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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Remarks. Simon (1897c) described only the female of E. laevatus comb. nov. but he listed two different field numbers corresponding to specimens collected from the type locality, Shebelle River (Simon 1897c: 389). My investigation in the collection of NHM revealed that the second number (1.9.94) refers to a male sympatrically collected from the type locality and definitely examined by Simon (1897c). According to Article 72.4.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999), the male belongs to the type series, and is, as the female, a syntype. The type specimens were collected by the American investigator, A.D. Smith during ―The first expedition from Somaliland to Lake Lamu‖ in 1893–94. The female is redescribed but the male, even though it is a syntype, is described for the first time.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. East Africa from southern Ethiopia to the horn of Africa in Somalia and Djibouti (new country record), and the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen (new country record), Saudi Arabia (new country record) and Oman (new country record) (Fig.

70a).

–  –  –

Type material. Holotype: male, SAUDI ARABIA: Mintaqat ar Riyad: Wadi Mizbil [N 24˚ 30', E 46˚ 25'], 13 April 1977, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB-ARAN 20666).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Paratypes (4♂♂, 1♀): SAUDI ARABIA: 1♂, same data as for holotype (SMF); Mintaqat al Hail: 1♀, Wadi Naqben [in Jebel Aja Mountain], N 27˚ 41', E 41˚ 38', 1050 m, 27 May 1981, W.

Büttiker leg. (NMB-ARAN 20667); Mintaqat Makkah: 1♂, Abha, Asir Mountains, 2200 m, April 1977, Dr. C. Lowe leg. (NHM); 1♂, Abulat Island, Red Sea, ―Mission de la Calypso Mer Rouge 1952‖, Cherbounier leg. (MNHN); UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Dubayy: 1♂, Barasti, Jumeriah, 1964, Peck leg. (AMNH).

Etymology. The specific name is taken from the type locality. Adjective.

Diagnosis. This is the only walckenaeri group member with PLE distinctly larger than AME (~1.2 times) (Figs 7d, 47d–e); male palp closely similar to that of E. walckenaeri (especially ET) but can be easily recognized by the more slender and longer dRTA and less developed vRTA (Fig.7a–b) [see also diagnosis for walckenaeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=5, single measurement: holotype):

Males medium-sized; total length 13.2, prosoma length 6.7, prosoma width 5.8, anterior width of prosoma 2.8, opisthosoma length 6.5, opisthosoma width 4.6. Eye diameters: AME 0.44, ALE 0.50, PME 0.46, PLE 0.53, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.02, PME-PME 0.30, PME-PLE 0.33, AME-PME 0.38, ALE-PLE 0.25, clypeus height at AME 0.35, clypeus height at ALE 0.40.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 4 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow with intermarginal denticles (Fig. 7e).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.6 [3.6, 1.6, 2.2, 3.2], I 40.4 [10.7, 4.2, 11.2, 11.5, 2.8], II 44.9 [12.1, 4.2, 12.8, 12.7, 3.1], III 38.6 [11.1, 3.7, 10.9, 10.3, 2.6], IV 41.4 [12.0, 4.0, 11.4, 11.3, 2.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 001/101; Tibia I–IV 2124/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with generally elongated and slender palp, cymbium slightly longer than tibia, dRTA elongated, vRTA not pointed (Figs 7a–b); ET retrolaterad and twisted at its distal end, ET covered partially by conductor (Fig. 7c).

Female (n=1, paratype):

Large sized; total length: 21.3, prosoma length 8.5, prosoma width 7.6, anterior width of prosoma 4.3, opisthosoma length 12.8, opisthosoma width 8.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.51, ALE 0.56, PME 0.54, PLE 0.63. Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.15, AME-ALE 0.01, PME-PME 0.41, PMEResults: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species PLE 0.46, AME-PME 0.53, ALE-PLE 0.41, clypeus height at AME 0.42, clypeus height at ALE 0.55.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow with 10 intermarginal denticles.

FIGURE 7. Eusparassus arabicus spec.

nov., holotype male from Saudi Arabia: Wadi Mizbil (NMB). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) right chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.6 [3.5, 1.7, 2.3, 4.1], I 36.4 [10.2, 4.3, 9.4, 9.8, 2.7], II 40.4 [11.3, 4.6, 11.5, 1.3, 2.7], III 34.8 [10.5, 4.0, 9.3, 8.6, 2.4], IV 38.3 [11.0, 4.0, 10.2, 10.5, 2.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–II 000, III–IV 001; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

FIGURE 8. Eusparassus arabicus spec.

nov., paratype female from Saudi Arabia: Hail: Wadi Naqben (NMB). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Epigyne/vulva. EF slightly longer than wide, EF fused anterioly with a bridge but AMLL not encircling MS entirely (Fig. 8a); CD membranous (Fig. 8b), TL spherical and robust (Fig. 8c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Reddish to yellowish brown with darker W-shaped patches on prosoma, remains of cardiac mark on dorsal opisthosoma and legs with pale bands (Figs 47d, e).





Known geographical distribution and habitat. Endemic to Northern Arabian Peninsula collected from wadis and oases (Fig. 70a).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 9. Eusparassus sp. (walckenaeri group) male and female from Djibouti (MNHN). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) epigyne, ventral; (e) vulva, dorsal; (f) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 10. Eusparassus sp. (walckenaeri group): (a–d) female from Seychelles (MRAC); (e–f) female from Saudi Arabia (SMF, MM33). (a, f) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left chelicera, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal (e) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. SLB — sclerotized longitudinal band.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

–  –  –

Diagnosis. Opisthosoma ventrally with a distinct dark marking (Figs 48b, d; 49b, f); chelicerae without intermarginal denticles (Figs 13e, 15d, 23e); male palp with ST reduced in size and mostly not visible (Figs 12a, 15a, 17a, 20a, 22a); female epigyne with fused AMLL encircling MS entirely (Figs 11c, 13a, 16a, 18a, 21a, 23a, f) Species composition. Eight species: Eusparassus dufouri Simon, 1932; E. barbarus (Lucas, 1846); E. oraniensis (Lucas, 1846); E. fritschi (Koch, 1873) stat. rev.; E. letourneuxi (Simon, 1874); E. atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat. nov.; E. syrticus Simon, 1909 and E. levantinus Urones, 2006.

Distribution. From Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) to North-western Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) (Fig. 70b).

Remarks. Identification of females in the dufouri group is difficult; therefore a combination of characters must be used to identify the species, including eye pattern and structures of vulvas.

Males are easily distinguishable by the shape of RTA and ET. Eusparassus fritschi stat. rev. is removed from synonymy with E. oraniensis. Eusparassus atlanticus stat. nov. which was subspecies of E. dufouri is elevated to species level, for comparison the nominate species (E.

dufouri) is illustrated (Figs 11a–e) [for more details see Moradmand and Jäger 2012a: figs 2–3, 23C].

–  –  –

Eusparassus argelasius atlanticus Simon, 1909: 30 (description of female) [syntypes, MNHN, examined], [in Platnick (2013) as E. dufouri atlanticus]. Elevated to species level.

Sparassus syrticus (Simon). Levy 1989: 137, figs. 22–23 (misidentification, illustration of ♀).

[1♀, MNHN, examined].

Type material. Syntypes (designated by Simon 1909): 7♀♀ and 1 immature ♀, MOROCCO:

Region de Doukkala-Abda: Djebel Demnata (=Demnate), Jar N. 1669, Simon N. 5732 (MNHN).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 11. Eusparassus dufouri Simon, 1932, male and female from Portugal (SMF). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (c) epigyne, ventral; (d) vulva, dorsal; (e) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Abbreviations: EFB — epigynal field bridge, GP — glandular process, Msa — membranous sac, expanded.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Other material examined. MOROCCO: Region de Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz: 1♂, 1♀, Marrakesh, Sidi Mimoun, G. Buchat leg. 1903 (MNHN); Region de Souss-Massa-Draa: 1♀ (MM21), ca. 20 km S of Tizi-n-Test, under stone in retreat, 23 July 2000, S. Huber leg. (SMF).

Diagnosis. Male differentiated by simple pointed and retrolaterad ET (Fig. 12c) and slightly curved dRTA (Fig. 12a); compared to other congeners in dufouri group, LL and MS more elongated (Figs 13a, 14a, b) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above].

Description. Male (n=1, MM 191):

Measurements. Medium sized; total length 13.3, prosoma length 6.5, prosoma width 5.8, anterior width of prosoma 2.7, opisthosoma length 6.8, opisthosoma width 4.7. Eye diameters: AME 0.37, ALE 0.28, PME 0.26, PLE 0.31; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.25, AME-ALE 0.15, PMEPME 0.40, PME-PLE 0.47, AME-PME 0.35, ALE-PLE 0.30, clypeus height at AME 0.20, clypeus height at ALE 0.28.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow lacking intermarginal denticles.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 8.7 [2.8, 1.2, 1.4, 3.3], I 30.0 [8.2. 3.1, 7.3, 8.6, 2.8], II 32.9 [9.2, 3.1, 8.3, 9.5, 2.8], III 27.1 [7.9, 2.7, 6.5, 7.4, 2.6], IV 30.7 [8.8, 2.6, 7.5, 9.1, 2.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111; Legs: Femur I 324, II 424, III 324, IV 322; Patella I–IV 101;

Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I 1014, II–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium twice as long as tibia; vRTA not well developed (Figs 12 a, b); EM not covering ET in ventral view (Fig. 12c).

Female (ranges: n=9, single measurement: syntype):

Measurements. Medium sized; total length 16.6–18.8, prosoma length 7.2–8.6, prosoma width 6.5–7.8, anterior width of prosoma 4.1–4.5, opisthosoma length 9.4–10.2, opisthosoma width 5.7–6.2. Eye diameters: AME 0.53, ALE 0.42, PME 0.40, PLE 0.44; eye interdistances: AMEAME 0.30, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.51, PME-PLE 0.65, AME-PME 0.42, ALE-PLE 0.35, clypeus height at AME 0.47, clypeus height at ALE 0.62. Eyes subequal; AME slightly larger than others (Fig. 13d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, intermarginal denticles absent (Fig. 13e).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 12. Eusparassus atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat. nov., male from Morocco: Sidi Mimoun (MNHN). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 13. Eusparassus atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat. nov., syntype female from Morocco: Djebel Damnata (MNHN). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) left chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

FIGURE 14. Eusparassus atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat. nov., variation in syntype females from Morocco:

Djebel Damnata (MNHN). (a, b) epigyne, ventral.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.5 [3.1, 1.6, 2.0, 3.8], I 30.6 [8.6, 3.9, 7.3, 8.4, 2.4], II 33.1 [9.7, 4.1, 8.2, 8.6, 2.5], III 29.2 [8.8, 3.7, 7.0, 7.3, 2.4], IV 32.4 [9.7, 3.6, 7.8, 8.8, 2.5].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 424, IV 321/423; Patella I–IV 000/101;

Tibia I–IV 0004/2024; Metatarsus I 0004/1014, II 1014/2024, III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF generally elongated; MS longer than wide, hyaline (Figs 13a, 14b) to fully sclerotized (Fig. 14a); vulva with glandular process (Fig. 13c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Reddish brown, prosoma with transverse dark lines leading to fovea, dorsal opisthosoma with series of large chevrons at proximal end turning smaller gradually at distal end, legs clearly banded (Figs 49a–b); ventral opisthosoma with a uniform compact dark marking below epigastric furrow (Fig. 49b).

Remarks. E. atlanticus stat. nov. is elevated from subspecies to species level here. In the original description, Simon (1909) emphasized on the dark marking of the ventral opisthosoma and placed this species under E. dufouri (sub E. argelasius atlanticus). After E. dufouri was defined by Moradmand and Jäger (2012a), the description of the male and female of E. atlanticus stat. nov. revealed that this species must be considered as its own valid species and not a subspecies. The male is described here for the first time.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Known geographical distribution and habitat. Western Morocco in Atlas Mountains, under stones, and gravel in dry river beds.

–  –  –

Olios barbarus Lucas, 1846: 202, pl. 11, fig. 10 (description of male and female, from Algeria: Algiers, Constantine, Lacalle, type material not located in MNHN, presumably lost). Neotype designated here (for justification see remarks).

Sparassus barbarus (Lucas). Simon 1874: 262 (transfer).

Eusparassus barbarus (Lucas). Reimoser 1919: 177 (listing and transfer).

Type material: Neotype: male, ALGERIA: Wilaya de Ain Defla: Teniet el Haad [N 35° 52' 16'', E 2° 1' 41''], 1800 m, Cedar Forest, 19 February 1988, R. Jocqué & R. Bosmans leg.

(MRAC 168777).

Other material examined. ALGERIA: 1♀, with same data as for neotype (MRAC); Wilaya de Batna: 1♂, Jebel Metlili, N 35° 15', E 5° 38', Pine forest, 1000m altitude, 13 April 1987, R.



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