………………………………………..22 – ET pointing in different direction…………………………………………………..…………..23

22. ET robust and flat, dRTA sickle-like (Figs 11a, b), ventral opisthosoma with V-shaped marking (Fig. 48b) [Western Iberian Peninsula]…………………………………………....dufouri – ET slim, dRTA more straight (Fig. 60c), V-shaped marking with additional median band (Fig.

48d) [Eastern Iberian Peninsula]……………………….………………………………..levantinus

23. AE larger than or subequal as PE…………………………………………………………….24 – PE generally larger than AE, PLE largest

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

24. ET directed retrolaterad (Figs 12a, c) [Morocco]

– ET directed ventrad (Fig. 22c), PLE subequal to PME………………………………………...25

25. ET flattened, dRTA bent toward cymbium, directed ventrad (Figs 15a–c) [Northern Algeria]…………………………………...……………….……………………………...barbarus – ET slim, dRTA directed distad (Figs 22a–c)

26. Small to medium Eusparassus species (16 to 18 mm) with ventral opisthosoma marking more solid in fresh samples and V-shaped in preserved ones (lines of marking are bold dark) (Fig. 49f) [North-Eastern Algeria]

– Large Eusparassus species (21 to 25 mm), a vase-like black marking on ventral opisthosoma (Fig. 56d) [Iran to Pakistan]

27. ET directed retrolaterad, vRTA pointed and triangular in ventral view (Figs 17a–c, 62a) [Algeria to Morocco]

– ET directed distad, vRTA broad and not pointed (Figs 42a–c, 66a, e).................Cercetius perezi

28. Embolus long and ET slender (e.g. Figs 37a–c)

– ET short and robust

29. Palpal structures strongly elongated, embolus covered by slender embolus membrane (Figs 40a–c) [Southern Namibia]

– Embolus membrane projected into a folded part close to ET (Figs 37a–c) [Northern Namibia, Angola]

30. AME strikingly larger (~1.5 times) than other eyes (Fig. 58e) [Central Asia]..............oculatus – AME subequal to or 1.5 times larger than others

31. ET proximad, long and robust (Fig. 67c) [Afghanistan]

– ET shorter and directed in different orientations

32. vRTA rounded and not well developed (e.g. Fig. 68a)

– vRTA pointed and clearly triangular (e.g. Fig. 68e, see chapter 3.1:Moradmand & Jäger, 2012a:

fig 17C)

33. ET slim (Fig. 67e) [Afghanistan to Rajasthan in India]

– ET robust (Fig. 68a) [Iran, Iraq and Turkey]

34. dRTA straight and beak-like, distal end of ET pointing distad (Fig. 68e) [China: Xinjiang Uyghur]

– dRTA with a slight bend in proximal half, ET leaf-like, distal end of ET pointing proximad (Fig. 67a) [Central Iran]

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

35. Ventral opisthosoma with distinct dark marking

– Ventral opisthosoma lacking distinct dark marking

36. MS widened (approximately as wide as EF), fully sclerotized and prominent (e.g. Figs 63b, d, f), chelicerae usually with more than two thick bristles (max. five bristles) at ventral base of fangs

– MS small, hyaline to partially sclerotized, chelicerae mostly with one thick bristle (max. two bristles)

37. MS heart-shaped (Fig. 63f), femur spination 323 [India: Western Ghats]

– MS quadrangular (Fig. 63b), femur spination 424

38. GP separated from CD by most of its entire length (Figs 26b, c) [East Africa: Tanzania to Ethiopia]

– GP attached to CD by most of its entire length (Figs 28b, c) [Burkina Faso, Nigeria]

39. PE generally larger than AE, PLE largest

–AE larger than or subequal to PE

40. Vulva with several bulbous parts in the turning loop (Figs 43b–d) [Arabia to Horn of Africa]

– Vulva different

41. TL extending CD laterally (at least slightly) in dorsal view, GP small (Figs 18b, 19b) [Algeria to Morocco]

– TL invisible and covered by CD in dorsal view, GP enlarged (Figs 24b, c) [Tunisia]......syrticus

42. AMLL not encircling MS entirely, ventral opisthosoma with a vase-like black marking [Iran to Pakistan]

– AMLL encircling MS entirely, ventral opisthosoma with a V-shaped or solid black marking

43. EF quadrangular (e.g. Fig. 23a)

– EF rather triangular (e.g. Fig. 13a)

44. MS semicircular (Figs 23a, f, 61f) [North-Eastern Algeria]

– MS triangular (Figs 16a) [North-Western Algeria]

45. PLE very small (PLE ~1.4 times smaller than AME) (Fig. 21d); MS and EF mostly as long as wide (Fig. 21a) [Morocco]

– Eyes different; EF distinctly longer than wide

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

46. Lacking a sclerotized longitudinal strip on dorsal MS (Fig. 13b), ventral opisthosoma with a solid dark marking (Fig. 49b) [Morocco]

– A sclerotized longitudinal strip on MS present in dorsal view (e.g. Fig. 16b), ventral opisthosoma with a V-shaped dark marking

47. GP located on a continuous part distinguishable from turning loop; ventral opisthosoma with a clear V-shaped marking (Fig. 48b) [Western Iberia]

– GP situated on a semicircular process which is fused to entire body of vulva; V-shaped marking with an additional median band (Figs 48d, f) [Eastern Iberia]

48. AMLL fused together and encircling MS entirely (e.g. Fig. 65b)

– AMLL not fused together and not encircling MS entirely (e.g. Fig. 67d)

49. Vulva ducts and TL coiled and twisted (Fig. 41c) [Namibia]

– Vulva ducts and TL simple, straight and spherical, respectively (Fig. 38c) [Namibia]......tuckeri

50. EF bridge absent (e.g. Fig. 68d)……………………………………………………………...51 – EF bridge present (e.g. Fig. 68f)

51. EF distinctly longer than wide, AMLL strongly developed (Fig. 66f), eyes subequal [Pakistan: Baluchistan]

– EF nearly as long as wide, AMLL not developed (Fig. 68d), AME strikingly largest (Fig. 58e) [Central Asia]

52. EF bridge distinctly separated from AMLL and not bordering MS (Fig. 68b) (see also Moradmand and Jäger 2012a: fig. 10A)

– EF bridge fused to AMLL and bordering MS

53. EF as long as wide, AMLL not extended anteriorly (Fig. 67b) [Central Iran]..................doriae – EF longer than wide, AMLL extended anteriorly (e.g. Fig. 68b)

54. EF bridge distinctly separated from AMLL, approximately as long as MS length (Fig. 68f) [China: Xinjiang Uyghur]

– EF bridge separated from AMLL, but less than MS half length (Fig. 68b) [Iran, Iraq and Turkey]

55. EF as wide as long or slightly wider than long (Fig. 67d) [Afghanistan].................fuscimanus – EF clearly longer than wide

56. MS as wide as long (Fig. 66g) [Pakistan: Karakoram; India: Ladakh]



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