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«Taxonomic Revision, Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the huntsman spider genus Eusparassus (Araneae: Sparassidae) Dissertation for attaining ...»

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Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 4 to 6 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles (Figure 18B). Leg formula: 21=43. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 10.6 [3.3, 1.6, 1.9, 3.8], I 34.7 [9.6, 4.3, 8.7, 9.5, 2.6], II 37.7 [10.7, 4.5, 10.1, 9.6, 2.8], III 31.1 [9.5, 3.8, 8.2, 7.3, 2.3], IV 34.6 [10.3, 3.9, 8.8, 9.1, 2.5].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 321/322; Patella I–IV 000;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis with two large black triangular LL, AMLL not fused but bordered by EFB (Figure 18C); Vulva with a bulge at the area of glandular processes and marked by a continuous ridge (Figure 18D, E).

Male. Unknown.

Colouration [in ethanol]. Reddish brown, dark brown chelicera, dorsal opisthosoma with a patch and series of small chevron-like patterns and additional dots, ventral opisthosoma with pale markings.

Remarks. The type specimens were collected during ―the Italian Mission to Karakoram (1929-VII)‖. One of the type localities is Pajue, a campsite in K2 Mountain. The species is recorded from high elevations (~4000 m), the highest altitude recorded for Sparassidae so far.

This is the first record of the species after its original description outside the type locality in Indian Himalaya, Ladakh.

Known geographical distribution and habitat. High altitudes in mountainous Himalaya in Pakistan: Karakoram, K2 Mountain and India (new country record): Ladakh.

–  –  –

Sparassus xerxes Pocock, 1901: 489–490 (description of male and female; syntypes, examined).

Olios xerxes – Gravely 1931: 240–241, figs 5A, 6A (transfer); Sethi & Tikader 1988: 35, figs 157– 162.

Type material: Syntypes: 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 10 immatures, IRAN: Bushehr Province: 1 male, 1 female, 1 juvenile, Bushehr (sub Bushier), F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 1882.109); 4 subadult males, 3 juveniles, Port Reshire near Bushier, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 0.5.9.36.41); 1 subadult male, 1 subadult female, 1 juvenile, Bushier, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 7.88.33); 1 male, PAKISTAN: Baluchistan Province: Ormara, Makran Coast, F.W. Townsend leg.

(NHM 1899.10.6.7); 1 male, Ormara, Makran Coast, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 0.5.6.20).

Additional material examined. 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀, PAKISTAN: 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀, Azad Kashmir: Panjur (Mozaffarabad: Kupwara, 34° 28' 10" N, 73° 39' 0" E), E. Zugmayer leg. (ZSM A20110058);

1♀, Azad Kashmir: Kedsch, E. Zugmayer leg. (ZSM A20110051).

Diagnosis. Large Eusparassus species (largest female: body length 30 mm, legspan 14 cm), with diagnostic vase-like black marking on venter of opisthosoma in both genders (Figure 23B) which is absent in most Eurasian species (except E. dufouri and E. levantinus which is V-shaped). Palp similar to that of E. fuscimanus but differing in relative cymbium/tibia length: cymbium more than two times longer than tibia in E. fuscimanus, as opposed to E.

xerxes, less than two times. ET more extended distally in E. fuscimanus than E. xerxes (Figure 19A–C).

Redescription.

Male (n=4):

Total length: 21.3–24.8, prosoma length 10.8–12.3, prosoma width 9.5–10.0, anterior width of

prosoma 5.4–5.8, opisthosoma length 10.5–12.5, opisthosoma width 7.0–7.7. Eye diameters:

AME 0.61, ALE 0.60, PME 0.57, PLE 0.60; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.32, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.61, PME-PLE 0.57, AME-PME 0.64, ALE-PLE 0.40, clypeus height at AME 0.41, clypeus height at ALE 0.51.

Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 or 4 posterior teeth. Cheliceral furrow without denticles. Four thick inclined bristles at distal end of basal segment (Figure 19E). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3.

Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 15.2 [5.3, 2.2, 2.6, 5.1], I 56.7 [16.2, 5.3, 15.7, 15.8,

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 19. Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock, 1901) comb.

nov., (A–C) syntype male from Ormara, Makran coast, Pakistan: (A) left palp, ventral, (B) left palp, retrolateral, (C) tip of embolus and conductor, ventral; (D–F) syntype male from Bushehr, Persian Gulf coast, Iran: (D) eye arrangement,

–  –  –

(E) left chelicera, ventral, (F) tip of embolus and conductor from left palp, ventral. Scale bars: (A, B, D, E) 1 mm, (C, F) 0.5 mm.

3.7], II 63.1 [17.5, 6.0, 17.3, 18.5, 3.8], III 53.5 [15.7, 5.5, 14.5, 14.4, 3.3], IV 60.3 [17.0, 5.3, 16.3, 18.0, 3.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 000/001, 1111; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000/101;

Tibia I–IV 2024/23(2)24; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034/3036.

Palp. As in diagnosis with dRTA strongly bent and vRTA is not well developed, palp generally elongated, cymbium longer than tibia (Figure 19A, B); ET pointing proximoventrad (Figure 19C, F).

Female (n=6):

Total length: 21.5–29.8, prosoma length 10.5–13.0, prosoma width 8.4–10.7, anterior width of

prosoma 6.0–7.3, opisthosoma length 11.0–16.8, opisthosoma width 8.2–10.5. Eye diameters:

AME 0.63, ALE 0.62, PME 0.60, PLE 0.64; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.43, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.70, PME-PLE 0.78, AME-PME 0.70, ALE-PLE 0.50, clypeus height at AME 0.55, clypeus height at ALE 0.60.





Chelicerae with 2 anterior and 3 or 4 posterior teeth. Cheliceral furrow without denticles. Leg formula: 2 4 1 3. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 15.5 [4.8, 2.3, 3.2, 5.2], I 51.9 [14.7, 6.1, 13.3, 14.5, 3.3], II 55.3 [16.1, 6.2, 15.0, 14.7, 3.3], III 47.1 [14.5, 5.5, 12.5, 11.8, 2.8], IV 52.4 [15.7, 5.5, 13.7, 14.3, 3.2].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322; Patella I–IV 000 (001);

Tibia I–IV 2024–21(2)24; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034 (3036).

Epigyne/vulva. EF longer than wide, AMLL well developed but not fused together, EFB present but not combined to AMLL; EF longer than wide (Figure 20A, C); vulva generally short and compact, glandular pores situated on a widened semicircular process (Figures 20B, D).

Colouration [in ethanol]. Prosoma and legs reddish brown with creamy opisthosoma, ventral opisthosoma as diagnosis.

Remarks. Gravely (1931), using an unreliable character at generic level (number of distal bristles at basal segment of chelicerae), transferred E. xerxes comb. nov. (sub Sparassus and along with unjustified former junior synonyms: E. pearsoni comb. nov. and E. maynardi comb. nov.) to Olios. Eusparassus pearsoni comb. nov. and E. xerxes comb. nov. have three and four bristles, respectively, whereas one bristle appears in most Eusparassus spp. This is

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 20. Eusparassus xerxes (Pocock, 1901) comb.

nov., (A–B) syntype female from Bushehr, Persian Gulf coast, Iran: (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral; (C–D) female from

Kedsh, Azad Keshmir, Pakistan: (C) epigyne, ventral (D) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral. Scale bars:

(A, C) 1 mm, (B, D) 0.5 mm.

the largest Eusparassus species in Eurasia (legspan 14 mm). After its original description from Makran coast in Iran and Pakistan (Pocock 1901), we describe conspecifics from Central Pakistan in Kashmir. The species exhibit dorsal tibial spines normally absent in other

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Eusparassus species. Ventral marking of opisthosoma resembles some Eusparassus species in African Sahara and Arabia.

Known geographical distribution. From Southern Iran (Bushehr port in the Persian Gulf) to Makran Coast and Central Pakistan (Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir Provinces).

Eusparassus maynardi (Pocock, 1901) comb. nov. stat. nov.

Figure 21 (A–E) Sparassus maynardi Pocock, 1901: 490 (description of female and male; syntypes, one adult and two subadult females, three subadult males, lectotype adult female and paralectotypes immatures here designated) [see note below].

Olios xerxes – Gravely 1931: 240–241 (in part, misidentification and unjustified synonymy); Sethi & Tikader 1988: 35 (in part, misidentification).

Type material: Lectotype: female, PAKISTAN: Baluchistan Province, Baluchistan, F.W.

Townsend leg. (NHM 1900.3.13.5.6); Paralectotypes: 2 subadult males and 1 immature female: 1 subadult male, Baluchistan, F.W. Townsend leg. (NHM 1900.3.13.5.6); 1 subadult male, 1 subadult female, Sindh Province, Jacobabad, H.M. Phipson leg. (NHM 1899.4.10.24.29).

Note. The type material of E. maynardi consists of one adult female and several immatures.

Consequently, in order to maintain species identity, the adult female is designated here as lectotype.

Additional material examined. PAKISTAN: 2♀♀, Sindh Province: with label ―Jacobabad, H.M. Phipson/Sparassus pallescens Pocock Type‖, Jacobabad, H.M. Phipson leg. (NHM 1899.7.10.27. 9); 1♀, Azad Kashmir: Kedsch, E. Zugmayer leg. (ZSM A20110052) Diagnosis. The combination of characters, including absence of EFB, long slender epigyne and not fused AMLL (Figure 21A, E) distinguishes E. maynardi comb. nov. from remaining congeners. This species lacks any black marking on venter of opisthosoma (unlike E. xerxes comb. nov.).

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 21. Eusparassus maynardi (Pocock, 1901) comb.

nov. stat.nov., (A–D) lectotype female from Baluchistan, Pakistan: (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral (C) eye arrangement, (D) left chelicera, ventral, (E) variation of epigyne, ventral, female from Jacobabad, Sindh Province, Pakistan. Scale bars: (A, C–E) 1 mm, (B) 0.5 mm.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

Redescription.

Female (n=4) [lectotype is the largest female]:

Total length: 15.7–20.4, prosoma length 7.0–9.2, prosoma width 6.0–7.6, anterior width of prosoma 3.4–4.3, opisthosoma length 8.7–11.2, opisthosoma width 5.0–8.1. Eye diameters of (lectotype): AME 0.54, ALE 0.47, PME 0.44, PLE 0.45, eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.27, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.46, PME-PLE 0.53, AME-PME 0.35, ALE-PLE 0.26, clypeus height at AME 0.48, clypeus height at ALE 0.58.

Chelicera with 2 anterior and 4 to 6 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles; one bristle at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Figure 21D). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3.

Measurements of palp and legs (lectotype): Palp 11.6 [3.5, 1.7, 2.3, 4.1], I 37.3 [10.4, 4.5, 10.1, 10.0, 2.3], II 40.4 [11.6, 4.6, 11.1, 10.5, 2.6], III 34.4 [10.4, 4.2, 9.3, 8.3, 2.2], IV 39.1 [11.1, 4.0, 10.5, 10.8, 2.7].

Spination. Palp 131, 001, 1111, 1013; Legs: Femur I–III 323, IV 322(3); Patella I–IV 000;

Tibia I–IV 2024; Metatarsus I–III 2024, IV 3034.

Epigyne/vulva. As in diagnosis, with EF longer than wide, MS partially sclerotised (Figure 21A, E); longitudinal ridge at lateral side of vulva, glandular pores located on a semispherical process (Figure 21B).

Male. Unknown.

Colouration [in ethanol]. Yellowish brown with irregular darker pattern on prosoma,, ventral opisthosoma without marking.

Remarks. Additional conspecific females have been found close to the type locality in Baluchistan. In NHM there were two females from Jacobabad, Pakistan labelled by Pocock under name ―Sparassus pallescens‖. The name has never been published and looks to be a provisional name by Pocock. We found these females to be conspecific with E. maynardi comb. nov. It seems that Gravely (1931) considered generic diagnostic characters of the genus Eusparassus to synonymise this species (as well as E. pearsoni comb. nov.) with E.

xerxes comb. nov. He stated that he failed to distinguish E. maynardi ―vulva‖ (=epigyne) from those of the latter species.

Known geographical distribution. Pakistan: Baluchistan, Sindh and Azad Kashmir Provinces.

–  –  –

Sparassus pearsoni Pocock, 1901: 492–493 (description of female; syntypes examined, lectotype and paralectotypes designated) [see notes below].

Olios xerxes – Gravely 1931: 240–241 (in part, misidentification and unjustified synonymy); Sethi & Tikader 1988: 35 (in part, misidentification).

Type material: Lectotype: female, INDIA: Poona, Ghats, Madan leg. (NHM 99.11.2.177.199); Paralectotypes: INDIA: 13 ♀♀ and 30 juveniles, same data as for lectotype (NHM 99.11.2.177.199); 3 ♀♀, with label ―Sparassus pearsoni Poc. East Khandesh, R. Pearson coll. Robt. Wroughton (p.)‖ (NHM 99.9.21.5.24.525); 33 ♀♀, with label: ―Poona Dist., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc./ Poona Dist‖ (NHM 1899.9.21.526-546); 85 ♀♀ and several immatures, with label ―Sparassus pearsoni Poc. Pimparner (W. Khandesh), R.

Pearson coll. Robt. Wroughton (p.)‖ (NHM).

Note. Among this relatively huge number of syntypes, we found several immature specimens of Olios sp. and Eusparassus sp. Hence, to maintain the status and verify the identity of the species, an adult female from Poona, Ghats in India is designated as lectotype.

Diagnosis. Eusparassus pearsoni comb. nov. can easily be distinguished from remaining species by its peculiar MS of epigyne heart-shaped and fully hardened and sclerotised (Figure 22A, E).

Redescription. Female (n=135):

Total length: 16–21, prosoma length 7.5–9.4, prosoma width 6.4–8.2, anterior width of prosoma 4.0–5.2, opisthosoma length 8.5–11.6, opisthosoma width 5.2–6.8. Eyes of lectotype, eye diameters: AME 0.62, ALE 0.45, PME 0.38, PLE 0.44; eye interdistances: AME-AME 0.30, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.68, PME-PLE 0.75, AME-PME 0.48, ALE-PLE 0.32, clypeus height at AME 0.53, clypeus height at ALE 0.61 (Figure 22C).

Chelicera with 2 anterior and 3 or 4 posterior teeth; cheliceral furrow without denticles; three bristles at distal end of cheliceral basal segment (Figure 22D). Leg formula: 2 4 1 3.

Results: Chapter 3.1: Eusparassus in Eurasia

FIGURE 22. Eusparassus pearsoni (Pocock, 1901) comb.

nov.stat.nov., (A–D) lectotype female from Poona, western Ghats, India: (A) epigyne, ventral (B) left vulva, anterio-dorso-lateral (C) eye arrangement, (D) left chelicera, ventral; (E–F) paralectotype female from Eastern Khandesh, India, (E)

–  –  –



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