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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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TUNISIA: Gouvernorat de Gafsa: 1♂, Gafsa, 1904, Weiss leg. (MNHN); Gouvernorat de Kebili: 1♂. Kebili, Zaafrane 15 km w Douz, N 33° 26' 44.2'', E 8° 54' 7.6'', 21 May 2007, C.

Muster leg. (CCM).

Diagnosis. Embolus tip (ET) retrolaterad and subsequently twisted distad (Fig. 1d); dRTA extending latero-distally (Fig. 1b); MS (compared to that of E. laevatus comb. nov.) enlarged and longer than wide (Figs 2a; 3a, c). [see also diagnosis for walckenaeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=17, single measurement: MM7):

Measurements. Medium sized; total length 13.6–16.7, prosoma length 7.1–8.4, prosoma width 6.0–7.2, anterior width of prosoma 2.8–3.8, opisthosoma length 6.5–8.3, opisthosoma width 5.0–

5.8. Eye diameters: AME 0.50, ALE 0.48, PME 0.47, PLE 0.51; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.44, PME-PLE 0.52, AME-PME 0.42, ALE-PLE 0.30, clypeus height at AME 0.63, clypeus height at ALE 0.69.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth (first three larger with additional smaller ones); cheliceral furrow with 8 to 20 intermarginal denticles; mostly with one bristle at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Fig. 1f).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 1. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), male from EGYPT: Thebes (SMF). (a–c) left palp (a prolateral, b ventral, c retrolateral); (d) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral; (e) eye arrangement, dorsal; (f) right chelicera, ventral. Abbreviations: C — Conductor, dRTA — dorsal retrolateral tibial apophysis, E — Embolus, EM — Embolus membrane, ET — Embolus tip, H — Haematodocha, SpD — Sperm duct, ST — Subtegulum, T — tegulum, vRTA — ventral retrolateral tibial apophysis.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 2. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), female from EGYPT: Thebes (SMF). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Abbreviations: AMLL — anterior margin of lateral lobes, CD — copulatory duct, CO — copulatory opening, EF — epigynal field, FD — fertilization duct, Gpo — glandular pores, L — Lumen, LL — lateral lobes, MS — median septum, SS — slit sensillum, TL — turning loop, Vsh — vulva shadow.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs (MM7): Palp 11.8 [3.8, 1.7, 2.2, 4.1], I 44.7 [12.0, 4.6, 12.2, 12.3, 3.6], II 48.1 [13.1, 4.8, 13.4, 13.2, 3.6], III 40.8 [11.7, 4.2, 11.2, 10.6, 3.1], IV 45.5 [12.5, 4.0, 12.0, 13.7, 3.3].

FIGURE 3. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), variation: (a, b) female from LIBYA (MRAC);

(c, d) female from ALGERIA (NHM). (a, c) epigyne, ventral; (b, d) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Spination. Palp 131, 001/101, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 001/101;

Tibia I–IV 2124/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium less than two times longer than tibia (Fig. 1c); ET hyline and not covered by EM ventrally (Fig. 1d); vRTA pointed and triangular in ventral view (Fig.

1b).

Female (ranges: n=18, single measurement: MM17):

Measurements. Medium to large sized; total length 17.8–26.6, prosoma length 7.5–10.1, prosoma width 6.4–8.7, anterior width of prosoma 3.7–5.0, opisthosoma length 10.3–16.5, opisthosoma

width 7.2–11.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.47, ALE 0.42, PME 0.44, PLE 0.51; eye interdistances:

AME-AME 0.19, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.41, PME-PLE 0.57, AME-PME 0.50, ALE-PLE 0.39, clypeus AME 0.71, clypeus ALE 0.65.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae as in males.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs. Palp 12.0 [3.6, 1.8, 2.5, 4.1], I 36.6 [10.0, 4.5, 9.2, 9.7, 3.2], II 40.6 [11.3, 4.9, 10.5, 10.7, 3.2], III 34.3 [10.1, 4.1, 8.8, 8.5, 2.8], IV 38.7 [11.0, 4.1, 9.7, 10.7, 3.2].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 000/001;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF slightly longer than wide (Fig. 2a) or as wide as long (Figs 3a, c); MS lacking a sclerotized strip dorsally (Fig. 2b); TL of vulva simply spherical (Fig.

3b) or folded (Fig. 3d).

Colouration (Live). Varies from dark brown with darker W-shaped distinct pattern on prosoma, a series of chevrons on dorsal opisthosoma and surrounding additional dark patches; legs clearly banded (Figs 46 a, c–e) to a milky cream body decorated with fewer dark patches on prosoma and opisthosoma, femora not banded with dark rings (Fig. 46b); ventral opisthosoma lacking dark marking (Fig. 46d).

Remarks. Species boundaries in walckenaeri species group remain obscure, despite distinguishing three valid species. Since E. walckenaeri shows a great similarity in copulatory structures in a vast area, it requires an additional and robust molecular investigation to uncover potential hidden diversity. For example, specimens from the Seychelles (MRAC 144729) examined by Benoit (1978) were studied and confirmed to be an Eusparassus sp. of the walckenaeri species group. Levy (1989) and Saaristo (2010) mentioned this record referring to Benoit (1978) but it seems that they did not study the specimens, as no illustration of the specimens appeared in their publications. These specimens closely resemble undescribed species from Eastern Africa and Arabia and were probably introduced to the islands by ships. Benoit Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species (1978) stated that E. walckenaeri was introduced to the Seychelles Islands from the Mediterranean region. These specimens resemble E. walckenaeri but the diagnostic characters are neither sufficient to describe a new species nor to list them under E. walckenaeri. These speciemens are larger and more robust than E. walckenaeri and the epigyne has dorsally an additional sclerotized median band on the MS (Figs 9d, e; 10a–b), Gpo is located in a small circular depression on vulva but with considerable distance from TL (Figs 9f, 10e), compared to that of E. walckenaeri. The specimens from Somalia and Sudan have a similar dark pattern as E.





walckenaeri group but with white background (Fig. 46f) (instead of dark brown or creamy as in other walckenaeri group members). DNA barcoding from freshly collected samples hopefully will assist in any final decision.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. From Greece in the North to Chad in the South and from Algeria in the West to Iraq in the East (Fig. 70a), collected near vicinities of villages, orchards, stony deserts, living under stones.

–  –  –

Sparassus laevatus Simon, 1897c: 388 (description of female, listing field numbers of one male and one female). [Syntypes, NHM, examined] Olios laevatus (Simon) Roewer 1955b: 695 (unjustified transfer).

Type material. Syntypes (designated by Simon 1897c): 1♀, 1♂, ETHIOPIA: 1♀, West of Shebelle River, (label: Sparassus laevatus Simon, Type, W of Shebeli River, 15.12.94), (NHM 97.11.10.55); 1♂ Shebelle River, (label: Sparassus laevatus Sim, Shebeli, 1.9.94) (NHM).

Other material examined. (17♂♂, 15♀♀): ETHIOPIA: Afar Region: 1♂, Awash National Park, RAS Hotel, 08° 59’N, 040° 10’ E, in gravely area, 5 October 1988, A. Russell-Smith leg.

(MRAC 236211); 1♂, Awash National Park, RAS Hotel, 08° 59’N, 040° 10’ E, in Caravan, 18 February 1986, A. Russell-Smith leg. (MRAC 236152); DJIBOUTI: Tadjourah Region: 3♂♂, 4♀♀, Tadjoura, Randa, 1958 [label: Coloniales Cote francaise de Somalies, Tadjoura, Roünda, Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species 1958] (MNHN); SOMALIA: Nugal: 1♂, Run, Valle del Nogal, July 1969 (MRAC 173159);

Gobolka Woqooyi Galbeed: 1♀, Somaliland, NE Hargeshia, 1111 m, 8 July 2011, F. Kovařík FIGURE 4. Eusparassus laevatus (Simon, 1897) comb. nov., syntype male from Ethiopia: Shebelle River (NHM). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral.

leg. (SMF, SD841, MM163); YEMEN: Muhafazat al Mahwit: 1♂, 1♀, Ar Rujum, 16 October 2000–15 January 2001, in Malaise trap, A.van Harten & A. M. Hayer (15.26 N, 43.40E, 1900 m) leg. No. 1500 (SMF); 2♂♂, Ar Rujum, 9 April–5 June 2001, in Malaise trap, A. van Harten leg.

No. 1500 (SMF); 1♂, 2♀♀, Al Lahima, 1 January–8 April 2001, in Malaise trap, A. van Harten leg. No. 1368 (SMF); 1♂, 1♀, 12 km NW of Mankha, 5 May–6 July 2001, in Malaise trap, A.

van Harten leg. No. 1795 (SMF); Muhafazat Hadramawt: 1♀, Hadhramaut, D. Anderion (NHM Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species 94.11.1); 1♀, Haraz Mountain, Southern slope of Al Lan, 2600 m, 23 June 2010, V. Hula & J.

Niedobová (SMF, SD 813, MM164); SAUDI ARABIA: 1♂, Arabian, A. B. Derewal leg. (NHM 99.12.2.16); Al Bahah: 1♂, Bani Sar, 29 February–7 March 1984, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB);

2♂♂, 1♀, An-Namas, 17 April 1980, 2380 m, W. Büttiker leg.(NMB); 1♂, 1♀, An-Namas, 19 September 1980, 2380 m, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB); 1♀, Wadi Damad, 800 m, 24 September 1981, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB); OMAN: 1♂, Mudhaybi, 530 m, N 22˚ 12', E 58˚ 06', camp 12, 12 March 1986, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB); Muhafazat Zufar: 1♀, ca. 40 km NE Dhofar, Tawi Atayr, Wadi Hinna, Salah Collection permit granted to Prof. Weygoldt No.07/2000, 23 September 2000, S. Huber leg. (SMF, MM32); UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Ra's al Khaymah: 1♀, Wadi Shawkah, 5–12 May 2007, in water trap, A. van Harten leg. (SMF, MM49) Diagnosis. Closely similar to E. walckenaeri but males differ in shape and direction of dRTA which extends disto-ventrally (Fig. 4a); female differ in having MS reduced in size (Figs 5a; 6a, d); Gpo situated in an indentation in connection with TL collar forming a continuous ridge (Figs 5b–c, 6b–c) [see also diagnosis for walckenaeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=18, single measurement: syntype):

Measurements. Medium sized; total length: 12.3–15.7, prosoma length 5.8–7.5, prosoma width 4.5–6.7, anterior width of prosoma 2.1–3.6, opisthosoma length 6.5–8.2, opisthosoma width 3.5–

5.2. Eye diameters: AME 0.50, ALE 0.40, PME 0.37, PLE 0.43, Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.01, PME-PME 0.36, PME-PLE 0.38, AME-PME 0.39, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus height at AME 0.25, clypeus height at ALE 0.41.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow with intermarginal denticles.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.4 [3.1, 1.1, 1.7, 3.5], I 35.0 [9.2, 3.6, 9.6, 9.7, 2.9], II 37.1 [10.2, 3.7, 10.0, 10.3, 2.9], III 30.9 [9.0, 3.1, 8.0, 8.2, 2.6], IV 35.2 [10.0, 3.0, 9.1, 10.2, 2.9].

Spination. Palp 131, 001/101, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 001/101;

Tibia I–IV 2124/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium longer than tibia but not more than twice tibia length (Fig.

4b); vRTA pointed and triangular (Fig. 4a); ET retrolaterad first and slightly distad (Fig. 4c).

Female (ranges: n=17, single measurement: syntype):

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Measurements. Medium sized; total length: 16.3–18.1, prosoma length 7.0–8.6, prosoma width 6.2–7.5, anterior width of prosoma 3.5–4.3, opisthosoma length 9.3–9.5, opisthosoma width 6.3–

6.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.51, ALE 0.37, PME 0.36, PLE 0.41; Eye interdistances: AME-AME FIGURE 5. Eusparassus laevatus (Simon, 1897) comb. nov., syntype female from Ethiopia: W of Shebelle River (NHM). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) right chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 6. Eusparassus laevatus (Simon, 1897) comb. nov., variation in females from Arabian Peninsula: (a–c):female from Yemen (SMF); (d) female from United Arab Emirates (SMF). (a, d) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

0.23, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.50, PME-PLE 0.45, AME-PME 0.37, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus AME 0.43, clypeus ALE 0.56.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow with 8 to 20 intermarginal denticles; one bristle at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Fig. 5e).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.0 [2.8, 1.5, 2.0, 3.7], I 29.7 [7.8, 3.7, 7.7, 8.0, 2.5], II 32.5 [9.2, 3.7, 8.5, 8.6, 2.5], III 26.8 [8.2, 3.2, 6.7, 6.6, 2.1], IV 30.7 [9.1, 3.1, 7.8, 8.3, 2.4].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 000/001;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF slightly wider than long (Fig. 5a) or as long as wide (Figs 6a, d); longitudinal sclerotized strip on MS present (Fig. 6b) or absent (Fig. 5b); CD short, vulva robust and compact (Figs 5c, 6c) compared to other walckenaeri group members.

Colouration (Live). Yellowish brown with distinct dark pattern on prosoma, dorsal opisthosoma with a long cardiac mark, legs clearly banded (Fig. 47b) to paler bands (Fig. 47c); specimen in ethanol reddish brown with pale body (Fig. 47a).



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