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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Medium to large Sparassidae (body length 10–20 mm) Total length: 13.4–20.6, prosoma length 6.1–8.6, prosoma width 5.7–7.8, anterior width of prosoma 2.8–4.0, opisthosoma length 7.3–12.0, opisthosoma width 4.3–6.4. Eye diameters (neotype): AME 0.47, ALE 0.50, PME 0.48, PLE 0.55; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.25, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.50, AME-PME 0.50, ALE-PLE 0.31, clypeus height at AME 0.33, clypeus height at ALE 0.47.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 to 6 posterior teeth, Cheliceral furrow with denticles (Figure 5B); the number of denticles is variable (3–20), 3 to 10 denticles arranged in a single line (Figure 6E–G) or cluster of 10 to 20 denticles (Figure 5B); variation in denticles is not correlated to geographical distributions or to sexes. In one case even without denticles (one female from Damascus, Syria, ZMB). Basal segment of chelicerae at distal end in most cases with a single bristle (Figure 5B) or two bristles (Figure 6G);

Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs (neotype): Palp 13.2 [3.6, 1.8, 2.1, 5.7], I 44.6 [12.0, 4.7, 12.1, 12.3, 3.5], II 49.8 [13.5, 4.4, 14.1, 14.3, 3.5], III 41.5 [12.0, 4.0, 11.5, 11.0, 3.0], IV 46.0 [12.7, 4.0, 12.4, 13.5, 3.4].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/101, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000(1)/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium and tibia elongated, Cymbium longer than tibia, ET slender and hyaline, dRTA flattened dorso-ventrally, vRTA prominent and triangular in ventral view (Figure 5C, D).

Female (n=33) Total length: 16.9–25.3, prosoma length 6.0–10.0, prosoma width 5.2–8.6, anterior width of prosoma 3.6–5.0, opisthosoma length 10.9–15.3, opisthosoma width 6.5–10.5. Eye diameters (female from the neotype locality): AME 0.50, ALE 0.47, PME 0.46, PLE 0.51, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.24, AME-ALE 0.07, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.42, AMEPME 0.38, ALE-PLE 0.22, clypeus height at AME 0.43, clypeus height at ALE 0.52. Eyes subequal.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 to 5 posterior teeth, Cheliceral furrow with denticles.

Dentition variable, as in males. For instance, in three females (MHNG) obtained from Naxos

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 6. Eusparassus walckenaeri (Audouin, 1826), female copulatory organ variations, (A–B):

Female from Greece, Samos Island, (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (C–D):

Female from Turkey, Milas: (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (E–G) variations in chelicerae: number of bristles and intermarginal denticles, ventral. Scale bars: (A, C, E–G) 1 mm, (B, D) 0.5 mm.

Island (Aegean region, Greece), intermarginal denticle variations are observed. A female from Cyprus has no denticles at the cheliceral furrow but the copulatory organ is assumed to the species. Specimens from Greece (Paros, Lakonia, Skiathos, Samos and Lesbos Islands) in most cases have a line of denticles.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs (female from the neotype locality): Palp 9.8 [3.0, 1.5, 1.8, 3.5], I 31.5 [8.6, 3.7, 8.4, 8.5, 2.3], II 34.4 [10.0, 4.0, 9.1, 8.8, 2.5], III 29.6 [8.8, 3.5, 7.7, 7.4, 2.2], IV 32.6 [9.6, 3.1, 8.5, 9.0, 2.4].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000(1)/101; Tibia I–IV 2024/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis, with slight variations in epigyne relative length; epigyne may be elongated beyond epigynal furrow (Figure 6A, C); EFB in most specimens absent (Figures 5F, 6A), but if present only as thin bridge (Figure 6C).

Colouration. Dark brown to orange-brown in Turkey and Greece to milky cream in the Negev desert with darker patterns on prosoma; legs with distinct darker bands; dorsal opisthosoma with a series of small chevron-like patterns, ventral opisthosoma without marking (Figure 23A).

Remarks. Type material of E. walckenaeri was collected by French naturalist J. C. Savigny (1777–1851), who accompanied Napoleon on his military expedition to Egypt (1798–1801).

Savigny was responsible for studying and collecting invertebrates (Fransen et al. 1997). Back in Paris, he produced his famous plates for the "Description de l'Egypte" in which he illustrated the type specimens (plate 6, figures 1, 2) but without any description. Audouin (1826) briefly explained Savigny‘s illustrations. In his sketchy explanation, Audouin proposed two names for the same species in the same plate. He named the female, figure 1, ―Philodromus walckenaerii‖ and the male, figure 2, ―P. linnaei‖. The type specimens cannot be traced since he never designated any (Alderweireldt 1996) therefore the plates were treated as the only ‗types‘ for the name (Brignoli 1978). Since no name-bearing type material (other than the plate) is known to be extant, it is necessary to establish a neotype to maintain nomenclatural stability and reduce taxonomic confusion with morphologically similar species [i.e. E. doriae (Simon, 1874) stat. nov., E. kronebergi Denis, 1958 stat. nov.] within the distribution range.

Neotype designation. The detailed locality in which Savigny collected the types was not recorded. According to the history of the expedition, it is assumed that most likely the collecting took placed around Cairo, since the scientists‘ team spent most of the time there (Fransen et al. 1997). Thus, Cairo is though to be putatively the type locality of this species.

We select it from as nearly as practicable from the original type locality. Two males and one female sampled in Cairo were found in the collection of SNSD, and one male is here designated as neotype. The neotype male and the other male and female from the type locality, Cairo (determined by the neotype) fit well with the illustrations of original plate 6,

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

including general habitus, eye arrangements, chelicera and also accurate illustrated male palp (plate 6, figure 2d).

Note on doubtful records in Europe. A single male and four juveniles from Etruria, Italy (NHMW) were found to be conspecific with E. walckenaeri. Levy (1989) considered this material to be mislabelled, since there are no other records from Italy. In addition to these specimens, we found a vial containing three immatures from Sicily in NHMW which show somatic characters (presence of intermarginal denticles in chelicera, pale ventral opisthosoma and eyes arrangements) that agree well with those of E. walckenaeri description. Further records of E. walckenaeri in Europe from ―Crimea, Ukraine‖ (sub Sparassus validus) [misunderstanding by Simon (1880) and Levy (1989)] is probably incorrect since both the original description and label mention ―Taur.‖ which refers to Taurus Mountains in western Turkey, Anatolia.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. The distribution range is restricted to eastern Mediterranean countries from Egypt to Greece and its eastern most distribution to Iraq in the Middle East. They are found in semidry areas under flat stones. In Greece, it is recorded that they are trogloxene, sporadically occurring underground (Deltshev 2011).

Eusparassus mesopotamicus spec. nov.

Figures 7 (A–E), 8 (A–E) Type material. Holotype: male, IRAN: Khuzestan Province: Shush (32° 11' 39'' N, 48° 14' 37'' E), with label: Perse, Suse, 1904, de Morgan leg. (MNHN).

Paratypes (1♂, 2♀♀) IRAN: Khuzestan Province: 1♂ with same data as for holotype (MNHN); 1♀, Ahwaz, semiarid desert, 1961, Schübart leg. (SMF); 1♀, 20 km north of Ahwaz, March 1958, Frank leg. (SMF).

Additional material examined. 1♀, IRAQ: Najaf, 19 July 1937, W.P. Kennedy leg. (NHM 1949.1.4.14).

Etymology. The species is named after Mesopotamia (the Land of Rivers), largely corresponding to modern day Iraq, south-eastern Turkey and south-western Iran where the species is distributed. adjective.

Diagnosis. Males can be distinguished from other congeners by the robust embolus tip which is S-shaped and directed proximo-distad in left palp, ventral view (Figure 7E), females are

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

similar to those of E. walckenari but differ in having glandular pores on distal end of glandular projection of vulva (Figure 8B, D, E); they differ from females of E. doriae stat.

nov. in having AMLL of epigyne more extended and MS longer than wide (Figure 8A, C) in the latter species MS is wider than long.

FIGURE 7. Eusparassus mesopotamicus spec.

nov., holotype male from Shush, Khuzestan Province, Iran. (A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral. Scale bars: (A–D) 1 mm, (E) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 8. Eusparassus mesopotamicus spec.

nov., (A–B) paratype female, from Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, Iran: (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (C–D) paratype female, same locality, variations (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (E) female from Nejef, Iraq: variation left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars: (A, C) 1 mm, (B, D, E) 0.5 mm.

Description. Male (n=2) Males medium-sized; holotype, total length: 16.1, prosoma length 7.6, prosoma width 6.7,

anterior width of prosoma 3.5, opisthosoma length 8.5, opisthosoma width 5.5. Eye diameters:

AME 0.46, ALE 0.40, PME 0.35, PLE 0.40, AME-AME 0.30, AME-ALE 0.08, eye interdistances: PME-PME 0.52, PME-PLE 0.46, AME-PME 0.45, ALE-PLE 0.28, clypeus height at AME 0.35, clypeus height at ALE 0.43.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 7B). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.2 [2.5, 1.0, 1.2, 5.5], I 29.4 [8.2, 2.7, 8.1, 8.3, 2.1], II 32.2 [8.9, 3.0, 9.2, 8.6, 2.5], III 25.6 [7.3, 2.5, 7.2, 6.8, 1.8], IV 30.5 [8.6, 2.5, 8.1, 9.0, 2.3].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 001/101;

Tibia I–IV 2124/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium nearly two times longer than tibia, cymbium stout, dRTA shortened, when compared to cymbium, vRTA broad and not pointed (Figure 7C, D).

Female (n=3) Total length: 20.5–25.5, prosoma length 8.5–9.5, prosoma width 7.0–7.8, anterior width of

prosoma 4.3–4.7, opisthosoma length 12.0–16.0, opisthosoma width 7.2–9.5. Eye diameters:

AME 0.55, ALE 0.47, PME 0.42, PLE 0.47. Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.31, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.67, PME-PLE 0.68, AME-PME 0.55, ALE-PLE 0.38, clypeus height at AME 0.35, clypeus height at ALE 0.45.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 5 to 6 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.7 [3.5, 1.5, 2.0, 3.7], I 35.9 [10.3, 4.2, 9.5, 9.4, 2.5], II 39.3 [11.2, 4.5, 10.2, 9.8, 2.6], III 31.4 [9.3, 4.0, 8.3, 7.5, 2.3], IV 37.4 [11.3, 4.0, 9.7, 10.2, 2.2].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 000;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EFB present as narrow band, AMLL developed but not fused together, AMLL encircled partially MS (Figure 8A, C).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Cream to pale orange; ventral opisthosoma pale in colour.

Known geographical distribution. Iran (Khuzestan Province), Iraq (Najaf) and Turkey (Hakkari Province).

–  –  –

Sparassus doriae Simon, 1874: 254, pl. 5, fig. 6 (description of male and female; syntypes, one male and female, examined).

Sparassus tersa – Simon, 1880: 291 (Simon listed Sparassus doriae as synonym of S. tersa, material from Iran).Eusparassus tersus – Roewer, 1955: 775 (misidentification; one male, one female and 2 juveniles examined, from Iran, Roewer collection, SMF).

Type material. Syntypes: 1 male, 1 female, IRAN: Tehran Province: Tehran, 1862–63, G.

Doria leg. [(label: Jar n. 1663, Simon n. 1.557–Tehran (Doria) sub Eusparassus tersa] (MNHN).

Other material examined. 1♂ and 4♀♀, IRAN: Kerman Province: 1♂, 1♀, 2 juveniles, Jiroft, Maskun, [(label: Arachn. Coll. Rwr.-Ltd. No. 11454, Eusparassus tersus (C. L. Koch, 1838), Iran, Sabzawaran, Roewer det.1955), ―Osterreichische Iran-Expedition 1949/50‖], F.

Starmühlner, H. Löffler and P. Kaltenbach leg. (SMF RII/11454); IRAN: Yazd Province:

2♀♀, 10 km north east of Bafq, Bafq, 1258 m, 10 April 2004, V. Vignoli & P. Crucitti leg.

(SMF); 1♀, West of Baghdad-Abad, Taft, 1502 m, 9 April 2004, V. Vignoli & P. Crucitti leg.

(SMF). 1subadult ♀, 5 km south west of Taft, 1556 m, 13 April 2004, V. Vignoli & P.

Crucitti leg. (SMF).

Diagnosis. Males differ from other congeneric males by tip of embolus leaf-like and directed retrolatero-proximad in left palp, ventral view (Figure 9E), dRTA compared to E. walckenaeri is slimmer and bent proximally, dRTA and vRTA are more widely spaced (Figure 9C, D).

Females can be distinguished by epigynal field as long as wide (longer than wide in E.

mesopotamicus spec. nov.) and AMLL are not extended anteriorly (Figure 10A, C) (extended in E. walckenaeri).


Male (n=2) [syntype first] Prosoma length 6.7 (6.2), prosoma width 5.6 (4.7), anterior width of prosoma 3.1 (2.8), opisthosoma length 7.0 (6.7), opisthosoma width 4.5 (4.2). Eye diameters: AME 0.40, ALE 0.35, PME 0.33, PLE 0.36, Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 9. Eusparassus doriae (Simon, 1874) stat.

nov., male from Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran.

(A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral. Scale bars: (A–D) 1 mm, (E) 0.5 mm.

0.37, PME-PLE 0.37, AME-PME 0.37, ALE-PLE 0.25, clypeus height at AME 0.18, clypeus height at ALE 0.27.

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