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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Paratypes (4♂♂, 5♀♀): NAMIBIA: Kunene Region: 1♂, campsite Warmquelle, under roof, S 19˚8.299', E 13˚48.830', 2 March 2005, DK376, D. Kunz leg. (SMF); 1♂, campsite Warmquelle, under roof, S 19˚ 8.299', E 13˚ 48.830', 3 March 2005, (DK 377, SD 341), D. Kunz leg. (SMF);

1♂, 2♀♀, Epupa Falls, S 17˚0.122', E 13˚14.714', 23 March 2005, D. Kunz leg. (SMF, 1♂, DK 337, SD 530, 1♀, DK336, SD332). Karasburg District: 1♂, Farm Augurabis 109, Gaapriver, S 27˚27'04.0'', E 17˚42'18.9'', 556 m, 25 August 2005, TB 05/174, EduVentures 7th Expedition in Fish River Canyon (NMNW 47510). Erongo Region: 1♀, Brandberg, Hungarob River side, S 21˚13.25', E 14˚31.03', 700 m, Pitfall row 2, 27 April 2000, K. Meakin leg. (NMNW 45421); 1♀, Brandberg, Numas Plateau (NMNW 35237); 1♀, N of Keetmanshoop, W. 1910–11, Kramer leg., Dr Werner ded. 28 August 1912 (ZMH).

Etymology. The specific name ―educatus‖ is a Latin term (adjective) meaning ―to train‖ or ―to bring up a child‖. It referrs to ―the EduVentures Programme‖, an educational program by NMNW aiming to explore and collect the biodiversity data within the remote areas of Namibia Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species and educating children who have in most cases disadvantaged lives. One paratype male was collected during ―the EduVentures 7th Expedition‖ by these children. This new species is the first species described from their material and named to promote this educational project and support these children.

Diagnosis. This unique species can be easily diagnosed by strongly elongated palpal structures, especially the slender embolus, which is covered by the similar long EM (Figs 40a–c, 41d);

female vulva is uniquely coiled and twisted and has an extra small glandular process (Figs 41b, c) [see also diagnosis for tuckeri species group above].

Description. Male (ranges: n=5, single measurement: holotype):

Measurements (holotype first). Males medium-sized. Total length 11.1–16.3, prosoma length 6.0–8.2, prosoma width 5.4–6.8, anterior width of prosoma 2.9–3.5, opisthosoma length 5.1–8.1, opisthosoma width 2.3–5.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.52, ALE 0.48, PME 0.42, PLE 0.51; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.03, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.53, AME-PME 0.41, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus height at AME 0.37, clypeus height at ALE 0.48. AME and PLE approximately equal (Fig. 40d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without intermarginal denticles (Fig. 40e).

Legs. Leg formula: II I IV III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.3 [3.6, 1.3, 2.1, 4.3], I 36.0[10.0, 4.4, 9.7, 9.8, 2.1], II 41.5 [11.6, 4.7, 11.7, 10.8, 2.7], III 32.4 [9.8, 4.0, 8.6, 7.9, 2.1], IV 34.2 [10.0, 3.7, 9.1, 9.3, 2.1].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 001/101; Tibia I–IV 2124/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium approximately 2.5 times longer than tibia; dRTA very slim, vRTA rounded and not well developed; embolus very narrow, covered by hyaline and folded embolus membrane (EM) (Figs 40a–c), E and EM loosely connected (Fig. 41d).

Female (ranges: n=5, single measurement: paratype MM 52):

Measurements. Medium-sized; total length 16.7–19.0, prosoma length 8.1–8.5, prosoma width 6.8–7.4, anterior width of prosoma 3.8–4.3, opisthosoma length 8.6–10.5, opisthosoma width 5.0–7.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.48, ALE 0.50, PME 0.44, PLE 0.56; eye interdistances: AMEAME 0.24, AME-ALE 0.02, PME-PME 0.50, PME-PLE 0.45, AME-PME 0.46, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus height at AME 0.38, clypeus height at ALE 0.50.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 40. Eusparassus educatus spec. nov., holotype male from Namibia: NE of Juriesdraai (SMF).

(a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) right chelicera, ventral.

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without intermarginal denticles.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 41. Eusparassus educatus spec. nov., (a–c) paratypes from Namibia: Epupa Falls (SMF). (a) epigyne, ventral; (b) vulva, dorsal; (c) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (d) male’s bulbus with separated embolus from embolic membrane, ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Legs. Leg formula: II I IV III. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 8.3 [2.5, 1.2, 1.3, 3.3], I 26.5 [7.3, 3.3, 7.1, 7.2, 1.6], II 28.5 [8.3, 3.4, 7.8, 7.3, 1.7], III 23.5 [7.1, 3.0, 6.1, 5.8, 1.5], IV 24.8 [7.3, 2.7, 6.5, 6.7, 1.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–II 000, III–IV 001; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide (Fig. 41a), MS hyaline and connected to CD in dorsal view (Fig. 41b); vulva coiled in series of complex loops (Fig. 41c) Colouration. Yellowish cream with dark black marks on prosoma and dorsal opisthosoma, legs distinctly with strong black bands (Fig. 56a).

Known geographical distribution and habitat. Relatively widely distributed throughout Namibia, collected from desert areas, some specimens under roofs of buildings.

doriae species group Diagnosis. Chelicerae without intermarginal denticles; ventral opisthosoma pale in colour (Fig.

58b); ST small in size and located behind EM (e.g. Fig. 67a); AMLL of epigyne not fused anteriorly (e.g. Fig. 67b); GP present.

Species composition. Seven species: Eusparassus doriae (Simon, 1874); E. oculatus (Kroneberg, 1875); E. potanini (Simon, 1895); E. maynardi (Pocock, 1901); E. kronebergi Denis, 1958; E. fuscimanus Denis, 1958 and E. mesopotamicus Moradmand and Jäger, 2012 (for full descriptions, see chapter 3.1: Moradmand & Jäger 2012a).

Distribution. From the Middle East to Central and parts of South Asia (Fig. 72a).

Species with unclear group affiliation The following three species, Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock, 1901), E. pontii Caporiacco, 1935 and Cercetius perezi Simon, 1902 cannot be placed in the species groups recognized above. They show a transition in character states. Eusparassus pontii is closely allied to the members of the doriae group but differ from them by having a distinct dark marking on the ventral opisthosoma (Fig. 56f). Eusparassus pontii is also similar to E. xerxes (presence of ventral opisthosoma marking) but differs by having a single bristle instead of four at the basal segment of the Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species chelicerae. This species is probably derived from the members of the doriae group in the Himalayas. For full description of E. pontii, see Moradmand & Jäger 2012a. The distribution of these three species is shown in Fig. 72b.

–  –  –

Sparassus xerxes Pocock, 1901: 489–490 (description of male and female; syntypes, NHM, examined).

Olios xerxes (Pocock). Gravely 1931: 240–241, figs 5A, 6A (transfer); Sethi and Tikader 1988: 35, figs 157–162.

Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock). Moradmand and Jäger 2012a: 2481, figs 19, 20, 23B (transfer; redescription and illustration of male and female syntypes).

Type material: Syntypes (designated by Pocock 1901): 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 1 immatures, IRAN:

Bushehr Province: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juvenile, Bushehr (sub Bushier), F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 1882.109); 1 ♂, PAKISTAN: Baluchistan Province: Ormara, Makran Coast, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 1899.10.6.7); 1 ♂, Ormara, Makran Coast, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM

Material examined. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Ajman: 1♂, S of Al Manamah, Wadi Siji, 1995, Ziegler leg. (SMF).

Remarks. This is the first record of E. xerxes from the Arabian Peninsula. According to the distribution range of E. xerxes, it occurs along the Northern strip of the Persian Gulf in Iran to the Makran Coast and central parts of Pakistan (Fig. 72b). However, it was not surprising to encounter this species on the Southern shores of the Persian Gulf. This single male specimen has all the diagnostic character of this species. In addition to the characters of copulatory structure, it has the diagnostic vase-like dark marking on the opisthosoma ventrally (Fig. 56d). For detailed species description, see Moradmand and Jäger (2012a: 43).

Systematic position. Eusparassus xerxes is similar to the dufouri and vestigator groups due to the presence of the dark marking on the ventral opisthosoma, but the females differ in having not fused AMLL of epigyne. It is similar to doriae group in the latter character. Eusparassus xerxes has four thick bristles, a character shared with the vestigator group, but it differs in lacking the autapomorphic character of the vestigator group, the strongly developed vRTA. Consequently, E.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species xerxes could not be placed in any of the vestigator, doriae or dufouri groups. Its geographical distribution also supports this intermediate status.

Known geographical distribution. From the Middle East [Iran and UAE (new country record)] to Pakistan (Fig. 72b).

–  –  –

The monotypic genus Cercetius was erected by Simon (1902) based on a juvenile specimen. The genus and its type species, C. perezi Simon, 1902 have never been explicitly diagnosed prior to this study. Examination of the type material revealed that Cercetius falls into the synonymy of Eusparassus as defined by Moradmand and Jäger (2012a). To maintain stability of nomenclature case proposal 3596 was submitted to ICZN to give the widely used name Eusparassus Simon, 1903 priority over Cercetius (for details see Moradmand & Jäger 2012b). In accordance with Article 82.1 of the Code, the prevailing usage of names is maintained until the ruling of the Commission is published. Therefore, both generic names Eusparassus and Cercetius are used in this paper, and formal synonymization is postponed until final ICZN decision.

–  –  –

Cercetius perezi Simon, 1902: 253 (description of juvenile, holotype examined); Simon 1903: 1020, 1023, 1026 (juveniles, new geographic records from Somalia); Jäger and Kunz 2005: 170, figs. 201–204 (illustration of holotype).

Type material. Holotype (designated by Simon 1902): juvenile, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES:

Dibba, Persian Gulf shore, [label: Golfe persique: Dibba, St. XLV, Mission Bonnier–Perez, Cotes-Arabie, March–April 1901, MM. J. Bonnier & Ch. Perez leg. (MNHN 1658-21936)].

Other material examined (9♂♂, 6♀♀). UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Abu Dhabi: 1♂, Dibba, Sweihan, N 24˚28', E 55˚22', 160 m altitude, collected by NARC (National Avian Research Centre), 14 September 1993 (ICEAD, MM1); 1♂, 2 immatures, Persian Gulf shore, Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species Suwayhan (=Sweihan), April 1970, C. Williams leg. (MNHN, MM158). OMAN: 2♂♂, 1♀ (MM 30), Mudhaybi, N 22˚12', E 58˚06', 530 m altitude, camp.p., Oman Eastern Sand Project, 12 March 1986, W. Büttiker leg. (NMB); 1♀, Al-Araqi, September 2000, S. Huber leg. (SMF); 1♂, 2 immatures, Wadi Matam, Wahiba, N 21˚53', E 58˚17', 170 m altitude, 31 January 1986, Oman Eastern Sand Project (NMB); Ad Dakhiliyah: 1♀, outside of Fallah cave, September 2000, S.

Huber leg. (SMF); Mintaqat Masqat: 1♀, near Rusayl, N 25˚33', E 58˚15', March 1984, W.

Cookson leg. (NMB); Mintaqat al Sharghiah: 1♂, Msirah, February 1979, K. M. Guichard leg.(NHM); 1♂, Central Oman, N 22˚25', E 56˚45' [south of Jebel Karwr Mountain, AlDakhiliah], sand desert, A. J. Wart leg. (NHM 26.7.63); Mintaqat Zufar: 2 immatures, near Thamarit, Dhofar, N 17˚42', E 54˚02', 450 m, under tyre on soft sand, 24 March 1980, J. N.

Barnes leg. (NHM). YEMEN: Muhafazat Shabwah: 1♂, 1♀, 1 immature, Sayhut, between AlMukalla and border of Oman, 5–8 March 1995, B. Schätti leg. (MHNG); Tihama Region: 1♀, Tihama, Northern Yemen, 1985, F. Schüffe leg. (SMF). SOMALIA: Somaliland: 1♂, near Berbera, N 10˚14'25'', E 45˚04'55.4'', 407 m, 9 July 2011, T. Mazuch & F. Kovarik leg. (SMF, SD 840). DJIBOUTI: Region d’ Obock: 1♀, Obock, 22 February 1893, M. Maindron leg.


Diagnosis. Large-sized and robust hairy species (total length: male 24 mm, female 28 mm, leg span up to 13.5 cm) with diagnostic uniform large black marking covering ventral opisthosoma posteriorly and partially around epigastric furrow (Fig. 57b) in both sexes; males with short and slender embolus tip pointing distad in ventral view, embolus membrane composed of folded hyaline layers (Figs 42a–c); vulva composed of several bulbous parts at turning loop, glandular pores present on a small process (Figs 43b–d).

Description. Male (ranges: n=9, single measurement: MM 1):

Measurements. Medium to large sized; total length 16.8–23.8, prosoma length 8.5–12.3, prosoma width 7.4–10.4, anterior width of prosoma 4.2–6.2, opisthosoma length 8.3–11.5, opisthosoma

width 5.5–8.5. Eye diameters: AME 0.70, ALE 0.75, PME 0.57, PLE 0.80; eye inter-distances:

AME-AME 0.23, AME-ALE 0.04, PME-PME 0.54, PME-PLE 0.55, AME-PME 0.60, ALE-PLE 0.38, clypeus height at AME 0.45, clypeus height at ALE 0.58. PLE largest, posterior eye row recurved (Fig. 42d).

Chelicerae. Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow usually with 1 or 2 intermarginal denticles close to anterior teeth; basal segment of chelicerae at distal end retromarginally with 1 bristle (Fig. 42e).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 42. Cercetius perezi Simon, 1902, males from Suwayhan (=Sweihan), Dibba, Persian Gulf shore, United Arab Emirates. (a) left palp, ventral; (b) left palp, retrolateral; (c) embolus tip and conductor, ventral; (d) eye arrangement, dorsal; (e) right chelicera, ventral.

Legs. Leg formula: II I IV III. Measurements of palp and legs (largest male): Palp 16.3 [5.5, 2.3, 2.8, 5.7], I 54.2 [14.6, 6.8, 14.5, 14.3, 4.0], II 57.2 [16.5, 7.5, 16.1, 15.5, 3.6], III 52.7 [15.7, 6.1, 14.3, 13.1, 3.5], IV 53.2 [15.9, 6.0, 14.5, 13.3, 3.5].

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