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2.6.2 Linguistic Assumptions One possible function of training is to provide a metalanguage which trainees can use for reflection and discussion of their own behavior and that of their associates. Grid management does provide such a metalanguage. This is valuable, since ordinary language does not provide rich resources for such discussion. But it is not clear how or under what conditions such reflective discussion is expected to happen. Perhaps more importantly, no attention is given to the question of the social implications of initiating such discussion. That is, is it actually possible for a second officer to begin a discussion about problems in the captain's style of decision making, even if they share a vocabulary for such discussion?

3. Review of Applications

3.1 Evaluation Criteria for Communication Training Programs This section proposes criteria to be used for evaluating communication training progam.

These criteria may be applied either in the development of a training program in-house at NASA or to evaluate existing programs for use as the basis for such an in-house program, assuming additional development and customizing by NASA. ;

3.1.1 Theoretical Basis To understand a communications training program, it is important to understand what theory it is based on, if any. As indicated in Section 2.1 there is a wide array of theories of communication, as well as many theories of organizational dynamics and management.

In evaluating a training program, we wish to know whether it is based on one of these theories, on several, or whether its methods are a-theoretical and ad hoc.

3.1.2 Domain Specificity A training program may be extremely general, intended to apply to a wide range of communicative domains. Or, it may be extremely specific, intended to teach a particular class of person how to perform a particular communication task better. For example, some assertiveness training programs claim that they will teach assertive behavior for all appropriate situations in the trainees's personal and professional life. Some management training programs are offered as seminars for the general public and claim to be relevant to management of any type of organization. In contrast, there are other types of programs which are domain specific. For examples, a program may attempt to teach a psychiatric patient how to deal with a particular type of phone call from his or her mother, or attempt to teach an employee how to respond to a specific type of supervisor's request. Management training programs may be tailored to a specific industry or to a specific company. Both extremes on this scale of specificity are currently being practiced, as well as many intermediate positions. From our observation of several training programs, it appears that domain specificity is extremely important in determining the success of a training program.

3.1.3 Peer Identity of Trainer To evaluate a communications training program, it is important to know whether the trainer or teacher is a peer, a member of the same professional field as the students, or whether the trainer's expertise is in some other field. In general, it appears that the more intense and closed the professional culture of the target community, and the more training it takes to become a member of that community, the more important it is that the trainer be a peer.

3.1.4 Identity of Trainees To evaluate a communications training program, it is important to know the identity of the targeted participants. Specifically, the value of training for improved team communication will be determined at least partially by whether the entire team is trained or whether only managers or subordinates, receive training. Note that most commercially available management training programs target only one member of a team (e.g. a manager, secretary, or intermediate level personnel.) In the commercial aviation situation, this question is somewhat complicated by the fact that crews do not normally stay together as a team. Thus, even if all crew members were trained, rather than at only captains or only flight engineers, such a program still could not train the members of a specific existing team together. In contrast, joint training of actual crews might be possible in military or non-commercial aviation situations.

8.1.6 Duration of Training The duration of training obviously has a significant effect on effectiveness. We must consider not only how long the training lasts, but also whether any followup training and discussion are offered, and whether such followup is offered only once, or on a recurrent basis.

There is some evidence, that apprentice members of a closed community, specifically medkal residents, can profitably be given training by a non-member. However, this is much more difficult to achieve with full members. Prof. Richard Frankel, Wayne State Medical School, personal communication.

3.1.6 Training Methods

Major training methods in use include:

• Lecture ::-;.,..;

• Written exposition

• Video demonstration

• Behavior modelling

• Role playing

• Programmed instruction, using either computer or workbook presentation

• Simulation These methods may be combined in a variety of ways, and each may be used with various degrees of interaction between trainer and students.

3.1.7 Evaluation It is important to consider whether any validation or evaluation studies exist for a given training program, training method, or communication theory. As Sections 2.2 and 2.4 show, such studies have generally lagged far behind the development of training programs. It is unusual to find anything more than customers' testimonials offered to validate commercially available programs.

3.2 Review of the United Airlines Training Program This section reviews the United Airlines Command/Leadership/ Resources Management __ Q (CLR) training program. This program has been chosen for review because United Airlines has pioneered in training pilots in human resource management, which includes training in communication. The company is currently marketing its training program to other airlines both in the United States and abroad, so the CLR model will probably have a significant impact on aviation training generally.

3.2.1 Description of the Program Newly hired pilots are given a three hour overview of the CLR program. They then begin the program by working through 7 self-study books at home over a period of 14

weeks. These books include:

• Scenarios of 3 flights and discussion of these scenarios.

• Explanation of the management grid, the theoretical foundation for the CRL training.

CRL is the current term for the program known in 1086 as Elective Cockpit Management (ECM).

• Accident and incident reports used to identify variables in resource management and communication.

• References and additional readings.

Each book includes expository material, examples, quizzes or questionnaires, and discussion of possible answers.

After the self-study has been completed, a three day course is offered, which reviews the material and allows teams to solve problems and then reflect on their individual and team styles, using the vocabulary offered by the self-study and seminar presentations as a medium for such introspection. Thereafter, pilots return yearly for a three day recurrent training session, which includes a review of CLR material and several LOFT (line oriented flight training) simulator sessions, with followup discussions which work with a video replay of the simulator session. The followup discussions may include issues of resources management and personal management style. (Note that training in CLR is only part of the recurrent training; most of the training is in operational and technical skills.) This review of United Airlines' CRL program is based on

• Review of the self-study materials, plus the materials for trainers.

• Discussion with United Airlines personnel involved in the development and administration of the training program.

• Observation of the second day of the three day recurrent training session, the day in which CRL is reviewed.

We had intended to observe the initial training session, but United Airlines personnel were unwilling to permit this, since they felt that the presence of an observer would hinder the partipants by making them more self-conscious and less open in their responses. It seems likely that this is true, since during the recurrent training session, the crew members were extremely aware of the observer, even when she sat behind them.

One indication of this awareness was the frequency of their apologies for profanity, or substitution of euphemisms, while looking back at the observer.

3.2.2 Evaluation Criteria Applied to United Airlines CLR Program This section applies the criteria of Section 3.1 to the seminars surveyed. Theoretical Basis The CRL training is based on the notion of the managerial grid, as presented in (Blake and Mouton, 1064) and (Blake and Mouton, 1978). See Section 2.4 for a discussion of this theory. Domain Specificity The CLR training is extremely domain specific, designed expressly for commercial aviation crews.

3.2.2.S Identity of Trainer The trainers are experienced training pilots. Observation of training made it clear that the trainer's identity as a member of the same professional community as the trainees was crucial to his achievement of rapport and authority. The trainer made frequent references to things "we all know" as pilots. These references were often made as a way of softening apparent criticism by indicating that "We've all made that kind of mistake." Identity of Students The students are all current United Airlines crew members. Each training group, for the recurrent training, consists of a current captain, first officer, and flight engineer. Duration of Training

As discussed above, the training consists of:

• 7 self-study manuals, whose combined suggested time is 8.6 hours, plus the time it takes for each individual to read the last manual, which consists of reference material, with no exercises.

• 3 days of intensive CLR training.


• Yearly recurrent training, which includes 1 hour of explicit CLR review, plus discussion of LOFT simulator sessions, which may include use of CLR vocabulary and concepts. Training Methods

The training methods include:

• Written expository materials

• Written exercises

• Lectures

• Videotapes of simulated flights

• Videotaped exposition of CLR concepts

• Discussion of the material presented

• Role playing

• Participation in simulations

• Evaluation by trainer Validation No explicit validation or evaluation studies exist for the CLR program. United Airlines personnel have stated that in designing the program, they intended to perform evaluation studiers, but were prevented from doing so by objections from ALPA (Air Lines Pilots' Association) that such studies might be used to influence the career path of the pilots who participated in them. Their current indication of the value of the program is the high acceptance rate by pilots of the program; post-seminar evaluation of the program by pilots gives a rating of 3.7 of a possible 4. Such reports, of course, can only be suggestive;

they can not provide evidence for the effectiveness of the project. The United Airlines personnel who discussed this issue felt that a full scientific evaluation study was extremely important, and believed that NASA was the proper agency to conduct it.

3.3 Evaluation of Commercial Communication Training Seminars One possibility for developing a training study at NASA would be to use some existing training program as a skeleton, and adapt it to include the findings on aviation communication developed in previous NASA studies: (Goguen and Linde, 1083), (Murphy et al, 1084), (Ruffell-Smith, 1070), (Foushee and Manos, 1081). In order to explore this possibility, we have reviewed a great deal of promotional literature and contacted those organizations which appeared to be the most promising. We concentrated on programs that offer management communications training, team development, and assertiveness training. We telephoned representatives of the selected programs, and attempted to evaluate them on the criteria given in Section 3.1. This section presents that evaluation, based on the information each company was willing to give. [Note that the answers to many items on our list were considered proprietary information, not to be disclosed except to actual attendees of the program.] 8.3.1 Evaluation of Seminars Surveyed This section applies the criteria of Section 3.1 to the seminars surveyed. Theoretical Basis Of the seminars surveyed, only Neuro-Linguistic Programming has an explicitly stated theoretical basis. The theory is that different people have different preferred sensory modalities which determine the way in which they see the world. The effectiveness of communication is influenced by the sensory modality of the encoding and the way in which it interacts with the preferred sensory modality of the trainee. However, independent attempts to document the existence of these sensory modality preferences and their effect on communication have as yet failed (Coe and Sharcoff, 1085). -. Domain Specificity All the seminars surveyed are generally available to the public, and hence are not at all domain specific. The following companies offer seminars which can be given on-site for organizations wishing to train large numbers of employees; they will attempt to tailor the

presentation to the needs of the client organization:

• Center for Professional Development

• Associated Management Institute: Assertiveness Training for Managers Identity of Trainer In no case are the trainers members of the professional communities to which the training is offered. Identity of Trainees All the seminars studied targeted employees at a given level of management, rather than training an entire team. Duration of Training The seminars studied ranged from 1 to 4 days in length. None offered any followup training.

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