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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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The stone huntsman spiders inhabit semidry and dry deserts. Tectonic drifts have caused major changes in the position of the continents and consequently those of deserts. Many of the current deserts are geologically young, but in contrast, the world’s oldest desert is believed to be the Namib Desert, originating from some 55 MYA (Ward 2009). Since the close relatives of Eusparassus and Eusparassinae (e.g. Pseudomicrommata, Arandisa, Leucorchestris and Carparachne) are living in the Namib Desert and nearby regions, this area is a potential centre of origin of Eusparassus spp. This hypothesis of a southern African origin of Eusparassus is supported by the absence of representatives in the Americas, Madagascar and Australia (previous records from these regions proved to be misidentifications). Thus, Eusparassus does not have a Gondwanan distribution and probably evolved after the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, which was completed in Early Cretaceous at around 110–100 MYA (Briggs 1995). Diversification of the genus and area expansion probably occurred during the Tertiary.

Acknowledgments. I am thankful to Dr Peter Jäger (SMF) for his fruitful comments and suggestions on this manuscript and for his support as the scientific mentor for my PhD thesis.

Prof Dr Michael Türkay (SMF) supported my PhD programme as the scientific supervisor.

I am grateful to all of the collection curators listed in ―Material and Methods‖ paragraph for the loan of material (types and non-types). I would like to thank colleagues and friends who provided me with facilities to visit and work with scientific collection of their care: Marek Zabka (Zoological Institute Siedlce), Nikolaj Scharff (ZMUC Copenhagen), Jason Dunlop (ZMB Berlin), George & Janet Beccaloni (NHM London), Elise-Anne Leguin & Christine Rollard (MNHN Paris) and Rudy Jocqué (MRAC Tervuren) and all their colleagues.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species The following friends and colleagues assisted in this project by sending me fresh specimens and giving comments: Tharina Bird (Windhoek), Martin Forman (Prague), Charles R. Haddad (Bloemfontein), Sérgio Henriques (Lisbon), Vladimír Hula (Brno), František Kovařík (Prague), Kadir B. Kunt (Ankara), Dirk Kunz (Frankfurt am Main), Vláďa Trailin (Hradec Králové), Siegfried Huber (Oberuhldingen), Arnaud Henrard (Tervuren), Ambros Hänggi (Basel), Cristina A. Rheims (São Paulo) and Axel Schönhofer (Mainz). I would like to thank Vladimír Hula and Jana Nivobová (Brno) for their kind help during sampling in Ethiopia (2011). Dirk Kunz put his loaned Eusparassinae material from African collection at my disposal and all of his own samples from South Africa and Namibia. DAAD is acknowledged for providing financial support for DK field works.

I have received helpful assistance from Julia Altmann (SMF), who read the old-written collection labels and located historically changed names; Rowley Snazell (Swanage) kindly read the manuscript for English improvement; Dr Svetlana Nikolaeva (NHM, ICZN) gave very usful comments on the nomenclature; for these I am very thankful. The following colleagues helped by editing the correct spelling of the geographical names in: Namibia (Tharina Bird, Windhoek), South Africa (Astri Leroy, Roodepoort) and Algeria plus Morocco (Youcef Alioua, Batna). I am thankful to Dr Christoph Muster and two anonymous refrees for their constructive comments on the first version of the manuscript.

This research received support from the SYNTHESYS Project (http://www.synthesys.info/), which is financed by the European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 "Capacities" Program to visit NHM (London) and MRAC (Tervuren) collections. Senckenberg Research Institute provided financial support for the author to visit ZMUC (Copenhagen) and MNHN (Paris), travelling to Ethiopia and participation in two Arachnological congresses (Siedlce and Ljubljana). Majid Moradmand is the PhD student of the Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main. This study is a part of the PhD programme of Majid Moradmand conducted at the Senckenberg Research Institute which is financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran, which is gratefully acknowledged.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 44. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), pre-copulating movements. (a, c) male hold the female by chelicerae and legs; (b, d) male try to reach female’s epigyne from right side of female using his left palp, fixing and evaluating the position.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 45. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), copulation. (a–c) male’ right palp coupling female’s epigyne (a) dRTA inserted into the posterior slit between lateral lobes of epigyne; (b) palp expanded and embolus inserted into copulatory openings (CO); (c) palp expansion is over and embolus is thrown out from CO, palp remain in this position for few seconds; (d) the same process initiated by the left palp, this time from the right side of female.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 46. Habitus of alive specimens of the walckenaeri group. (a–e) Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826) (a, c–e from Mügla, Turkey, b from Negev Desert, Israel); (f) Eusparassus sp. from Somalia, S of Berbera. Photos by P. Jäger (a–e) and F. Kovařík (f).





Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 47. Habitus of species of the walckenaeri group. (a–c) Eusparassus laevatus (Simon, 1897) comb. nov. (a syntype female, b–c alive female specimen: b from Yemen, c from Somalia); (d–e) Eusparassus arabicus spec. nov. (d holotype male, e paratype female). Photos by V. Hula (b) and F.

Kovařík (c).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 48. Habitus of species of the dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus dufouri Simon, 1932; (c–f) Eusparassus levantinus Urones, 2006. (a, c) dorsal, (b, d, f) ventral, (e) frontal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 49. Habitus of species of the dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat.

nov., syntype female; (c–d) Eusparassus fritschi (Koch, 1873) stat. rev., syntype female; (e–f) Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon, 1874), female. (a, c, e) dorsal, (b, d, f) ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 50. Habitus of Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas, 1846), dufouri group, alive male specimen from Morocco. (a) entire animal, (b) close up, dorsal, (c) ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 51. Habitus of species of the dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus barbarus (Lucas, 1846) female from Algeria; (c–d) Eusparassus syrticus Simon, 1909, lectotype female from Tunisia. (a, c) dorsal, (b, d) ventral.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 52. Habitus and habitat of species of the vestigator group. (a–d) Eusparassus vestigator (Simon,

1897) comb. nov., (a–b syntype subadult female, c retreat under stone, d opened retreat with female and spiderlings inside); (e–f) Eusparassus pearsoni (Pocock, 1901) lectotype female. (a, e) dorsal, (b, f) ventral. Photos (c, d) by V. Trailin taken in Sof Omar, Ethiopia.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 53. Habitus of Eusparassus reverentia spec. nov., vestigator group. (a) holotype male from Burkina Faso, frontal; (b–c) paratype female from Nigeria (b dorsal, c ventral).

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 54. Habitus of species of the jaegeri group. (a) Eusparassus jaegeri spec. nov., alive male, holotype; (b–c) Eusparassus schoemanae spec. nov. (b holotype male, c paratype female), all from South Africa. Photo (a) by D. Kunz.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 55. Habitus of species of the jaegeri group. (a–b) Eusparassus jocquei spec. nov., paratype male from Zimbabwe; (c) Eusparassus borakalalo spec. nov., holotype female from South Africa.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 56. Habitus and ventral views of Eusparassus spp. (a) Eusparassus educatus spec. nov.

paratype male from Namibia; (b) Eusparassus tuckeri (Lawrence, 1927) comb. nov., female from Namibia; (c–d) Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock, 1901) (c syntype male from Pakistan, d syntype subadult male from Iran); (e–f) Eusparassus pontii Caporiacco, 1935, female from Ladakh, Himalayas, India.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 57. Cercetius perezi Simon, 1902, habitus and colouration. (a) alive male from Somaliland, near Berbera, Somalia; (b–c) preserved male from Wadi Matam, Wahiba, Oman (b ventral opisthosoma colour pattern, c frontal view). Photo (a) by F. Kovařík.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 58. Habitus of species of the doriae group. (a–b) Eusparassus doriae (Simon, 1874) syntype female from Iran; (c) Eusparassus maynardi (Pocock, 1901) lectotype female from Pakistan; (d) Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958 female from Afghanistan; (e–f) Eusparassus oculatus (Kroneberg,

1875) female from Uzbekistan.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 59. Eusparassus walckenaeri group. (a–b) Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826); (c–d) Eusparassus laevatus (Simon, 1897) comb. nov.; (e–f) Eusparassus arabicus spec. nov. (a, c, e) left male palps, ventral; (b, d, f) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 60. Eusparassus dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus dufouri Simon, 1932; (c–d) Eusparassus levantinus Urones, 2006; (e–f) Eusparassus atlanticus Simon, 1909 stat. nov. (a, c, e) left male palps, ventral; (b, d, f) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 61. Eusparassus dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus barbarus (Lucas, 1846); (c–d) Eusparassus fritschi (Koch, 1873) stat. rev.; (e–f) Eusparassus letourneuxi (Simon, 1874). (a, c, e) left male palps, ventral; (b, d, f) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 62. Eusparassus dufouri group. (a–b) Eusparassus oraniensis (Lucas, 1846); (c) Eusparassus syrticus Simon, 1909. (a) left male palp, ventral; (b, c) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 63. Eusparassus vestigator group. (a–b) Eusparassus vestigator (Simon, 1897) comb. nov.; (c–

d) Eusparassus reverentia spec. nov.; (e–f) Eusparassus pearsoni (Pocock, 1901). (a, c) left male palps, ventral; (b, d, f) epigynes, dorsal; (e) ventral opisthosoma.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 64. Eusparassus jaegeri group. (a, d) Eusparassus jaegeri spec. nov.; (b, e) Eusparassus schoemanae spec. nov.; (c, f) Eusparassus jocquei spec. nov.; (g) Eusparassus borakalalo spec. nov. (a–

c) left male palps, ventral; (d–g) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 65. Eusparassus tuckeri group. (a–b) Eusparassus tuckeri (Lawrence, 1927) comb. nov.; (c–d) Eusparassus educatus spec. nov. (a, c) left male palps, ventral; (b, d) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 66. (a–b, e) Cercetius perezi Simon, 1902; (c–d) Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock, 1901); (f) Eusparassus maynardi (Pocock, 1901); (g) Eusparassus pontii Caporiacco, 1935. (a, c) left male palps, (e) bulbus, ventral (b, d, f, g) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 67. Eusparassus doriae group. (a–b) Eusparassus doriae (Simon, 1874); (c–d) Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958; (e–f) Eusparassus kronebergi Denis, 1958. (a, c, e) left male palps, ventral; (b, d,

f) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 68. Eusparassus doriae group. (a–b) Eusparassus mesopotamicus Moradmand and Jäger, 2012;

(c–d) Eusparassus oculatus (Kroneberg, 1875); (e–f) Eusparassus potanini (Simon, 1895). (a, c, e) left male palps, ventral; (b, d, f) epigynes, dorsal.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 69. Distribution range of Eusparassus species.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 70. Distribution range of (a) Eusparassus walckenaeri group; (b) Eusparassus dufouri group.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 71. Distribution range of (a) Eusparassus vestigator group; (b) Eusparassus tuckeri and jaegeri groups.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species FIGURE 72. Distribution range of (a) Eusparassus doriae group; (b) Eusparassus incertae sedis and Cercetius perezi. (a, b) with the same scale.

Results: chapter 3.2: Systematics and zoogeography with revision of Afro-Arabian species

–  –  –

Audouin, V. (1826) Explication sommaire des planches d'arachnides de l'Egypte et de la Syrie.

In: Description de l'Égypte, ou Recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition de l'armée française. Historie Naturale (Paris), 1(4), 99–186.

Azarkina G.N. & Logunov D.V. (2006) Taxonomic notes on nine Aelurillus species of the western Mediterranean (Araneae: Salticidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 13, 233–248.

Barrientos, J.A. & Urones, M.C. (1985) La colección de araneidos del Departamento de Zoología de la universidad de Salamanca, V: arañas clubionoideas y tomisoideas. Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia, 9, 349–366.



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