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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Jocqué leg. (MRAC 167560); Wilaya de Biskra: 1♀, Biskra, King leg. (ZSM A20110054);

Wilaya de Tizi Ouzou: 1♂, Djurdjura Mountain, Tala Guilet, 1600m, April 1983, H. Franz leg.

(SMF); Wilaya de Adrar: 1♀, Great Atlas Mountains, Tadlest [N 29° 18', E 0° 16'], 2250 m, 20 June 1930 (SMF 4604); 2♂♂, 6♀♀, 42 juveniles, 1866–67, W.T. Taczanovski leg. [label: Olios barbarus Luc., Algeria 1866-67, leg & det. WT. Taczanovski] (MIZ F15); TUNISIA: 1♂, 1959, Kahmann leg. (SMF).

Diagnosis. Male differs from other congeners by ET flattened dorso-ventrally and ET pointing first proximad and then ventrad (Fig. 15c); It resembles that of E. letourneuxi but differs in dRTA bending toward cymbium (Figs 15a, b); epigyne similar to that of E. letourneuxi but differs from it by the triangular-shape of the MS (Fig. 16a) (semicircular in E. letourneuxi) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=6, single measurement: neotype):

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 15. Eusparassus barbarus (Lucas, 1846), neotype male from Algeria: Teniet el Haad (MRAC).

(a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) left chelicera, ventral; (e) eye arrangement, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 16. Eusparassus barbarus (Lucas, 1846), female from the type locality, Algeria (MIZ). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Measurements. Medium sized; total length: 16.5–17.6, prosoma length 7.0–7.6, prosoma width 6.4–6.8, anterior width of prosoma 3.3–3.4, opisthosoma length 9.5–10, opisthosoma width 5.6– 6.0; Eye diameters: AME 0.43, ALE 0.38, PME 0.32, PLE 0.41; eye interdistances: AME-AME Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species 0.27, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.51, AME-PME 0.37, ALE-PLE 0.30, clypeus height at AME 0.35, clypeus height at ALE 0.40. AME largest (Fig. 15e).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without intermarginal denticles (Fig. 15d).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.4 [3.0, 1.4, 1.5, 3.5], I 30.5 [8.5, 3.6, 7.5, 8.4, 2.5], II 33.2 [9.4, 3.4, 8.5, 9.1, 2.8], III 28.3 [8.5, 3.1, 7.0, 7.2, 2.5], IV 31.2 [9.1, 3.2, 7.5, 8.8, 2.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111; Legs: Femur I 324(5)/424, II–III 324(3)/424, IV 423/(3)424;

Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I–IV 21(0)24/2224; Metatarsus I–III 1014/2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis, with cymbium approximately twice as long as tibia; dRTA widened dorsoventrally, vRTA small in size and shifted toward cymbium in ventral view (Figs15 a–c).

Female (ranges: n=9, single measurement: MM 205):

Measurements. Medium to large sized; total length: 17.5–22.5, prosoma length 7.0–10.2, prosoma width 6.1–8.6, anterior width of prosoma 3.8–5.1, opisthosoma length 10.5–12.5, opisthosoma width 7.5–8.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.54, ALE 0.41, PME 0.42, PLE 0.46; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.36, AME-ALE 0.14, PME-PME 0.65, PME-PLE 0.75, AME-PME 0.45, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus height at AME 0.50, clypeus height at ALE 0.60.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae as in males.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.7 [3.2, 1.7, 2.0, 3.8], I 31.7 [9.1, 4.3, 7.5, 8.5, 2.8], II 35.0 [10.2, 4.5, 8.5, 9.0, 2.8], III 30.7 [9.4, 4.2, 7.2, 7.3, 2.6], IV 33.7 [10.2, 3.8, 8.1, 8.8, 2.8].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–II 324/424, III 424, IV 322/423; Patella I– IV 000/101; Tibia I–IV 0004/2024; Metatarsus I–III 0004/ 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide (Fig. 16a); MS hyaline with a longitudinal sclerotized strip dorsally (Fig. 16b); GP present (Fig. 16c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Reddish cream, prosoma with a dark Y-shaped patch and additional transverse lines, opisthosoma with a brown band along the entire length and additional small patches (Figs 51a–b); opisthosoma ventrally with V-shaped marking with bold inner lines (Fig.

51b).

Remarks. Lucas (1846) described two species (sub Olios) currently assigned to the genus Eusparassus: E. barbarus and E. oraniensis. The type material is not available at MNHN and Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species presumed to be lost, as confirmed by other researchers (i.e. Azarkina & Logunov 2006) and verified by author’s direct investigation in MNHN. Fortunately, Lucas (1846) illustrated the habitus and eye arrangement, and provided a description of the colouration of the ventral opisthosoma. The illustration of prosoma in O. barbarus is unique. This colouration is recognized in this study among some Eusparassus specimens found nearby the type locality. Since E.

barbarus can easily be mistaken with the similar parapatric species E. letourneuxi, one male is designated here as neotype to avoid taxonomic problems and misidentification in the future. The eye arrangement and colouration of the neotype correspond to the original drawings and description.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. From Northern Algeria to Tunisia, up to 1800 meters altitude in mountainous pine and cedar forests, found under stones.





–  –  –

Olios oraniensis Lucas, 1846: 201, Pl. 11, fig. 9 (description of female, from Algeria: Oran: Djebel Santon, Santa Cruz [N 35°42′25.3″, W 0°39′55.34″], type material not located in MNHN, presumably lost). Neotype designated here (for justification see remarks).

Sparassus currax Blackwall, 1858: 429 (description of male, holotype from Algeria, not located in HECO, presumably lost).

Sparassus oraniensis (Lucas). Simon 1874: 255 (description of male, material not located in MNHN, presumably lost); Simon 1880: 291; Levy 1989: 137, fig. 21.

Eusparassus argelasius maximus Strand, 1906a: 630 (description of male and female) [syntypes from Algeria (South-west): Naâma Province: Tiout oase, lost in Stuttgart collection]. New synonymy.

Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas). Strand 1908b: 23.

Eusparassus argelasius oraniensis (Lucas). Simon 1909: 31.

Eusparassus dufouri oraniensis (Lucas). Denis 1947:49, pl. 2, fig.12 (illustration of female from Egypt:

Siwa, material not located in NHM, probably misidentified).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Type material: Neotype: female, ALGERIA: Wilaya de Oran, 1906, Scherer leg. (ZSM A20110055).

Other material examined. ALGERIA: 1♀, with same data as for neotype (ZSM A20110056);

Wilaya de Bechar: 1♀, Beni Ounif, March 1955, Fittkau leg. (ZSM A20110053); Wilaya de Biskra: 1♀, 1 juv., Biskra, September 1912 B.H. Boxtux leg. (NHM 1948.11.29.4-5); 2♀♀, Biskra, 1903 (NHM 10.10.29.26.27); MOROCCO: Region de Guelmim-Es Semara: 1♂, N 28 56′11.54″, W 8 57′10.08″, point 37, September 2011, S. Henriques leg. (SMF, SD843);

Region de Souss-Massa-Draa: 1♂, 1♀, Anti-Atlas, between Tizuit and Tafraut, 2 km E of Kerdouss, 1100m, under stone, 22 July 2000, S. Huber leg. (SMF); 1♀, Anti-Atlas, ca. 15km S of Igherm, under stone, 28 August 2001, S. Huber leg. (SMF); 1♂, Zagora, December 2008, G.

Ackermann leg. (SMF, SD444); 1♂, E of Bou Rbia, N 30°07′60.2″, W 6°23′0.27″, 16 September 1999, H. Nickel leg. (SMF); Region de Meknes-Tafilalet: 1♂, Erg Chebbi, N 31°16′12.69″, W 3°59′28.50″, 760m, under stone, 13 July 2009, J. Achenberg leg. (SMF, SD615, MM9); 1♂, Meski, around water source, 29 July 1971, R. Jocqué leg. (MRAC 154281).

Diagnosis. PLE largest (unique character within the group, Fig. 18d), ET retrolaterad first, slightly proximad, finally distad (Fig. 17c); vulva robust and widened as in E. syrticus but differring from it in having smaller and spherical GP (Figs 18b, c) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above ].

Description. Male (ranges: n=5, single measurement: MM 9):

Measurements. Medium to large sized Eusparassus species [largest male (MM9) with 13.3 cm legspan]. Total length 14.2–24.8, prosoma length 7.8–11.5, prosoma width 6.8–11.3, anterior width of prosoma 3.5–5.6, opisthosoma length 6.4–13.3, opisthosoma width 4.0–9.1. Eye diameters: AME 0.62, ALE 0.64, PME 0.61, PLE 0.75; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.09, PME-PME 0.64, PME-PLE 0.70, AME-PME 0.80, ALE-PLE 0.57, clypeus height at AME 0.53, clypeus height at ALE 0.66. PLE larger than others.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow lacking intermarginal denticles.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 17. Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas, 1846), male from Morocco: Erg Chebbi (SMF). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 18. Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas, 1846), neotype female from Algeria: Oran (ZSM). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) left chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 19. Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas, 1846), variation in female from Morocco (SMF). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 15.5 [5.2, 2.6, 2.3, 5.4], I 55.5 [15.5, 5.6, 15.0, 15.7, 3.7], II 57.9 [16.1, 5.8, 15.5, 16.7, 3.8], III 51.1 [15.5, 5.4, 13.3, 13.8, 3.1], IV 56.7 [16.7, 5.1, 14.5, 16.6, 3.8].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 424, IV 333/433; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I–IV 2(1)224; Metatarsus I–III 1014/ 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with robust cymbium longer than tibia; vRTA pointed and triangular in ventral view (Figs 17a, b); ET hardened and sclerotized (Fig.17c).

Female (ranges: n=8, single measurement: neotype):

Measurements. Medium to large sized Eusparassus species. Total length (neotype) 29.5, prosoma length 6.7–11.5, prosoma width 5.8–9.7, anterior width of prosoma 3.5–5.4, opisthosoma length 8.5–18.0, opisthosoma width 5.5–15.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.64, ALE 0.63, PME 0.61, PLE 0.68; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.33, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.67, PME-PLE 0.60, AME-PME 0.85, ALE-PLE 0.53, clypeus height at AME 0.43, clypeus height at ALE 0.52. PLE largest (Fig. 18d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae dentition as in males (Fig. 18e).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II IV I=III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 15.8 [4.2, 2.2, 2.4, 5.0], I 42.7 [12.4, 5.2, 10.7, 11.3, 3.1], II 48.6 [13.8, 5.7, 12.7, 13.2, 3.2], III 42.9 [12.9, 5.1, 10.6, 11.3, 3.0], IV 47.8 [14.0, 5.0, 12.1, 13.5, 3.2].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 424, IV 422/423; Patella I–IV 000/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2124/2224, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide (Figs 18a, 19a); MS as long as wide (Fig. 18a) or longer than wide (Fig. 19a); FD partially (Fig. 19b) to fully sclerotized (SMF, MM 192 from Algeria: Beni Ounif).

Colouration. Creamy gray or yellowish brown, prosoma with distinct radial small dark bands especially along posterior eyes, opisthosoma with a longitudinal band in which outer lines are dark. Femora of legs without any band, but two clear dark patches on tibia ventrally (Figs 50a–b);

ventral opisthosoma with a uniform dark marking with a notch at its anterior side (Fig. 50c).

Remarks. Lucas (1846) provided an illustration and a detailed description of colouration of this species, and noted that the ventral opisthosoma is decorated with two dark brown longitudinal bands, which meet in their posterior part, resembling the letter V. This character can be seen in specimens preserved for a long time in several species of the dufouri group. Even a compact marking in a freshly collected specimen can turn into V-shaped marking after preservation. In the illustration of O. oraniensis (Lucas 1846: pl. 11, fig. 9) no pattern is present on dorsal opisthosoma and no dark bands on the legs are illustrated, the body is uniformly coloured. This can be generally observed in specimens preserved for a long period. Lucas (1846) named the species after the type locality, the Oran region in the north-western part of Algeria. One Eusparassus specimen collected from Oran (deposited in ZSM) is designated here as neotype to avoid confusion with similar parapatric species of the group.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. Western Algeria and South-Eastern Morocco, under stones near to water sources.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

–  –  –

Ocypete fritschi C. Koch, 1873: 114 (description of female, syntypes, SMF, examined) Sparassus oraniensis (Lucas). Simon 1880: 291 (unjustified synonymy). Removed from junior synonymy.

Type material. Syntypes (designated by Koch 1873): 2♀♀, MOROCCO: Region de

Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz: Mtouga [label: 2 Types, Ocypete fritschi C. Koch, Marroko:

Mtüga] 1872, Fritsch & Rein leg. (SMF 4569).

Other material examined. MOROCCO: Region de Souss-Massa-Draa: 4♂♂, 2♀♀, Agadir, April 1939, L. Bulaud (MNHN); 2♀♀, 1juv, Tafraoute, camp place, 21 August 1999, H. Nickel (SMF); 1♂ (MM 198), 1♀, June 1986, Wirtz leg. (SMF); Region de Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz: 1♂ (MM 194), Tizi-n-Test, Taroudannt, Buland leg. (MNHN); 1♂, Atlas, river gravel at Ouirgane, May 1976, 1200 m, P. Hillyard leg. (NHM); 5♀♀, 1sub♀, S.E. of Marrakesh, Lala Aziza (MNHN 6550); Region de Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate: 2♀♀, Taza Province, Taza (N 34° 12' 36, W 4° 0' 36), 19 May 1936 (SMF 4656); Region de Meknes-Tafilalet: 1♀, Azrou, 28 May 1930 (SMF 4603).



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