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«Summary Report Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass Title of the Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass Client: Glass for Europe November 2010 / ...»

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Summary Report

Life Cycle Assessment

of Float Glass

Title of the Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass

Client: Glass for Europe

November 2010 / revised on February 2011

Authors:

Viviana Carrillo Usbeck

Julia Pflieger

Tianyin Sun

Hauptstraße 111 – 113

PE INTERNATIONAL AG 70771 Leinfelden – Echterdingen

+49 711 341817 – 70

Phone

Contact person: +49 711 341817 – 25

Fax Julia Pflieger E-Mail j.pflieger@pe-international.com Internet www.pe-international.com Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Figures

List of Tables

1 Introduction

2 System description

3 Data quality

4 Gate-to-Gate / Cradle-to-Gate Data

5 Life Cycle Impact Assessment

5.1 Global warming potential

5.2 Primary energy demand

5.3 Eutrophication potential

5.4 Acidification potential

5.5 Photochemical ozone creation potential

ANNEX I: Primary data of float glass provided by GfE

ANNEX II: Description of Selected Inventories and Impact Categories

i Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass List of Figures Figure 1: Cradle-to-gate system model of float glass

Figure 2: Total GWP for 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 3: Total GWP main contributing emissions per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate......... 12 Figure 4: GWP from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate........... 13 Figure 5: GWP from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 6: Total PED per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 7: PED from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate............. 15 Figure 8: PED from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 9: Total EP per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 10: Total EP main contributing emissions per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate.......... 17 Figure 11: EP from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate............. 17 Figure 12: EP from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 13: Total AP per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 14: Total AP main contributing emissions per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate.......... 20 Figure 15: AP from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate............. 21 Figure 16: AP from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 17: Total POCP per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure 18: Total POCP main contributing emissions per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate..... 23 Figure 19: POCP from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate........ 23 Figure 20: POCP from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate

Figure A 21: Acidification Potential [Heijungs et al. 1992]

Figure A 22: Eutrophication Potential [Heijungs et al. 1992]

Figure A 23: Greenhouse effect [Heijungs et al. 1992]

Figure A 24: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential [Heijungs et al. 1992]

–  –  –

List of Tables Table 1: Gate-to-gate input/output data per 1kg of float glass

Table 2: Secondary upstream data used in GaBi model

–  –  –

1 Introduction The following report was set-up in the context of a study developing an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) for windows / transparent components commissioned by ift Rosenheim.

Glass for Europe (GfE) participated within this study by providing data describing the production of float glass used as part of a window.

This report provides a summary of the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of one kilogram of float glass as a final product. All other parts of the window (e.g. window frame) or further processing of the float glass (e.g. coating) remain excluded from this overview.

The gate-to-gate data (mass and energy flows) was provided by GfE as regional average across the European industry for float technology. The cradle-to-gate LCI results were modelled and calculated by PE INTERNATIONAL using the GaBi 4 database 2006 1.

Furthermore a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) was performed.

This report is for Glass for Europe’s use only and / or use approved by Glass for Europe.

This interim report does not represent a complete Life Cycle Assessment according to ISO standard.

GaBi Software and data base for Life Cycle Engineering, PE International AG, www.gabi-software.com Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass 2 System description Although today, flat glass comes in many highly specialised forms intended for different products and applications (construction, automotive and solar-energy), the following study covers the data needed up to the production of float glass by way of the float process; the downstream processes needed to coat float glass are not included.

The study includes upstream processing and production of materials and energies that make up the production of the stated functional unit (one kg of float glass as a final product). Except for slag and glass cullet as no previous treatment was included before its recovery in the glass plants. The impact of the transport of materials to production sites was not included as a sensitivity analysis showed that the effect on the results is not relevant for the purpose of the study (below 1%). The decision was made considering that transport is a variable that needs further investigation taking into account more detailed information (transport mode and distances for each plant included in the average).





Being a cradle-to-gate study the transport of the product to customers (use phase) and final destination (EoL phase) are not included in this overview and results evaluation.

Figure 1 shows a screenshot of the model built up in GaBi 4.4 software.

Figure 1: Cradle-to-gate system model of float glass Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass The primary data used in this study was collected and provided by GfE. All input/output data were provided in an aggregated form, therefore no detailed result graphs highlighting the main contributing production phases are provided. The following paragraphs, describing the float process, are based on the glass BREF2 document and the information provided by GfE.

Float glass is primarily made of raw materials like sand, soda ash, dolomite, limestone, as well as glass cullet.

The batch materials and fuels go into the furnace to melt resulting in molten glass, which goes to a surface of an enclosed bath of molten tin. The molten glass floats then on top of the tin (giving the name to this technology) and as it flows along the surface of the tin bath away from the delivery canal it forms a ribbon of uniform thickness and cools down to be cut into standard sizes.

The float process produces glass sheets with a uniform thickness and perfectly smooth surfaces that need no further grinding or polishing. The resulting glass is then further treated in various ways to incorporate one or several of the advanced technologies applied to float glass today, depending on the final product and application for which it is destined.3 Glass Manufacturing Industry, Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Glass Manufacturing Industry, July 2009. European Commission, Joint Research Centre http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/ Glass for Europe http://www.glassforeurope.com/en/industry/float-process.php Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass 3 Data quality The primary data provided by GfE refer to the year 2005, the average values represent the annual production (of the participating sites) and are scaled to one kg of float glass.

Data was provided from 25 sites, representing 3 companies as well as ~50% of the European market volume.

Within the DQC (Data Quality Check) PE INTERNATIONAL carried out benchmarking as well as plausibility checks. A comparison with the values reported in the BREF4 document (gate-to-gate) and other available data sources (cradle-to-gate data from commercial databases and confidential sources) was done.

Where needed data was modified or completed in agreement with GfE.

GfE reported emissions of NO2 as NOx. According to the mentioned BREF3 document, glass industry emissions of NOx should be considered as 95% NO and 5% NO2. This split was applied to the data and has influence on the POCP category as can be seen in the result chapters. These emissions have different environmental impacts and therefore it is important to consider the split between the emissions, see BREF document for more explanation.

The emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) include sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3), and are reported as SOx equivalent. The two main sources of sulphur oxide emissions are the oxidation of sulphur in fuels and the decomposition/oxidation of sulphur compounds in batch materials. Based on information from the BREF3 document the following split was applied: 95% SO2 and 5% SO3.

Glass Manufacturing Industry, Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Glass Manufacturing Industry, July 2009. European Commission, Joint Research Centre http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/ Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass 4 Gate-to-Gate / Cradle-to-Gate Data Table 1 provides an overview of the data used for the LCI modelling, the original questionnaire can be found in Annex I.

Inventory data from the GaBi databases have been applied for all input materials, for different energy sources (electricity / fuels) and for all transport processes, as shown in table 2 below (this is referred as “secondary data”).

Table 1: Gate-to-gate input/output data per 1kg of float glass

–  –  –

In accordance with annex II-A of the Directive 2006/12/EC Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass 5 Life Cycle Impact Assessment The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data consists of the total inputs and outputs of the product system (e.g. carbon dioxide emissions); while the LCIA uses the LCI data to assess impacts such as Global Warming Potential (GWP).

The CML6 Life Cycle Impact Assessment methodology was used for the LCIA part. The results of the study refer to the following impact categories: Primary Energy Demand, Global Warming Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Acidification Potential, and Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential. Further details on the impact categories can be found in Annex II: Description of Selected Inventories and Impact Categories.

5.1 Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane. These emissions cause an increase in the absorption of radiation emitted by the earth, magnifying the natural greenhouse effect. GWP is

measured in kilogram of Carbon dioxide equivalent on 100 years time span; see Annex II:

Description of Selected Inventories and Impact Categories for details.

Figure 2 shows the total GWP value of 1.23 kg of CO2 equivalent per 1 kg of float glass, with a contribution of 16% from energy sources (energy upstream), 27% from batch materials production (materials upstream) and 57% from on-site production.

Figure 2: Total GWP for 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate University of Leiden http://www.leidenuniv.nl/cml/ssp/index.html Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass Figure 3 shows the main emissions to air contributing to GWP, where carbon dioxide is the main emission with 95% and the sum of all the other emissions with 5% of the total.

Figure 3: Total GWP main contributing emissions per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Figure 4 below shows the GWP from the production of batch materials with a total of 0.33 kg of CO2 equivalent; this is dominated by sodium carbonate with 87%, followed by sand with 7% and sum of other materials with 6% (nitrogen, oxygen, limestone, dolomite, hydrogen, sodium chloride and sodium sulphate).

Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass Figure 4: GWP from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Figure 5 below shows the contribution of GWP coming from the energy sources production, where the main contributor is power (electricity) with 62%, followed by natural gas with 29% and heavy fuel oil with 9% of the total.

Figure 5: GWP from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass

5.2 Primary energy demand Primary energy demand (PED) measures the total amount of primary energy directly withdraw from the hydrosphere, atmosphere or geosphere or energy source without any anthropogenic change, including both non-renewable and renewable resource. The Primary energy demand is expressed in Mega Joules (MJ) and as net caloric value; see Annex II: Description of Selected Inventories and Impact Categories for details.

The total PED value is 15.62 MJ (net calorific value) per kg of float glass. These PED value include both the renewable and non-renewable energy consumed, although the majority of PED is from non-renewable (fossil) energy. Of the total, 0.26 MJ is from renewable resources and 15.37 MJ is from non-renewable resources, with 2% and 98% respectively.

Figure 6 shows that 25% of the PED is required for the production of batch materials (materials upstream) and 75% is required for the energy sources (energy upstream).

Figure 6: Total PED per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Figure 7 shows that the PED from the production of batch materials is dominated by the production of sodium carbonate (80%), followed by production of sand (11%). Sum of the other materials (dolomite, hydrogen, nitrogen, limestone, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and oxygen) accounts for 9% of the total.

Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass Figure 7: PED from batch materials production per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Figure 8 shows the PED from energy sources. The main contributor is the production of natural gas (58%), followed by the production of electricity (22%), and heavy fuel oil production with 20%.

Figure 8: PED from energy sources per 1 kg float glass, cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass



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