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und Baudenkmalpflege of Buildings and Monuments
19. Jahrgang, Heft 2/3, 2013 Vol. 19, No. 2/3, 2013
Contents / Inhalt
Selected, revised and peer reviewed papers, presented during the 7th Asian Symposium on Polymers
in Concrete (ASPIC), held in Istanbul, Turkey, October 3-5, 2012.
L. Czarnecki, M. H. Özkul and D. Van Gemert Asian Symposium on Polymers in Concrete, Istanbul 2012 Y. Ohama and M. Ota Recent Research and Development Activities of Polymer-Modified Paste, Mortar and Concrete in Japan L. Czarnecki, M. Kaproń and D. Van Gemert Sustainable Construction: Challenges, Contribution of Polymers, Research Arena D. Van Gemert and A. Beeldens Evolution in Modeling Microstructure Formation in Polymer-Cement Concrete T. A. Bier and A. Bajrami Influence of Polymer Addition on Early Microstructure Development in Ternary Binders R. Wang, L. J. Yao and P. M. Wang Hydration of Cement in the Presence of SAE Dispersion and Powder O. Ekincioglu, M. H. Özkul, S. Patachia and G. Moise Effect of TiO2 Addition on the Properties of Macro Defect Free Cement-Polymer Composites K. S. Yeon, Y. S. Choi, J. H. Yeon and M. Kawakami Recent Development and Application of Concrete-Polymer Composites in Korea N. Choi Effects of Substitution Degree of Cellulose Ethers on the Properties of Tile Cement Mortars D. Van Gemert Factors Influencing Durability of Bond of Ceramic Tiles in Swimming Pools A2 S. Roux, B. Tribollet, N. Serres, A. Lecomte and F. Feugeas Use of Biopolymers to Improve the Reinforced Concrete Sustainability S. Cunha, J. B. Aguiar, M. Kheradmand, L. Bragança and V. M. Ferreira Thermal Mortars with Incorporation of PCM Microcapsules M. Ertuğ, O. Üzüm, A. Şendemir Ürkmez and Ö. Andiç Çakır Natural Polymer-based Hydrogel Incorporating Self Healing Mortar M. Y. Yardimci, A. Bentur, M. Puterman, R. Tirosh and P. Larianovsky Bond Behavior of Polymer Modified AR-Glass Yarns Embedded in Cement Paste M. C. S. Ribeiro, C. M. C. Pereira, S. P. B. Sousa, P. R. O. Nóvoa and A. J. M. Ferreira Fire Reaction and Mechanical Performance Analyses of Polymer Concrete Materials Modified with Micro and Nano Alumina Particles H. N. Atahan, B. Y. Pekmezci, E. Y. Tuncel and A. Paksoy Behavior of Glass Fabric Reinforced Polymer Concrete Composites under Flexural Loads M. Wakasugi, M. Yamamoto, H. Sakakibara and T. Miyagawa Performance of Silane Water Repellent and Flexible PCM Coating Applied on ASR Deteriorated Structures after over 20 Years Restoration of Buildings and Monuments Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege Vol. 19, No. 2/3, 69–72 (2013) Asian Symposium on Polymers in Concrete, Istanbul 2012 L. Czarnecki1, M. H. Özkul2 and D. Van Gemert3 President of International Congress on Polymers in Concrete, ICPIC 2Chairman of 7th Asian Symposium on Polymers in Concrete, ASPIC 2012 3International Advisory Committee member
International Congresses on Polymers in Concrete (ICPIC) are organized since 1975 (London) with 3 years intervals. The idea of ICPIC was to have ICPIC Congresses alternatively in a Western and in an Eastern country. This sequence was followed more or less, with successive congresses in Austin (USA), Koriyama (Japan), Darmstadt (Germany), Brighton (UK), Shanghai, Moscow, Oostende (B), Bologna, Honolulu, Berlin, Chuncheon (South Korea), Funchal (Madeira-Portugal), and Shanghai (2013). However, evolutions in science and construction practices do not follow such alternations, and regional symposia were organized in the time span between international congresses. An important series of regional symposia were organized in Asia, starting with a first symposium in Chuncheon (1994), followed by symposia in Koriyama (1997), Shanghai (2000), Chuncheon (2003), Chennai (2006), and again Shanghai (2009).
ASPIC 2012, the 7th Asian Symposium on Polymers in Concrete, was held in Istanbul, Turkey. It was organized by Istanbul Technical University at Suleyman Demirel Cultural Center, October 3-5, 2012. Istanbul, is not only the city where two continents meet but also the city where East and West meet, was chosen as a symbolic location, where new ideas about concrete-polymer composites could emerge.
This symbolic location as well as the historic glory of Istanbul as the capital of East Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, calls for brave actions to be taken. The aim of this paper is an attempt to prepare a draft for the matrix: drivers and research areas in C-PC (Concrete-Polymer Composites). The authors believe that such matrix allows identifying future research needs and priorities with respect to C-PC development. The authors are aware that it is impossible to predict a future which will become reality. However, they are convinced that it is possible to predict a future that might become reality .
This paper tries to capture the “preliminary” outputs of the 7th ASPIC in a way that it might help to interpret trends in relation to the further developments, and to guide further discussions. The approach adopted here is clustered under two terms: “drivers” and “research areas”. The choice of the drivers and research areas, based on 7th ASPIC data and authors’ experiences, is subjective and arbitrary to some extent. The authors just try to establish the starting point. It is their intention that this paper is going to be used as a catalyst to guide discussion among the members of the C-PC community and to maximise the output of 7th ASPIC and future congresses.
The proceedings of the 7th ASPIC contains 98 papers (including 7 key-note papers) prepared by 261 authors from 28 countries. The authors characterised their topics with a set of 113 keywords. The number of repetitions in the keywords is very limited: polymer-concrete (5x); compressive strength (3x); adhesives, anchors, bond strength, calcium hydroxide, ceiling panels, flexural strength, microstructure, mortars, polymer modified concrete, tunnels (2x). This evidences the great diversity in C-PC area. From another point of view, it also evidences the richness and universality of the C-PC research arena, because it needs more than 100 keywords for its characterisation. The approach adopted hereafter is to analyse the keywords list of the 7th ASPIC and to determine the drivers and the research areas.
Recent Research and Development Activities of Polymer-Modified Paste, Mortar and Concrete in Japan Y. Ohama1* and M. Ota2 Professor Emeritus, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan Engineer, Construction Division, Oita City Hall, Oita, Japan *Corresponding author: Y. Ohama, E-mail: email@example.com Abstract The present paper reviews the recent research and development activities of polymer-modified paste, mortar and concrete in the Japanese construction industry. In Japan, the active research and development of the polymer-modified paste, mortar and concrete have been carried out for the past about 50 years, and they are nowadays used as dominant construction materials in various applications because of their high performance, multifunctionality and sustainability compared to conventional cement paste, mortar and concrete. The recent research and development activities of the polymer-modified paste, mortar and concrete are concerned with concrete crack repair systems, patch repair systems and strengthening or retrofitting systems for deteriorated reinforced concrete structures, repair systems with concrete surface coatings, liquid-applied membrane waterproofing systems, high-grade redispersible polymer powders, intelligent repair materials, and reaction to fire as repair materials in building construction. Standardization work for the polymer-modified paste, mortar and concrete has been in progress in recent years, and useful national and institutional standards have been published till now.
Keywords: Research and development; Repair systems; Strengthening systems; Standardization work.
Restoration of Buildings and Monuments Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege Vol. 19, No. 2/3, 81–96 (2013) Sustainable Construction: Challenges, Contribution of Polymers, Research Arena L. Czarnecki1*, M. Kaproń2 and D. Van Gemert3 1Professor, Ph.D. Eng.; Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland 2MSc Eng.; Building Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland 3Prof. Ph.D. Eng.; KU Leuven, Triconsult n. v.
*Corresponding author: L. Czarnecki, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Sustainable development is one of the leading civilization idea. This term means development that satisfies the present needs without a limitation of the possibility of satisfying needs in the future. Sustainable development in construction is particularly important, as this branch of the industry is consuming enormous amounts of mass and energy. A new research area has been created by this idea. New fields of investigation are involved with material, energetic and environmental conditions, but also with such topics as protection against noise and the methods of the evaluation of the efficiency of waste materials storage. Merging the worlds of cement concrete and concrete-polymer composites open ways to synergetic effects that support sustainable material development. Implementation of the idea of sustainable development in the construction industry will be a source of scientific and engineering inspiration for many years to come.
Keywords: Sustainable development; Sustainable construction; Exergy; Performance concept; Environment impact.
Restoration of Buildings and Monuments Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege Vol. 19, No. 2/3, 97–108 (2013) Evolution in Modeling Microstructure Formation in Polymer-Cement Concrete D. Van Gemert1* and A. Beeldens2 KU Leuven, Triconsult n.v.
Belgian Road Research Centre, KU Leuven *Corresponding author: D. Van Gemert, E-mail: email@example.com Abstract Hardened PCC material consists of two interpenetrating matrices of polymer phase and hydrated cement with random dispersion of the aggregates. Different models have been proposed to describe the built up of microstructure in this material, and to explain or even to design its characteristic properties. This paper deals with the evolution of the microstructure models with time, showing a growing understanding of the microstructure formation during hydration and hardening, as well as a better knowledge of the morphology and behavior of the polymer phase within the composite material. Better understanding of microstructure formation was supported by the development and improvement of SEM analysis technique, and further integration of the time scale in the models was enabled by ESEM analysis during hydration and hardening of fresh mixes. Enhancement of SEM resolution and magnification capabilities also enabled to study the effect of very low amounts of polymer on the microstructure.
The paper deals with the physical mechanisms, described by the models, and shows the improvements added in the successive models, leading to an increased understanding of the synergies realized by the interaction and collaboration of polymers and hydraulic cement.
Keywords: PCC; Microstructure; Modeling; Hydration; Hardening; SEM.
Restoration of Buildings and Monuments Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege Vol. 19, No. 2/3, 109–116 (2013) Influence of Polymer Addition on Early Microstructure Development in Ternary Binders T. A. Bier1* and A. Bajrami2 Institut für Keramik, Glas- und Baustofftechnik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg Titan Antea cement Sh.a – Albania *Corresponding author: T. A. Bier, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Ternary binders containing Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC), Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Calcium Sulfate (C$) are principally used to produce high performance mortars such as Self Leveling Underlayments (SLU), Tile Adhesives (TA) or Grouting Mortars (GM). These mortars are composed, besides complex binders, of mineral and organic fillers, and most importantly admixtures. Amongst the organic fillers, redispersible powders produced by spray drying from emulsions, are added to improve flexibility, adhesion and water resistance.
In this study, the influence of redispersible powders on microstructure and micro-structural development in ternary binder composites has been investigated for the first 24 hours. Hydrate phase development and pore size distribution have been investigated for mortars under varying curing conditions. The addition of redispersible powders showed not only the well known retardation in hydration kinetics, longer setting times and increased gel times but also changed dimensional stability and porosity as a function curing conditions.
Dimensional changes during the first 24 hours were measured by different methods and compared to the in-situ measurement of phase development by XRD. Physical microstructure development has been characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry and dynamic water vapor sorption.
The results are discussed in the light of competing mechanisms of structure build-up by hydration and film forming in a polymer modified, cementitious matrix under different external conditions.
Keywords: Ternary binders; Redispersible polymers; Expansion; Porosity.