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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 9B). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 8.5 [2.6, 1.2, 1.4, 2.9], I 30.4 [8.4, 3.1, 8.1, 8.2, 2.6], II 32.6 [9.3, 3.2, 9.0, 8.6, 2.5], III 27.7 [8.3, 2.9, 7.3, 7.1, 2.1], IV 32.2 [9.3, 2.7, 8.5, 9.2, 2.5].

Spination. Palp 131, 101, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I–IV 2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. as in diagnosis with cymbium longer than tibia, vRTA developed (Figure 9C, D).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 10. Eusparassus doriae (Simon, 1874) stat.

nov., (A–B) syntype female from Tehran, Iran (A) epigyne, (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (C–D) female from Bafq, Yazd Province, Iran (C) epigyne, (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars: (A, C) 1 mm, (B, D) 0.5 mm.

Female (n=5) Total length: 11.8–15.2, prosoma length 6.5–8.7, prosoma width 5.3–6.5, anterior width of prosoma 3.3–4.5, opisthosoma length 8.0–11.2, opisthosoma width 3.5–7.5. Eye diameters (syntype): AME 0.44, ALE 0.40, PME 0.36, PLE 0.38; Eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.36, PME-PLE 0.42, AME-PME 0.40, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus AME 0.24, clypeus ALE 0.35.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 or 4 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without denticles; Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 7.4 [2.2, 1.1, 1.6, 2.5], I 22.8 [6.5, 2.8,

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

6.0, 5.8, 1.7], II 25.6 [7.7, 3.2, 6.7, 6.2, 1.8], III 21.6 [6.6, 2.7, 5.6, 5.2, 1.5], IV 25.5 [7.8, 2.7, 6.6, 6.7, 1.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Epigyne/vulva. Epigyne as in diagnosis, EFB is wide, MS is wider than long (Figure 10A, C);

vulva as in diagnosis with glandular pores situated at distal end of glandular process (Figure 10B, D).

Colouration. [in ethanol] cream to pale orange, dorsal opisthosoma with a patch and series of small chevron-like patterns and additional dots, ventral opisthosoma pale.

Remarks. E. doriae stat. nov. is here re-established. The species was described by Simon (1874) based on material obtained by Italian naturalist Giacomo Doria from Tehran (1862– 63). Unfortunately, types in MCSN could not be traced and were most probably destroyed because of floods occurring in 1970 and 1990 (M.L. Tavano, personal communication).

However, in the Simon collection (MNHN) we found one male and one female (syntypes) from the same expedition, which were taken to Paris by Simon. After the original description by Simon (1874), he himself in 1880 mistakenly synonymised the species with Sparassus tersa (C.L. Koch), currently a junior synonym of E. walckenaeri. Following Simon, Roewer (1955) working on material of ―Austrian Iran-Expedition (Österreichische Iran-Expedition 1949/50)‖ from central Iran, Kerman Province misidentified the material as E. tersus.

Subsequently, Levy (1989) moved this species to E. walckenaeri. Sparassus fontanieri Simon, 1880 is another nominal species for which the type material was probably collected from Iran.

The type material was collected by M. Fontanier but the type locality is not clear, as stated by Simon (1880: 75): ―...origin uncertain, probably from Persia (=Iran)...‖. Despite not locating the type specimen, Levy (1989) synonymised E. fontanieri with E. walckenaeri. The holotype male was recovered by us from MNHN and proved to be a synonym of E. walckenaeri, as Levy (1989) clarified. However, we found out that E. doriae stat. nov. is the only widespread Eusparassus species in central Iran.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. This species is distributed in Central Iran (Tehran, Kerman and Yazd Provinces). It occurs under large flat stones in dry mountainous areas (V. Vignoli personal observation) and near orchards under stones (first author personal observation).

–  –  –

Eusparassus kronebergi Denis, 1958: 99, figs 26–28 (description of male and female; syntypes: one male, one female, examined, lectotype and paralectotype here designated).

Sparassus walckenaeri – Levy 1989: 134 (listed Sparassus kronebergi as synonym of S. walckenaeri).

Type material: Lectotype: male, AFGHANISTAN: Seistan, Faizabad, 14 February 1949, K. Paludan leg. (ZMUC 5671); Paralectotype: 1 female, Farah Province: Farah, (station 87), 18 June 1948, K. Paludan leg. (ZMUC 5675).

Other material examined. 2 ♂♂, INDIA: Rajasthan, Suratgarh, D. Hummel leg. (NRM).

Diagnosis. Males of E. kronebergi can be distinguished from other congeners by vRTA (compared to that of E. walckenaeri) not well developed (Figure 11C, D) and embolus tip directed retrolateralo-distad, in ventral view (Figure 11E); in contrast to E. walckenaeri, epigyne with MS as wide as long, and to E. doriae stat. nov., EF longer than wide (Figure 11F); vulva with a distinct crest laterally (Figure 11G).

Redescription.

Male (n=3) [lectotype first] Males medium-sized. Total length: 12.8–18.2, prosoma length 5.6–8.9, prosoma width 4.8– 7.6, anterior width of prosoma 2.6–3.7, opisthosoma length 7.2–9.3, opisthosoma width 4.5–





5.5. Eye diameters (lectotype): AME 0.37, ALE 0.33, PME 0.32, PLE 0.33, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.19, AME-ALE 0.07, PME-PME 0.40, PME-PLE 0.48, AMEPME 0.35, ALE-PLE 0.22, clypeus height at AME 0.23, clypeus height at ALE 0.38.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 posterior teeth; Cheliceral furrow without or with a single denticle, distal end of cheliceral basal segment with a single bristle (Figure 11B); Leg formula: 2 1 4 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.5 [3.5, 1.6, 2.0, 3.4], I 26.6 [7.4, 2.9, 6.7, 7.3, 2.3], II 28.0 [7.9, 3.0, 7.5, 7.2, 2.4], III 23.4 [6.8, 2.6, 6.0, 6.1, 1.9], IV 26.2 [7.8, 2.5, 7.0, 7.5, 2.4].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 001/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024/2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. As in diagnosis, with cymbium longer than tibia.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 11. Eusparassus kronebergi Denis, 1958 stat.

nov., (A–E) lectotype male from Faizabad, Sistan, Afghanistan. (A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral; (F–G) paralectotype female from Farah, Farah Province, Afghanistan (F) epigyne, (G) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars: (A–C, E) 1 mm, (D, F) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Female (n=1) paralectotype:

Prosoma length 4.8, prosoma width 3.9, anterior width of prosoma 2.6, opisthosoma length, opisthosoma width. Eye diameters: AME 0.34, ALE 0.30, PME 0.28, PLE 0.32, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.37, PME-PLE 0.31, AMEPME 0.26, ALE-PLE 0.16, clypeus height at AME 0.18, clypeus height at ALE 0.28.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 4 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 24=13 (leg IV and I are the same size). Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 6.6 [1.8, 0.9, 1.3, 2.6], I 18.6 [5.2, 2.2, 4.8, 4.7, 1.7], II 20.1 [5.9, 2.5, 5.3, 4.9, 1.8], III 16.5 [4.8, 2.1, 4.2, 3.9, 1.5], IV 18.7 [5.6, 2.1, 4.9, 4.5, 1.6].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321; Patella I–IV 000; Tibia I 1024, II 2024, III (1014)2024, IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide, EFB present (Figure 11F); vulva has two separate glandular parts located near a ridge laterally (Figure 11G).

Colouration. [in ethanol] pale brown, dorsal opisthosoma with a patch and series of small chevron-like patterns, ventral opisthosoma pale.

Remarks. Morphological evidence allows this species to be withdrawn from the synonymy (Levy 1989) with E. walckenaeri. Syntypes were collected in Afghanistan during "the 3rd Danish Expedition to Central Asia". These are one male and one female collected allopatrically. There is the possibility that they are not conspecific. Consequently, to designate a unique bearer of the name of the nominal species (Article 74), we select the male to be the lectotype of E. kronebergi stat. nov. to fix the status of the species. Two other males sampled from Rajastan were found to be conspecific. This is the first record of the species from India Known geographical distribution. Western Afghanistan; India: Rajastan (new record).

–  –  –

Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958: 100, fig. 29 (description of female; syntypes, two females, Afghanistan, examined). – Roewer, 1962: 4, figs 82–84 (description of male; Lund collection, not available).

Sparassus fuscimanus – Levy, 1989: 137, fig. 27.

Type material: Syntypes: 1 female, AFHANISTAN: Nuristan, Wama (35° 7' 15 N, 70° 44' 30 E), 2250 meters, under stone, 17 April 1948, K. Paludan leg. (ZMUC 5670); 1 female and 1 juvenile, Afghanistan: Central Afghanistam: Puistagoli, Koh-i-baba, 1 July 1948, N.

Haarløv leg. (ZMUC 5673).

Other material examined. 1♂, 5 ♀♀, AFGHANISTAN: Nangarhar Province: Jalal-abad (34° 25' 34 N, 70° 27' 5 E): countryside of Jalal-abad: 1♂, 01 March 1965, D. Povolnỳ leg.

(MMB); 10 km east of Jalal-abad: 1♀, 620 m altitude, 22 February 1966, Povolnỳ and Tenora leg. (18 MMB); 12–20 km east of Jalal-abad: 1♀, 600 m altitude, 8 March 1966, Povolnỳ and Tenora leg. (27 MMB); Jalal-abad: 1♀, 580 m altitude, 15 April 1967, D. Povolnỳ leg. (97 MMB); Jalal-abad: 1♀, 580 m altitude, 3 May 1967, D. Povolnỳ leg. (114 MMB); DareyheNur (34° 44' 11'' N, 70° 39' 28'' E), 1♀, 2470 m altitude, 19 March 1967, D. Povolnỳ leg. (114 MMB).

Diagnosis. Female epigyne similar to that of E. doriae stat. nov. in having EF as long as wide but can be differentiated by AMLL extended anteriorly (Figure 13C, E), vulva exhibits a lateral ridge which separates the hyaline part of copulatory duct from the more sclerotised part of internal duct system (Figure 13D, F), this ridge is absent in vulvas of E. doriae stat. nov.

Eusparassus fuscimanus can also be distinguished by the eye interdistances (Figure 13A), AME-ALE is spaced ½ of AME-AME (as in E. pontii) since in E. doriae stat. nov. this relative distance is ¼. Male can be distinguished from other Eusparassus males by long and enlarged embolus tip pointed proximad not covered by EM (Figure 12D).

Redescription.

Male (n=1) Total length: 16.1, prosoma length 8.1, prosoma width 6.4, anterior width of prosoma 3.5, opisthosoma length 8.0, opisthosoma width 6.0. Eye diameters: AME 0.43, ALE 0.40, PME

–  –  –

FIGURE 12. Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958, male from Jalalabad, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.

(A) eye arrangement, (B) left palp, ventral, (C) left palp, retrolateral, (D) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral. Scale bars: (A–C) 1 mm, (D) 0.5 mm.

0.33, PLE 0.38, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.19, AME-ALE 0.11, PME-PME 0.53, PMEPLE 0.47, AME-PME 0.31, ALE-PLE 0.24, clypeus height at AME 0.27, clypeus height at ALE 0.35.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 6 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.9 [3.5, 1.4, 1.3, 3.7], I 34.3 [9.3, 3.8, 9.2, 9.5, 2.5], II 37.4 [10.4, 4.1, 10.1, 10.3, 2.5], III 31.4[9.1, 3.5, 8.5, 8.2, 2.1], IV 35.3 [10.0, 3.4, 9.5, 10.0, 2.3].

Spination. Palp 131, 101(0), 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I– IV 2224; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. As in diagnosis with cymbium approximately two times longer than tibia, dRTA slender and pointed distally, vRTA broad (Figure 12B, C); stout ET not covered by EM (Figure 12D).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 13. Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958, (A–D) syntype female from Nuristan, Wama, Afghanistan (A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (E–F) syntype female from Puistagudi, Kohi-baba, Afghanistan (E) epigane, ventral (F) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Scale bars: (A–C, E) 1 mm, (D, F) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Female (n=7):

Total length: 16.1–18.3, prosoma length 5.9–8.0, prosoma width 5.0–6.3, anterior width of

prosoma 3.0–4.0, opisthosoma length 10.2–10.3, opisthosoma width 7.0–7.3. Eye diameters:

AME 0.42, ALE 0.36, PME 0.35, PLE 0.34, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.18, PME-PME 0.55, PME-PLE 0.53, AME-PME 0.47, ALE-PLE 0.41, clypeus height at AME 0.24, clypeus height at ALE 0.35.

FIGURE 14. Eusparassus fuscimanus Denis, 1958, variations in females from Jalalabad, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (E) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral, variation from Dareye-noor, Afghanistan.

Scale bars: (A, C) 1 mm, (B, D, E) 0.5 mm.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 to 8 posterior teeth, posterior teeth start with 3 large distal and 1–5 small proximal teeth, cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 13B).

–  –  –

Spination: Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321; Patella I–IV 000; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034. Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs of the largest female syntype: Palp 8.8 [2.8, 1.4, 1.6, 3.0], I 23.3 [6.7, 3.0, 5.9, 5.6, 2.1], II 27.0 [8.1, 3.4, 6.8, 6.7, 2.0], III 23.1 [7.0, 3.1, 5.8, 5.4, 1.8], IV 25.9 [7.9, 3.0, 6.5, 6.7, 1.8].

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis, EF as wide as long or slightly wider than long (Figure 14A, C); vulva with TL slightly variable in shape (Figure 14B, D, E).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Cream to pale orange, dorsal opisthosoma with a patch and series of small chevron-like patterns and additional dots, ventral opisthosoma pale.



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