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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Type material. Holotype: male, SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Province: 20 km NE of Pretoria, S 25˚36.321', E 28˚19.450', under stone in retreat, collected at night, 8 September 2004, D. Kunz leg. (SMF, SD295, MM52).

Paratypes (7♂♂, 5♀♀): SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Province: 1♀, Pretoria, Baviaanspoort, under stones, 22 October 1988, M. Filmer leg. (PPRI 90/387); 1♀, Western Transvaal, 4 April 1987, H. Uys leg. (PPRI 88/354); Limpopo Province: 1♀, Roodeplaat, S 25˚36.052', E 28˚19.731', 1226 m, under stone in retreat, 13 July 2004, D. Kunz leg. (SMF, SD34, MM51); 1♀, Klein Kariba, S 24º50'59'', E 28º20'20'', 26 November 1996, A.V.D Berg leg. (PPRI 97/163).

North West Province: 1♂, Borakalalo Nature Reserve, label: “Buphuthatswana‖, S 25˚, E 27˚, October 1986, M. Filmer leg. (PPRI 87/720); 1♂, same data as previous (PPRI 87/75); 1♂, same data as previous, April 1986 (PPRI 87/131); 1♂, same data as previous, 20 November 1986 (PPRI 87/120); 1♂, Magaliesberg, May 1990, L. Prendini leg. (PPRI 91/1435); 1♂, Farms Elandsfontein/Buffelshoek, 37 km W of Thabazimbi, under stone in cocoon, area covered with dry leaves, 3 November 1979, M. Stiller leg. (PPRI 80/174), 1♂, Buffelspoort dam, Rustenburg Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species District, under dry bark of protea stump, 14 October 1979, M. Stiller leg. (PPRI 80/185);

BOTSWANA: 1♀, Rooikop, 15 January 1994, A. Harington leg. (PPRI 2001/96).

Other material examined. SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo Province: 2♀♀, 6 juveniles, Makapan, S 23º 10' 60'', E 28º 36' 0'', (MNHN 16.851); 1♀, Northen Cape Province: Kimberley (MNHN 13.037).

Etymology. The species is named in honour of Dr Peter Jäger (SMF) in recognition of his scientific support of this project and also his invaluable help, motivation and encouragement;

noun in genitive.

Diagnosis. Males differing from congeners by slender and curving ET pointing smoothly distad at its distal end (Fig. 29c) and dRTA with a ventral bulge (Figs 29a, b); epigyne with two large triangular processes at posterior margine of lateral lobes (LL) (Fig. 30a) [see also diagnosis for jaegeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=8, single measurement: holotype):

Measurements. Males medium sized; total length 13.5, prosoma length 5.7–6.3, prosoma width 4.7–5.8, anterior width of prosoma 2.5–3.1, opisthosoma length 7.8–8.0, opisthosoma width 4.0–

4.7. Eye diameters: AME 0.40, ALE 0.30, PME 0.25, PLE 0.27; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.44, AME-PME 0.28, ALE-PLE 0.24, clypeus height at AME 0.23, clypeus height at ALE 0.31. AME largest (1.5 times larger than PME) (Fig. 29d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth (3 or 4 larger teeth followed by smaller ones), cheliceral furrow with median line of 3 to 5 intermarginal denticles (Fig. 29e).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 6.9 [2.2, 1.1, 1.1, 2.5], I 24.2 [6.5, 2.1, 6.0, 6.5, 2.1], II 28.2 [7.8, 2.7, 7.3, 8.2, 2.2], III 22.5 [6.5, 2.3, 5.5, 6.2, 2.0], IV 25.0 [7.0, 2.3, 6.2, 7.4, 2.1].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323(423), IV 322; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium more than twice as long as tibia (Fig. 29b), dRTA beak-like and vRTA wide and triangular in ventral view (Fig. 29a); ET retrolaterad with distal tip bent at right angle (Fig. 29c).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 29. Eusparassus jaegeri spec. nov., holotype male from South Africa: NE of Pretoria (SMF).

(a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) left chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 30. Eusparassus jaegeri spec. nov.: (a–c) paratype female from South Africa: NE of Pretoria (SMF); (d) female from South Africa Klein Kariba (PPRI). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c–d) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

Female (ranges: n=8, single measurement: paratype MM51):

Measurements. Medium sized; total length: 13.4–19.2, prosoma length 5.3–7.2, prosoma width 4.8–6.3, anterior width of prosoma 3.0–3.8, opisthosoma length 8.1–12.0, opisthosoma width 5.2–7.6. Eye diameters: AME 0.45, ALE 0.34, PME 0.31, PLE 0.35; eye interdistances: AMEAME 0.31, AME-ALE 0.10, PME-PME 0.51, PME-PLE 0.52, AME-PME 0.32, ALE-PLE 0.25, clypeus height at AME 0.34, clypeus height at ALE 0.40.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae dentition as in males. AME largest.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 7.4 [2.3, 1.2, 1.5, 2.4], I 24.7 [6.6, 3.3, 5.9, 6.8, 2.1], II 27.3 [7.5, 3.5, 6.6, 7.5, 2.2], III 22.9 [6.7, 2.8, 5.4, 6.0, 2.0], IV 25.1 [7.0, 2.8, 6.0, 7.2, 2.1].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV000/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with MS enlarged, roundish and bulged outward ventrally (Fig.





30a), CD massive and dark in colour and fully to partially sclerotized (Fig. 30b), GP reduced in size and situated close to TL (Figs 30c, d).

Colouration. Body uniformly coloured with pale brownish gray hairs and a longitudinal darker strip on dorsal opisthosoma (Fig. 54a) Known geographical distribution and habitat. South Africa: central region and Botswana collected from retreats under stones covered by bushes. One specimen sampled with an Euprosthenops sp. (Pisauridae).

–  –  –

Type material. Holotype: male, SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape Province: Namaqualand, Lieliefontein, S 30.39˚, E 18.28˚, 1048 m, Malaise trap, 28 October 2001, (PH II6), C. Mayer leg.

(ZMB 48505).

Paratypes (2♂♂, 2♀♀): SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape Province: 1♂, with same data as for holotype (SMF); 2♀♀, Kamiesberg Mountain, 22–24 km E of Kamieskroon, S 30˚ 18', E 18˚ 05', 4–5 November 1985, C. Griswold, J. Doyen & T.M. Griswold leg. (NMSA 20184); 1♀, Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Farm Loeriesfontein, Aberdeen, Great Karroo, under stone, 1972–73, M. Stiller leg. (PPRI 80/194); NAMIBIA: Karas Region: 1♂, Near Kodaspiek, 3 September 1992, S. Neser leg.

(PPRI 92/543).

Other material examined. SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape Province: 4♀♀, Calvinia, 10 km N of Loeriesfontein, [S 30.58˚, E 19.26˚, 3152 m], 22 October 1990, L.N. Lotz leg. (BMSA 5490).

Etymology. The specific name is a patronyme in honour of Dr Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman who promotes the arachnological science in Africa; noun in genitive case.

Diagnosis. Small-sized Eusparassus species. Male with diagnostic triangular ET and lobe of EM projecting behind base of conductor on tegulum (Figs 31a, c). Epigyne and MS elongated (Figs 32a, 33a); vulva with hump-like glandular process (Figs 32c, 33b) [see also diagnosis for jaegeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=3, single measurement: holotype):

Measurements. Small-sized species. Total length 10.4, prosoma length 4.6, prosoma width 3.8,

anterior width of prosoma 2.1, opisthosoma length 5.8, opisthosoma width 3.5. Eye diameters:

AME 0.38, ALE 0.25, PME 0.24, PLE 0.27; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.17, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.25, AME-PME 0.20, ALE-PLE 0.12, clypeus height at AME 0.17, clypeus height at ALE 0.25. AME largest, other eyes subequal (Fig. 31d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 to 6 posterior teeth (3 or 4 larger teeth followed by smaller ones), cheliceral furrow with 2 to 5 intermarginal denticles close to anterior teeth (Fig.

31e).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV=I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 6.0 [2.0, 0.8, 1.1, 2.1], I 22.4 [5.9, 2.3, 5.8, 6.4, 2.0], II 24.8 [6.7, 2.5, 6.5, 7.0, 2.1], III 20.3 [5.8, 2.1, 5.2, 5.5, 1.7], IV 22.5 [6.4, 2.2, 5.7, 6.2, 2.0].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323(422), IV 322(332); Patella I–IV 000/001; Tibia I–IV 2024/2124; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium approximately twice as long as tibia (Fig. 31b); T and ST bulged and expanded, dRTA pointing distad and vRTA hump-like (Fig. 31a).

Female (ranges: n=7, single measurement: paratype MM 182):

Measurements. Small sized; total length: 8.5–10.2, prosoma length 4.5–5.5, prosoma width 4.0– 4.7, anterior width of prosoma 2.3–2.7, opisthosoma length 7.0–9.3, opisthosoma width 4.2–5.8.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 31. Eusparassus schoemanae spec. nov., holotype male from South Africa: Namaqualand (ZMB). (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) left chelicera, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 32. Eusparassus schoemanae spec. nov., paratype female from South Africa: E of Kamieskroon (NMSA). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Eye diameters: AME 0.37, ALE 0.30, PME 0.26, PLE 0.28; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.26, AME-ALE 0.07, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.45, AME-PME 0.28, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus height at AME 0.20, clypeus height at ALE 0.28.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 33. Eusparassus schoemanae spec. nov., paratype female from South Africa: Aberdeen (NMSA). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae dentition as in males, sometimes with fewer intermarginal denticles.

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 6.6 [1.8, 1.0, 1.4, 2.4], I 19.4 [5.3, 2.5, 4.8, 5.4, 1.6], II 21.2 [6.1, 2.1, 5.3, 6.1, 1.6], III 17.3 [5.1, 2.0, 4.2, 4.5, 1.5], IV 19.4 [5.6, 2.1, 4.6, 5.5, 1.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV000/001;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis, epigyne with hyaline MS generally elongated (Figs 32a, 33a), anterior bands of epigynal field present (Fig. 33a), CD narrow and TL hidden behind MS dorsally (Fig. 32b).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Prosoma and legs uniformly yellowish brown, opisthosoma brownish gray dorsally with a line of small dark chevrons (Figs 54b–c).

Known geographical distribution and habitat. South Africa (Northern Cape) and Namibia (Fig. 71b); under stones at higher elevations in mountains.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

–  –  –

Type material. Holotype: female, SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo Province: Borakalalo Nature Reserve, Rust de Winter, S 25.15˚, E 28.29˚, in grass, April 1986, M. Filmer leg. (PPRI 87/137, MM65).

Paratype (1♀): SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Province: 1♀, Johannesburg, October 1995, A.

Harrington leg. (PPRI 2001/94, MM68).

Etymology. The species is named after the type locality; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. This species is the only known member of the jaegeri-group whose EF is distinctly wider than long (Figs 34a, f) [see also diagnosis for jaegeri species group above].

Description Female (n=2) [holotype first with measurements of paratype in parenthesis]:

Measurements. Medium sized; total length 12.1, prosoma length 6.4 (5.7), prosoma width 5.7 (4.9), anterior width of prosoma 3.4 (3.1), opisthosoma length 9.3 (7.0), opisthosoma width 5.1 (4.5). Eye diameters: AME 0.41, ALE 0.30, PME 0.28, PLE 0.33; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.27, AME-ALE 0.11, PME-PME 0.48, PME-PLE 0.50, AME-PME 0.25, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus height at AME 0.30, clypeus height at ALE 0.35. AME largest (~1.4 times larger), others subequal (Fig. 34e).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth (2 or 3 larger teeth followed by smaller ones), cheliceral furrow with a median line of 8 to 10 intermarginal denticles (Fig. 34d).

Legs. Leg formula: II IV I III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 7.0 [2.1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.2], I 22.3 [5.9, 3.0, 5.3, 6.1, 2.0], II 24.9 [7.0, 3.0, 6.2, 6.7, 2.0], III 20.5 [5.7, 2.5, 4.8, 5.1, 1.8], IV 23.1 [6.1, 2.5, 6.1, 6.4, 2.0].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321(322); Patella I–IV 000;

Tibia I–IV 0004/2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036/3034.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with AMLL straight (Fig. 34a) or with bulge (Fig. 34f), posterior margin of LL expanded laterally (Fig. 34a); CD slender and in connection with membranous MS, TL visible in dorsal view (Fig. 34b); glandular pores restricted to small circular depression on vulva (Fig. 34c).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Yellowish brown, opisthosoma darker dorsally with a line of small dark chevrons (Fig. 55c).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 34. Eusparassus borakalalo spec. nov., (a–e) holotype and (f) paratype female from South Africa: Borakalalo Natural Reserve. (a, f) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorsolateral; (d) right chelicera, ventral; (e) eye arrangement, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Male. Unknown.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. South Africa (central), sympatric in some area with E. jaegeri spec. nov., collected in grass.

–  –  –

Type material. Holotype: male, ZIMBABWE: Matabeleland North Province: Bulawayo (S 20°8'60, E 28°34'60, 1351 m) [label: Rhodesia: Bulawayo], November 1964– January 1965, S.

Bucklin leg., MM201 (MRAC 128093).

Paratypes: 5♂♂, 1♀ (MM202), 2 juveniles, with same data as for holotype (4♂♂, 1♀ MRAC;

1♂ SMF).

Other material examined. 1♀, ―Ostafrika‖ [=East Africa] (potentially Tanzania, Mozambique, Rwanda or Burundi; see remarks below), December 1904, W. Triesler leg. (ZMB).



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