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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Remarks. The type specimens were collected during ―the 3rd Danish Expedition to Central Asia‖ in Afghanistan conducted by K. Paludan (South and East) and N. Haarløv (North, West and Centre) from May to August 1948. The specimens, two females and one juvenile, were deposited in ZMUC and described later by Denis in 1958. Knut Lindberg (1892–1962) from Lund, Sweden, conducted an expedition to Afghanistan between 1957 and 1960. Later on, Roewer (1962) found one female and one male in the collection of Knut Lindberg (MZLU) and described the male for the first time. Unfortunately, this material could not be traced.

Fortunately, an important and rich collection of spiders from Jalal-Abad, Afghanistan exists in MMB which was included in the present study; several females and one male of E.

fuscimanus are properly described here.

Known geographical distribution and habitat preferences. Eusparassus fuscimanus is recorded from a dry wooded valley in Wama, Nuristan (1500 m) to higher elevation in the Baba Mountain range, central Afghanistan (3500 m). Spiders were found under stones.

Eusparassus oculatus (Kroneberg, 1875) Figures 15 (A–E), 16 (A–E) Sparassus oculatus Kroneberg, 1875: 29, pl. 5, fig. 45 (description of male and female; syntypes, one male and two females, examined). – Levy, 1989: 137, figs 28–29.

Eusparassus oculatus – Denis, 1958: 102, fig. 30 (transfer, one female from Afghanistan, examined);

Reimoser, 1919: 200; Schenkel, 1936: 9, 283; Song et al., 1999: 467, fig. 268; Jäger & Yin, 2001: 132.

Type material: Syntypes: 1 male, 1 juvenile, UZBEKISTAN: Samarqand province (=Turkestan), Samarkand, 1870, Narkevich leg. (ZMMU 4261); Syntypes: 2 females, 1 juvenile, UZBEKISTAN: Samarqand province (=Turkestan), Samarkand, 1870, Narkevich leg. (ZMMU 1358).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 15. Eusparassus oculatus (Kroneberg, 1875), male from Zarafshan, Uzbekistan. (A) eye arrangement, (B) left and part of right chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral. Scale bars: (A–D) 1 mm, (E) 0.5 mm.

Other material examined. UZBEKISTAN: 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Navoiy Province, Zarafshan, 20 April 1998, A. V. Gromov leg. (SZMN); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 1 juvenile, Babatagh, Mt. Range near Ak-Mechet, summer 1999, O. V. Lyakhov leg. (SZMN); 1 ♂, 2 juveniles, Navoiy Province, Zarafshan, 20 July 1998, A. V. Gromov leg. (SZMN); 1 ♀, Turkestan (SMF13366);

TAJIKISTAN: 2 ♀♀, Aktau Range, near Gasavuti, 16 April 1973, A. P. Kohonean leg.

(SZMN); 1 ♂, Gazavuti, Vakhsh riverside, 18 April 1974, A. P. Kononenko leg. (SZMN); 1 ♂, Hyssaz, Mt. Range near Shuzkhak, 23 May 1974, Naszetdinov leg. (SZMN);

TURKEMINISTAN: 1 ♀, 30 km NE of Gazhgy, Kushka, Badkhyz Reserve, 09 April 1993, D. Logunov leg. (SZMN); 1 ♀, 12 km N of Chemenedit, 18 April 1994, A. A. Zyuzin leg.

(SZMN); 1 ♀, Badkhyz Reserve, Kzyl-Dzhar Canyon, A. Gulikov leg. (SZMN); 1 ♂,

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Ashgabad, Croweb leg. (ZMB 31200); AFGHANISTAN: 1 ♀, Herat (st. 76), 14 June 1948, Central Asiatische Expedition. (ZMUC).

Diagnosis. This is the only Eusparassus species in Eurasia with AME strikingly larger than the other eyes (1.5 times larger than ALE) (Figure 15A). E. oculatus can also be recognizable by ET short and pointed proximo-ventrad (Figure 15E) (larger and stouter than in E.

kronebergi stat. nov.); vRTA broad and not well developed (Figure 15C, D) (in contrast, that of E. potanini enlarged and prominent); in contrast to other species‘ females, EFB absent and AMLL not developed around MS laterally (Figures 16A, B).


Male (n=8):

Total length: 10.1–15.1, prosoma length 5.1–6.3, prosoma width 4.5–5.6, anterior width of

prosoma 2.5–3.1, opisthosoma length 5.0–8.8, opisthosoma width 2.6–4.5. Eye diameters:

AME 0.51, ALE 0.33, PME 0.34, PLE 0.33; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.17, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.42, AME-PME 0.33, ALE-PLE 0.26, clypeus height at AME 0.27, clypeus height at ALE 0.33.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth, cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 15B). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.7 [3.2, 1.3, 1.6, 3.6], I 35.0 [9.5, 3.5, 9.2, 9.8, 3.0], II 38.6 [10.4, 3.7, 10.5, 10.8, 3.2], III 31.8 [9.2, 3.1, 8.5, 8.3, 2.7], IV 36.6 [10.5, 3.0, 9.5, 10.6, 3.0].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024/2124; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. As in diagnosis with embolus tip short, vRTA not well developed, dRTA slender and directed ventral-distad (Figure 15C, D).

Female (n=11):

Total length: 15.7–23.5, prosoma length 6.2–7.0, prosoma width 5.0–5.6, anterior width of prosoma 3.0–3.5, opisthosoma length 9.5–16.5, opisthosoma width 6.5–10.3.

Eye diameters (largest female, MM96): AME 0.49, ALE 0.35, PME 0.31, PLE 0.34, eye interdistances:

AME-AME 0.23, AME-ALE 0.07, PME-PME 0.48, PME-PLE 0.45, AME-PME 0.38, ALE


Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 16. Eusparassus oculatus (Kroneberg, 1875) (A) epigyne, ventral, of syntype female from Samarkand, Uzbekistan; (B–C) female from Zarafshan, Uzbekistan (B) epigyne, ventral (C) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (D) variation of vulva, female from Tajikistan, (E) variation of vulva, female from Turkmenistan.

Scale bars: (A, B) 1 mm, (C–E) 0.5 mm.

PLE 0.27, clypeus height at AME 0.31, clypeus height at ALE 0.40. Eyes other than AME are in similar size range, AME largest.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 to 5 posterior teeth. Cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 2413. Measurements of palp and legs (largest female, MM96): Palp 8.7 [2.5, 1.3, 1.8, 3.1], I 27.2 [7.6, 3.5, 7.0, 6.9, 2.1], II 29.8 [8.7, 3.5, 8.2, 7.2, 2.2], III 24.3 [7.3, 3.0, 6.3, 5.7, 2.0], IV 28.4 [8.5, 3.0, 7.2, 7.6, 2.1].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000/101; Tibia I–IV 2024/2124; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with AMLL parallel to epigastric furrow, AMLL not extended anterioraly, EFB absent (Figure 16A, B); in vulva, glandular pores are located at the tip of a projection, TL slightly variable in shape among different specimens (Figure 16 C–E).

Colouration [in ethanol]. pale cream, dorsal opisthosoma with a patch and series of small chevron-like patterns and additional dots, ventral opisthosoma pale.

Remarks. The type material was collected during the ―Scientific Expedition to Turkestan‖ conducted by Alexis Fedtschenko to Central Asia, Samarkand. After its original description by Kroneberg (1875) from Uzbekistan, it was recorded again by Denis (1958) from Afghanistan. Here we present further new records from Tajikistan and Turkmenistan based on material deposited in SZMN.

Known geographical distribution. Central Asia including Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and China: Xinjiang Uyghur.

Eusparassus potanini (Simon, 1895) Figure 17 (A–G) Sparassus potanini Simon, 1895: 340–341 (description of male; holotype, male, examined).

Eusparassus potanini Reimoser, 1919: 200.

Heteropoda nanjiangensis Hu & Fu, 1985: 92–93, figs 1–7. [description and illustration of male and female; female holotype, male paratype, label: Tulufan (Putaogou), Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 5.7. 1982, by J. L. Hu) IOZB, examined] – Hu & Wu, 1989: 310, figs 248, 1–7. New synonymy Sparassus nanjianensis – Levy, 1989: 134 (suspected synonymy).

Eusparassus nanjianensis – Song et al., 1999: 467, fig. 268H, K.

Eusparassus nanjiangensis – Jäger & Yin, 2001: 132.

Type material: Holotype: male, CHINA: Nan-Shan-Kou, Tjan-Shan, 10 June 1877, M.G.

Potanin leg. (ZIP 164).

Additional material examined. CHINA: Xinjiang Uyghur: 1 ♀, Kashi (Kashgar), 5 July 1975 (IOZB); 1 ♀, Kashi (Kashgar), 15 July 1996. (IOZB 107); 1 ♂, 1 ♀ and 2 juveniles,

Jarkend, 1909, G. Raquelle leg. (NRM); 1 ♀, Turpan, Jh. Basfus leg. (ZMB); 2♀♀, (Label:

Turkestan): Kashgar. (SMF 6085); 1 ♂, 1 immature ♀, Kashgar, E. Turkestan D. Lamsdell leg. (NHM 1889.4.25.2-3).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Diagnosis. Males of E. potanini are characterised by a combination of characters including beak-like dRTA, a deep retro-lateral incision at proximal part of cymbium (Figure 17C) and broad retrolatero-distad embolus tip (Figure 17E); in female epigyne, EFB present but distinctly separated from AMLL, approximately as long as MS length (Figure 17F).


Male (n=4) [Holotype first] Males medium-sized. Total length: 14.2–17.3, prosoma length 7.4–7.8, prosoma width 6.2– 6.6, anterior width of prosoma 3.1–3.3, opisthosoma length 6.8–9.5, opisthosoma width 4.4– 5.1.

Eye diameters (holotype): AME 0.47, ALE 0.44, PME 0.36, PLE 0.45, AME-AME 0.22, eye interdistances: AME-ALE 0.10, PME-PME 0.42, PME-PLE 0.46, AME-PME 0.31, ALE-PLE 0.21, clypeus height at AME 0.37, clypeus height at ALE 0.42.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 or 5 posterior teeth. Cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 17B). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.3 [3.2, 1.5, 1.7, 3.9], I 35.6 [10.0, 3.4, 9.5, 9.3, 2.4], II 38.9 [10.6, 4.1, 10.7, 10.8, 2.7], III 31.6 [9.6, 3.4, 8.8, 8.5, 2.3], IV 36.6 [10.5, 3.4, 10.0, 10.3, 2.4].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322/321; Patella I–IV 101; Tibia I– IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Palp. As in diagnosis with dRTA proximally wide and pointed distally, vRTA is triangular in ventral view (Figure 17C).

Female (n=6):

Total length: 15.7–19.6, prosoma length 7.3–8.1, prosoma width 6.0–7.0, anterior width of prosoma 3.5–4.0, opisthosoma length 8.4–11.5, opisthosoma width 6.0–8.1.

Eye diameters: AME 0.48, ALE 0.40, PME 0.38, PLE 0.43, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.13, PME-PME 0.47, PME-PLE 0.50, AME-PME 0.36, ALE-PLE 0.23, clypeus height at AME 0.38, clypeus height at ALE 0.43.

Chelicerae as in males. Cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 2 4 1 3.

Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 9.4 [2.8, 1.3, 1.7, 3.6], I 31.6[9.0, 3.8, 8.4, 8.3, 2.1], II 33.7 [9.8, 3.8, 9.2, 8.5, 2.4], III 28.4 [8.6, 3.4, 7.5, 6.7, 2.2], IV 32.2 [9.7, 3.2, 8.6, 8.3, 2.3].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000; Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 17. Eusparassus potanini (Simon, 1895), (A–E) holotype male from Nan-Shan-Kou, TjianShan, China.

(A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral, (C) left palp, ventral, (D) left palp, retrolateral, (E) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral; (F–G) female from Jarkend, Oyghur Autonomous region, China (F) epigyne, (G) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars: (A–D, F) 1 mm, (E, G) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with EF longer than wide, AMLL well developed anteriorly but not encircling MS entirely, EFB distinctly separated from AMLL (Figure 17F); glandular pores located on a globular process of vulva (Figure 17G).

Colouration [in ethanol]. cream to dark yellow, ventral opisthosoma pale.

Remarks. The description and illustration of E. nanjiangensis (sub Heteropoda nanjiangensis) by Hu and Fu (1985), as well as examination of the type series, match the male holotype of E. potanini. Additional females (along with sympatric males) examined from around the type locality, revealed conspecifity of them with the holotype female of E.

nanjiangensis. Herewith, this species is proposed as a junior synonym of E. potanini.

Known geographical distribution. Autonomous region in Xinjiang Uyghur, China, the most northeastern distribution range of Eusparassus species.

–  –  –

Eusparassus pontii Caporiacco, 1935: 216, pl. 6, fig. 4 (description of female; syntypes, two females, examined).

Type material: Syntypes: 1 female, PAKISTAN: Karakoram, Pajue oasis, 3500 m, 28 July 1929 (MNM); 1 female, Tsock meadow, 3940 m, 11 May 1929 (MNM); 1 juvenile, Tolti oasis, 2400 m, 20 April 1929 (MNM).

Additional material examined. 1 ♀, 2 immatures, INDIA: Kashmir: 1 ♀, 1 juvenile, Ladakh, Shey, Trockerhay, 3400 m, 2 June 1976, J. Martens leg. (SMF); 1subadult female, Ladakh, J. Martens leg. (SMF).

Diagnosis. Epigyne resembles that of E. kronebergi stat. nov. in having EFB fused to AMLL bordering MS (Figure 18C) but differ from it by the presence of a strong continuous ridge at lateral side of vulva and one large glandular process (Figure 18D, E), in contrast vulva of E.

kronebergi stat. nov. has two small and separated glandular parts; It can also be distinguished

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 18. Eusparassus pontii Caporiacco, 1935, (A–D) syntype female from Karakoram, Pakistan (A) eye arrangement, (B) left chelicera, ventral (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorsolateral; (E) variation of left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral.

Scale bars: (A–C) 1 mm, (D, E) 0.5 mm.

by the eye interdistances: AME-ALE spaced ½ of AME-AME (as in E. fuscimanus) but differ from this later species in having EF longer than wide (Figure 18C).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia


Female (n=3):

Total length: 14.9–18.9, prosoma length 6.4–9.1, prosoma width 5.7–7.8, anterior width of prosoma 3.2–4.7, opisthosoma length 8.5–9.8, opisthosoma width 6.5–7.4. eyes are the same size, eye diameters: AME 0.39, ALE 0.41, PME 0.40, PLE 0.40; eye interdistances: AMEAME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.43, PME-PLE 0.62, AME-PME 0.53, ALE-PLE 0.35, clypeus height at AME 0.32, clypeus height at ALE 0.46.

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