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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 3. Eusparassus dufouri Simon, 1932, female from type locality (SMF), (A) epigyne, ventral (B) vulva, dorsal (C) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Abbreviations: AMLL—anterior margin of LL, CD— Copulatory duct, CO— Copulatory opening, EF— epigynal field, EFB— epigynal field bridge, FD— Fertilization duct, GP— Glandular process, GPo— Glandular pores, L—Lumen, LL— lateral lobes, MS— median septum, PMLL — posterior margin of LL, SS — slit sensillum, TL — Turning Loop, Scale bars: (A, B) 1 mm, (C) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

the specimens which had been misidentified. No material of Latreille can be traced in MNHN and it is generally understood that none exists. Consequently, it is necessary to designate a neotype for E. dufouri at this time to establish its identity, define the nominal taxon objectively and avoid taxonomic confusion with similar and closely related species in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. E. levantinus Urones, 2006), in Northern Africa [i.e. E. oraniensis (Lucas, 1846)] and in eastern Mediterranean (i.e. E. walckenaeri). There are two forms in the Iberian Peninsula, E. dufouri of uncertain identity, and E. levantinus, which was described by Urones (2006). The latter species is distributed in Eastern and Southern Spain while it is replaced by E. dufouri in western Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, a neotype is designated for E. dufouri from western Iberian Peninsula in the border of Portugal and Spain, in Montalvão.

Based on the distribution map presented by Urones (2006) and also distribution records of the present study, type locality is selected to be as far as possible from the distribution range of E.

levantinus. Specimens were freshly collected and DNA samples are available.

Doubtful record. Simon (1932: 890) stated that the single report of the species from France (Pyrenees-Orientales) was actually collected from a shipment from Spain, Iberia.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. Western Iberian Peninsula in Spain and Portugal, mostly under stones; under old tree bark in the southeast of Portugal (Barrancos Valley), including Eucalyptus trees. (S. Henriques, personal observation).

–  –  –

Eusparassus levantinus Urones, 2006: 108–112, figs 25–43 (description and illustration of male and female from Spain, holotype male and paratype female examined).

Type material examined. Holotype: male, SPAIN: Castellon Province, Almeria (La Mosquera), 20 May 2004, S. Montagud leg. (MVHN 200504LM1); Paratype: 1 female, Enix, Almeria, 18 April 1973, M. Rambla leg. (MNCN 20.02/16315) Other material examined. SPAIN: 1♂, Andalusia, Almeria, Cabo de Gata, 36° 43′ 18.8″ N, 2° 11′ 34.69″ W, 21 May 2011, S. Henriques leg. (SMF); 1♂, Andalusia, reared by S. Heist, 25 June 2005, B. Hayen ded. (SMF); 1♀, Andalusia, Medina-Sidonia, Algeleurus, 36°28′N 5°55′W, 300 m altitude, T. Zieger leg. (SMF); 1♀, Andalusia, Medina-Sidonia, Algeleurus, 36°28′N 5°55′W, 300 m altitude, T. Zieger leg. (SMF); 1♀, Andalusia, 4 September 2001, St.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Heist leg. (SMF); 1♀, Valencia Province: between Pego and Val de Ebo, 405 m altitude, Macchia with few interspred trees, under stone, 2 June 2010, S. Huber and A. Schönhofer leg.

(SMF) Diagnosis. Similar to E. dufouri but distinguished by shape of embolus tip, which is smaller, slimmer and pointed in ventral view, and dRTA which is straighter (Figure 4E–G); in vulva, glandular pores situated on a semicircular process which is fused to entire body of vulva (Figure 4D), in contrast they are present on a separated curved structure in E. dufouri females.

Redescription Male (n=3) Medium Eusparassus species; Total length: 12.4–14.8, prosoma length 5.9–7.8, prosoma width 4.7–6.2, anterior width of prosoma 2.3–3.3, opisthosoma length 6.5–7.0, opisthosoma

width 4.0–4.6. Eye diameters: AME 0.43, ALE 0.42, PME 0.36, PLE 0.46; eye interdistances:

AME-AME 0.29, AME-ALE 0.10, PME-PME 0.48, PME-PLE 0.58, AME-PME 0.32, ALEPLE 0.31, clypeus height at AME 0.35, clypeus height at ALE 0.40.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 posterior teeth, Cheliceral furrow without denticles.

Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.1 [3.1, 1.4, 1.3, 5.3], I 29.6 [8.1, 3.4, 7.1, 8.2, 2.8], II 32.8 [9.2, 3.9, 7.8, 9.1, 2.8], III 27.7 [8.2, 3.3, 6.4, 7.1, 2.7], IV 30.9 [8.9, 3.2, 7.3, 8.8, 2.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323/424, IV 322/422; Patella I–IV 000(1)/101; Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I–III 1014/2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis, with cymbium longer than tibia, embolic projection developed, embolus tip pointed proximad, dRTA strong and flattened, vRTA pointed in ventral view (Figure 4E–G).

Female (n=4) Total length: 17.6–19.7, prosoma length 7.1–8.7, prosoma width 5.8–7.0, anterior width of

prosoma 3.7–4.3, opisthosoma length 10.5–11.0, opisthosoma width 6.5–7.0. Eye diameters:

AME 0.42, ALE 0.41, PME 0.35, PLE 0.41; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.33, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.54, PME-PLE 0.56, AME-PME 0.51, ALE-PLE 0.43, clypeus height at AME 0.21, clypeus height at ALE 0.33.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 4. Eusparassus levantinus Urones, 2006, female paratype (A–D) from Almeria, Spain, (A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) epigyne, ventral, (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral;

Male (E–G) from Andalusia, Spain, (E) left palp, ventral, (F) left palp, retrolateral, (G) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral. Scale bars: (A–C, E, F) 1 mm, (D, G) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without denticles; basal segment of chelicerae at distal end with 1 bristle (Figure 4B).

Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.8 [3.1, 1.4, 2.1, 3.2], I 29.0 [8.2, 4.0, 7.0, 7.5, 2.3], II 32.2 [9.5, 4.2, 7.8, 8.4, 2.3], III 27.4 [8.3, 3.6, 6.5, 6.7, 2.3], IV 30.0 [9.1, 3.3, 7.3, 8.0, 2.3].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323/424, IV 322/422; Patella I– IV 000(1)/101; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis. Epigyne longer than wide; MS encircled entirely by AMLL, the latter fused together (Figure 4C); turning loop with antro-ventrad elongated tip (Figure 4D).

Colouration. Olive brown spider; ventral of opisthosoma with a dark V-shaped marking (like that of E. dufouri) but with an additional median band (Figure 23D).

Known geographical distribution and habitat. Eastern and southern Iberian Peninsula in Spain, mostly coastal areas under stones.

Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826) Figures 1B, 5 (A–G), 6 (A–G), 23A Philodromus walckenaerii Audouin, 1826: 390, pl. 6, fig. 1 (description of female, type not designated).

Philodromus linnaei Audouin, 1826: 390, pl. 6, fig. 2 (description of male, type not designated) [synonymy by Simon1906].

Drassus civilis Reuss, 1834: 207 (description of juvenile; holotype, immature, Egypt: Sinai: Tor, 1827 Rüpell leg., SMF 4575 examined).

Sparassus walckenaeri – Walckenaer, 1837: 585 (transfer).

Ocypete tersa C. L. Koch, 1837: 83, fig. 305 (description of female; from Greece, type not available) [synonymy by Levy 1989]; C. L. Koch, 1845: 39, figs 980–981.

Sparassus tersa – Simon, 1880: 291 (in part, material from Greece, MNHN, examined).

Eusparassus tersa – Järvi, 1912: 57, fig. 48, pl. 4, figs 4–8 (transfer); Järvi, 1914: 173.

Sparassus cambridgii Simon, 1874: 257 (description of juvenile, from Egypt) [synonymy by Simon 1880].

Sparassus validus Thorell, 1875a: 80 (description of female; holotype, female, Taur. Merid., Ent.etikett nr=232, Nordmann leg. MZH 20.492, examined) [synonymy by Levy 1989] – Thorell, 1875b: 124.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Sparassus cognatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876: 588 (description of female; syntypes, one female and 10 immatures, Egypt, not examined) [synonymy by Levy 1989].

Sparassus fontanieri Simon, 1880: 294 (description of male, holotype, locality not clear, MNHN, examined) [synonymy by Levy 1989].

Sparassus extensipes Karsch, 1880: 383, pl. 12, fig. 12. (description of male, holotype, male, Egypt:

Cairo, not examined) [synonymy by Simon1906].

Sparassus linnaei – Kulczyn'ski, 1901: 43 (transfer, one male examined from Cairo in MIZ).

Sparassus walckenaeri – Pavesi, 1880: 364; 4; Levy, 1989: 132–138, figs 3–18 Sparassus walckenaerius – Simon, 1880: 292.

Heteropoda civilis – Strand 1916: 36 (Unjustified combination).

Eusparassus walckenaeri – Strand 1908: 24; Simon, 1906: 1168; Denis, 1947: 50, pl. 2, figs 14–16.);

Deltshev, 2011: 28; Gabriel, 2011: 9–12, figs 2, 9.

Type material: (type female from Egypt not designated, unavailable, see notes below) Neotype: male, with label ―Egypt: Cairo‖ (30° 3' 0N, 31° 15' 0E), 1971 (SNSD).

Other material examined. EGYPT: 1♂, 1♀, with same data as for neotype (SMF); 1♂, Cairo, with label: ―Sparassus linnaei, Cairo, det. Kulczyński, F.1691‖ (MIZ 212984).

PALESTINE: 2♂♂, surrounding of Nablus, 25 June 1999, A. Hussein leg (CRB); 2♂♂, surrounding of Nablus, 6 May 1999, A. Hussein leg (CRB). ISRAEL: 1♀, Sede Boqer, Negev desert, between Béer Sheva and Mituzpe Ramon, 6–29 May 2003, M. Rezac leg.

(SMF); 2♀♀, 10 juveniles, Jerusalem, F.166 (MIZ 212984). LEBANON: 1♀, Amioun, 1944, H.B. Cott leg., (NHM 1950.3.30.124); JORDAN: 1♀, Dana Natural Reserve, Wadi Dana, (30° 41' N, 35° 37' E), under stones, 16 April 2004, J. Altman & J. Meier leg. (SMF, SD8);

1♀, Petra, Al-Habis, April 1983, J. Wittenberg & Kinzelbach leg., (SMF); 1♀, Amman, Pine forest, July 2007, J. Wiehele leg. (SMF); 2♀♀, Al-Bala, 10 km SE of Suwaylih, Al-Fuhays, summer 1980, F. Krupp & W. Schneider leg. (SMF); SYRIA: 13♂♂, 4♀♀, 5 juveniles,

Golan, camp Faüar, June 1981, K. Kollnberger leg. (NHMW); 1♀, Damascus (ZMB); IRAQ:

1♀, Al-Anbar Province: Lake Tharthar (33° 58' N, 43° 11' E), 23 March 1986, M. Carl leg.

(SMF); 1♀, Baghdad, Kálová leg. PGD 312003 (MMB); TURKEY: 1♀, Taurus Mountains, with label: [type, Sparassus validus Thorell 1875, Aranea, Taur. Merid., Ent.etikett nr=232] Nordmann leg. (MZH 20.492); 1♀, Muğla Province, Güllück Yeni Oba, 26 August 2010, R.

Zeelen & D. Kunz leg. (SMF); 1♂, Muğla Province, Bafa Gölü/Bafa Lake, 7 September 2010, R. Zeelen & D. Kunz leg. (SMF); 1♀, Ankara, Güvecci, 25 October 2006, D. Kunz leg.

(SMF); 1♂, Turkish Riviera, 25 km N of Anamur, mountain meadow, July 2007, S. Huber leg. (SMF); 1♀, Izmir, in crevices inside retreat, 24 April 1992, W. Braunstein leg. (SMF);

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

GREECE: 1♂, Laconia, 4 km NE of Jithion, with rivulet across the shore (Near East Excursion), 5 August 1980, R. Kinzelbach leg (SMF); 1♂, Northern Aegean region, Sámos Island, near Vouliótes [=Vourilótoi], (37° 47' N, 26° 51' 30'' E), 400 m Altitude, 25 June 2003, V. Vignoli leg (SMF); 1♀, Sámos Island, 26 June 2003, V. Vignoli leg. (SMF); 1♀, Lesbos Island, between Molivos and Kalloni, 3 July 2003, V. Vignoli leg. (SMF); 1♂, Sporades, Skiathos Island (39° 10' N, 23° 29' E), 31 May 1979, Liebegott leg. (SMF 30846/1); 1♂, Thessaly, Volos, A. Schönhofer leg. (SMF 30846); 1♀, Lemnos Island, August 1976, A. de Caboga leg (MHNG); 3♀♀, Cyclades, Paros Island, Parikia, 25 June 1968, A.

Senglet leg. (MHNG); 3♀♀, Cyclades, Naxos Island, Polichni, 6 August 1968, A. Senglet leg.

(MHNG); 1♀, Central mainland, Phthiotis (=Phthiotida), Tragana, (38° 38' N, 23° 06' E) 5 June 1980, A. Senglet leg. (MHNG); 1♀, Crete Island, Lassithi, Exo Mouliana, 18 May 1970, A. Senglet leg. (MHNG); 1♂, Crete Island, Aptera, (SMF4618); 1♂, Crete Island, Stanion, 16 May 1979 J. Wunderlich leg. (SMF); 1♂, Arcadia, Paralia Astros, marshy area along mouth river Tanos, 26 May 1998, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB); 1♂, Attica, Thoriki, Velatouri, 16 May 1974, P. Goemare leg. (CRB); 1♂, Euboea (=Evia) Island, Psachna E., 100m, stones around ruin in open maquis shrubland, 10 May 2001, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB); 1♂, Peloponnese, Geráki, (36° 59' 44.11'' N, 22° 43' 22.02'' E), 25 February 2011, F. Šťáhlavský & M. Peprný leg. (SMF); CYPRUS: 1♂, Phapos, May 1994, T. Zugles leg (SMF); 1♀, Protaras, Ayios Elias Village, 17 May 1997, P.J. Haymoz leg (MHNG); ITALY: 1♂, 4 juveniles males, Etruria (1896.VIII.181 NHMW).

Diagnosis. The species can be recognised by a combination of somatic and genital characters.

Males can be distinguished by hyaline and slender ET pointed retrolaterad in left palp and twisted at its distal end (Figure 5E). In female, AMLL not fused anteriorly (Figures 5F, 6A, C) (i.e., fused in E. dufouri); glandular pores located on a circular depression in vulva, behind loop (Figures, 5G, 6B, D) (i.e., E. mesopotamicus spec. nov. and several other species on a projection part). Mostly a patch of intermarginal denticles (3–20) is present in cheliceral furrow (Figures 5B, 6E–G) (usually absent or if present 1 or two denticles in other Eurasian species).


Male (n=33)

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 5. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), neotype male (A–E) from Cairo, Egypt (SMF).

(A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral; female (F–G) from type locality (F) epigyne, ventral (G) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars: (A–D, F) 1 mm, (E, G) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

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