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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Diagnosis. Compared to other group members, it is the only species with posterior eyes (especially PME) distinctly reduced in size (~1.4 times smaller than AME) (Fig. 21d); male distinguished easily from other congeners by EM with a projected bulge (Fig. 20c); epigyne with MS and EF as long as wide (Fig. 21a) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=7, single measurement: MM 198):

Measurements. Males of medium size. Total length 14.6–16.7; prosoma length 7.1–8.2, prosoma width 6.0–7.1, anterior width of prosoma 3.2–3.5, opisthosoma length 7.5–8.5, opisthosoma

width 5.0–5.3. Eye diameters: AME 0.46, ALE 0.38, PME 0.37, PLE 0.40; eye interdistances:

AME-AME 0.21, AME-ALE 0.07, PME-PME 0.42, PME-PLE 0.47, AME-PME 0.35, ALE-PLE 0.25, clypeus height at AME 0.32, clypeus height at ALE 0.37.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow lacking intermarginal denticles.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 20. Eusparassus fritschi (Koch, 1873) stat. rev., male from Morocco (SMF). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 21. Eusparassus fritschi (Koch, 1873) stat. rev., syntype female from Morocco: Mtuga (SMF).

(a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) left chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.9 [3.1, 1.5, 1.7, 3.6], I 35.5 [9.9, 3.7, 9.0, 9.8, 3.1], II 38.9 [11.1, 3.8, 10.2, 10.6, 3.2], III 33.1 [9.8, 3.4, 8.5, 8.6, 2.8], IV 37.8 [10.9, 3.3, 9.4, 11.1, 3.1].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111; Legs: Femur I 324/424, II 323/424, III 424, IV 322/422; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I 1014, II–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with ST not visible; vRTA rounded and weakly developed; cymbium longer than tibia (Figs 20a, b); ET pointing first proximad and distally ventrad; hyaline EM bulging and covering part of ET (Fig. 20c).

Female (ranges: n=10, single measurement: syntype):

Measurements. Females of large size. Total length 20.8–25.0, prosoma length 8.8–10.0, prosoma width 7.5–9.4, anterior width of prosoma 4.6–6.0, opisthosoma length 12.0–15.0, opisthosoma

width 7.0–10.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.50, ALE 0.43, PME 0.38, PLE 0.36; eye interdistances:

AME-AME 0.33, AME-ALE 0.16, PME-PME 0.60, PME-PLE 0.75, AME-PME 0.56, ALE-PLE 0.46, clypeus AME 0.45, clypeus ALE 0.53. AE distinctly larger than PE, with AME distinctly larger than others (Fig. 21d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow lacking intermarginal denticles; one bristle at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Fig. 21e).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.5 [3.4, 1.8, 2.2, 4.1], I 34.1 [9.4, 4.5, 8.1, 9.3, 2.8], II 36.7 [10.7, 4.5, 9.0, 9.7, 2.8], III 31.6 [9.7, 4.0, 7.6, 7.8, 2.5], IV 36.1 [10.3, 4.3, 8.8, 10.0, 2.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I 223/224/424, II–III 424, IV 322/422; Patella I–IV 000; Tibia I–II 0004/2024, III–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 1014/2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF as long as wide (Fig. 21a) or slightly longer than wide, longitudinal band on MS (dorsal view) weakly developed (Fig. 21b), GP well developed (Fig.

21c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Reddish brown with series of chevron like patterns on dorsal opisthosoma, legs banded (Figs 49c–d), ventral opisthosoma with V-shaped dark marking (Fig.

49d).

Remarks. Koch (1873) described two females from the Mtuga Plateau, Morocco. He noted the general similarities in traits between this species and E. walckenaeri (sub Ocypete tersa). Simon (1880) listed this species as synonym of E. oraniensis but with a question mark (sub Sparassus oraniensis). Probably he did not see the syntypes, but referred to the colouration of the ventral Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species opisthosoma for his judgment. The dark marking is a diagnostic character in all members of the dufouri group. In E. fritschi stat. rev. clear differences exist between the characters of the copulatory organs (especially the newly discovered male) compared to other species. Thus, species rank is re-established and the male is described here for the first time.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. The Atlas Mountains in Morocco, river gravel under stones.

Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon, 1874) Figs 22–23, 49e–f, 61e–f

Sparassus letourneuxi Simon, 1874: 252–253, pl. 5, fig. 8 (description of male, syntypes from Algeria:

Constantine Prov., and around Algiers, not located in MNHN, presumably lost). Levy 1989: 137, figs. 24– 26 (illustration of female). Neotype designated here.

Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon). Strand 1908b: 19 (transfer); Denis 1938: 388; Denis 1947: 50, Pl. 2, fig.

13 (description of female).





Eusparassus dufouri kabylianus Denis, 1937: 1050 (description of male and female) [synonymy by Denis 1938].

Type material: Neotype: female, ALGERIA: Wilaya de Tizi Ouzou: Kabylie region: Yakouren [N 36° 44', E 4° 27'], [label: Eus. letourneuxi E.S., Kabilia, Yakouren, C.M. 1905] (MNHN 22629).

Other material examined. ALGERIA: 2♀♀, with same data as for neotype (MNHN). Wilaya de Blida: 1♂, 1♀, Atlas Blidéen, Djebel Ferroukha, Gellaï, 1350 m, pitfalls in planted Cedrus forest, 20 June 1987–9 May 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Wilaya de Tizi Ouzou: 2♀♀, Tala Guilef, 1550–2000 m, litter in old, open Cedrus forest, 29 April 1984, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB);

1♀, Massif du Djurdjura, Col de Tizi N’Kouillal, 1700 m, among stones in montane grassland, 22 October 1982, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB); 1♂, Massif du Djurdjura, Tala Guilef, 1420 m, pitfall in grassland in Cedrus forest, 20 June 1993, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB); Wilaya de Bejaia: 1♀, Oued Daas, 15 m, beach near river mouth, 22 May 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Wilaya de Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species M’sila: 1♀, Djebel Maadid, 1500 m, Quercus ilex forest, 9 March 1990, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB);

Wilaya de Boumerdes: 1♂, entre Toulmout et Keddara, 500 m, 27 April 1989, R. Bosmans leg.

(CRB). Wilaya de Tissemsslit: 2♂♂, Theniet El Had, around Djebel Meddad, 1780 m, 19 February 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB); 1♂, Theniet-el-Had, Djebel Meddad, 1450 m, stones mixed Cerdrus atlanticus and Querqus faginea forest, 18 May 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB).

Wilaya de Bouira: 1♂, Massif du Djurdjura, Tikjda, 1450 m, among stones around Hotel, 17 September 1987, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB).

Diagnosis. Resembles E. barbarus in having a short ET but differs by having a slimmer ET (Fig.

22c) and dRTA directed distad (Figs 22a, b); female epigyne with unique MS semicircular (Figs 23a, f) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=7, single measurement: MM 195):

Measurements. Medium sized. Total length 15.6–17.8,, prosoma length 7.1–8.3, prosoma width 6.3–6.7, anterior width of prosoma 3.3–3.8, opisthosoma length 8.5–9.5, opisthosoma width 5.0–

5.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.45, ALE 0.35, PME 0.32, PLE 0.38; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.26, AME-ALE 0.12, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.55, AME-PME 0.34, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus height at AME 0.25, clypeus height at ALE 0.38.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae as in females.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 8.9 [2.5, 1.3, 1.5, 3.6], I 31.9 [8.6, 3.3, 8.0, 9.0, 3.1], II 34.2 [9.4, 3.2, 8.9, 9.7, 3.0], III 29.2 [8.5, 3.2, 7.1, 7.6, 2.8], IV 32.5 [9.1, 3.1, 8.0, 9.3, 3.0].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111; Legs: Femur I 323(4)/324, II–III 324/424, IV 322/422/423;

Patella I–IV 001/101; Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I–III 1014/2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium nearly twice as long as tibia, dRTA sickle-shaped and vRTA not developed (Figs 22a, b); ET shortened distally but robust proximally (Fig. 22c).

Female (n=9):

Measurements. Neotype: Total length: 18.8, prosoma length 7.4, prosoma width 6.3, anterior width of prosoma 3.8, opisthosoma length 11.2, opisthosoma width 7.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.50, ALE 0.34, PME 0.35, PLE 0.41; Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.13, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.51, AME-PME 0.31, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus AME 0.37, clypeus ALE 0.41. AME largest and ALE smallest (Fig. 23d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 or 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow lacking intermarginal denticles; one bristle at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Fig. 23e).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 22. Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon, 1874), male from Algeria: Djebel Ferroukha (CRB). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 23. Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon, 1874), neotype female from Algeria: Yakouren (MNHN).

(a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) right chelicera, ventral; (f) variation in epigyne, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: IV II I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 8.3 [2.4, 1.4, 1.6, 2.9], I 25.3 [7.1, 3.5, 6.0, 6.6, 2.1], II 25.0 [7.2, 3.2, 6.1, 6.3, 2.2], III 23.6 [7.3, 3.1, 5.5, 5.6, 2.1], IV 26.3 [7.8, 3.0, 6.2, 7.1, 2.2].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I 224/324, II–III 123/424, IV 421/422; Patella I–IV 000/101; Tibia I–II 0004/2024, III–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 1014/1024/2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF approximately quadrangulate in shape (Figs 23a, f); MS partially (Fig. 23a) to fully sclerotized (Fig. 23f); MS dorsally with a sclerotized strip (Fig. 23b);

vulva equipped with a glandular process (GP) (Fig. 23c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Yellowish brown or reddish brown, dorsal opisthosoma dark brown with small series of yellow chevrons, legs (tibia and femur) clearly banded (Fig. 49e); ventral opisthosoma with V-shaped dark marking in which the mark is not filled with dark colour but is only outlined as ―V‖ with especially the inner lines bold (Fig. 49f).

Remarks. The type specimens were collected from Northern Algeria in Constantine Province and around the capital city Algiers (Simon 1874: 253). Unfortunately, the type series could not be located in MNHN neither could the other male specimens identified by Simon. Exceptionally, in this species, females are easily recognized by the shape of the MS of epigyne. Several different tubes containing E. letourneuxi females and juveniles were found in MNHN. Among them a female collected near to the original type locality from Kabylie: Yakouren was selected and designated as neotype to clarify the species identity and reduce taxonomic problems in distinguishing this species from closely similar species in nearby regions of Western Algeria (E.

oraniensis), Eastern Algeria (E. barbarus) and Southern Tunisia (E. syrticus). The designated neotype was identified by Simon as E. letourneuxi as clearly indicated by his abbreviation ―E.S‖ on the label, confirming that the specimen is correctly identified to E. letourneuxi. Several sympatric male and female from different localities were used to describe the male.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. North-Eastern Algeria in the Atlas Mountains, inhabiting stony areas of mountainous grassland, Cedar and Oak forests.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

–  –  –

Eusparassus argelasius syrticus Simon, 1909: 30–31 (description of female). [2 female and 1 immature syntypes from Tunisia, MNHN, examined] 1 female lectotype designated here, (for justification see remarks).

Eusparassus dufouri syrticus (Simon). Denis 1945: 54.

Type material. Lectotype: female, TUNISIA: Governorat de Tataouine: Tataouine [N 32° 25' 32'', E 10° 10' 29''] (label: Eus. argel. syrticus E.S. Tunesia S of Triholitaine, Tatahouine), Jar number: 1668, Simon number: 22701 (MNHN).

Diagnosis. Copulatory duct very robust and wide like that of E. oraniensis but differing from it by TL not visible in dorsal view (Fig. 24b) and having larger and semispherical GP overlapping with distal end of CD (Fig. 24c) [see also diagnosis for dufouri species group above].

Description. Female (lectotype):

Measurements. Large sized Eusparassus species; total length 22.8, prosoma length 9.5, prosoma width 8.6, anterior width of prosoma 4.8, opisthosoma length 13.3, opisthosoma width 9.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.55, ALE 0.60, PME 0.55, PLE 0.62; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.23, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.50, PME-PLE 0.51, AME-PME 0.62, ALE-PLE 0.39, clypeus height at AME 0.52, clypeus height at ALE 0.58. PLE largest; LE larger than ME (Fig. 24d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 posterior teeth, intermarginal denticles absent (Fig.

24e).

Legs. Leg formula: IV II I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.2 [3.5, 1.7, 2.2, 3.8], I 34.4 [10.0, 4.3, 8.6, 9.1, 2.4], II 36.2 [10.7, 4.4, 9.4, 9.2, 2.5], III 34.1 [10.7, 4.0, 8.4, 8.5, 2.5], IV 37.5 [11.7, 3.8, 9.2, 10.2, 2.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 424, IV 423; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I– IV 2024; Metatarsus I 1014, II–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide, MS as long as wide (Fig. 24a); CD widened and covered by TL, only parts of GP extending beyond CD in dorsal view of vulva (Fig.

24b); GP enlarged (Fig. 24c).



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