WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 4 | 5 || 7 | 8 |   ...   | 39 |

«Heyman, Michael Benjamin (1999) Isles of Boshen : Edward Lear's literary nonsense in context. PhD thesis. Copyright and ...»

-- [ Page 6 ] --

Several of Lear's alphabets are not nonsensical at all and only mildly humorous. In his Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabet (1871) we see an example of the

standard a1 phabet:

–  –  –

60Darton, p. 60.

610pie, pp. 48-50.

62Percy Muir, English Children's Books. 1600-1900 (London: B.T. Batsford, 195+), p. 220 63 The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear, ed. H~lbrook. Jac~son (New York: Dover, 194""), p.l3l. All Lear's poems, unless otherwise noted, are quoted from this editIon.

This alphabet continues in this light way, rarely approaching anything like true nonsense.

One of the possible exceptions is the verse for "P," a small pig, "But his tail was too curly, / And that made him surly" (p. 134). Here we see a glimmer of the nonsense logic so

common in the limericks. Again, in the rhyme for "S," light nonsense appears:

–  –  –

The nursery-type nonsense, "nippity nee," has no other function than to create satisfying rhythm and rhyme. Taken out of the context of the highly formulaic limerick, with its inherent structural order and expected narrative coherence, such babble does not rise to true nonsense. The picture and rhyme for 'X', the ever-present King Xerxes, are also amusing, with the stretched rhyme of "Xerxes" with ''Turks is." Though the letters "P" and "S" approach nonsense, they fall far short. The reader sees this alphabet as one among many such mildly humorous alphabets. Even the "Xerxes" rhyme, one of the more amusing ones, can be seen as a slight parody of traditional alphabet form, such as in A

Little Book/or Little Children, around 1703, in which "X," next to a sober woodcut, is:

"Xerxes the Prince was great, / and nobly born. "64 Two other of Lear's alphabets follow a similar path of normalcy, one starting with "A was an ape" (1871) and the other more prosaic-sounding "A was an Area Arch" (1877). These alphabets are conventional imitations, with only the slightest hints of parody and nonsense.

Much of Lear's nonsense is imitative not just of genre, but also of specific works.

From vague references to significant borrowing, literary nonsense is created in the image of a variety of other texts. Lear's The Courtship o/the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo, for instance, has a rich background in ancient Mummer's plays, and probably in Tennyson and Wordsworth. A Mummer's play from Great Wolford, Warwickshire has "Fidler Wit," a

foolish character, recite the following lines:

64Muir, English Children's Books, p. 38.

–  –  –

This greatly resembles Lear's big-headed character whose riches amount to ''Two old chairs, and half a candle,-- / One old jug without a handle" (11. 5-6). The sound and rhythm of Lear's poem also bears some resemblance to Tennyson's "'Frater Ave atque Vale'," while the image of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo going to sea on a turtle's shell is surprisingly similar to the protagonist's flight in Wordsworth's ''The Blind Highland Boy."

Another instance of intertextuality is in Lear's The Dong with a Luminous Nose, which borrows much of its plot, rhythm, images, and sound quality from Thomas Moore's A

Ballad: The Lake a/the Dismal Swamp, the first two stanzas of which are as follows:

–  –  –

A young man goes insane after the death of his lover, and he searches for her in the Dismal Swamp, where he expects to see her lamp. Through difficulty he finally finds her "meteor bright," much like the Dong's "Meteor strange and bright," and, so the legend goes, the couple are reunited. At midnight both the doomed couple and the Dong can been seen by their moving light. Of course, in Moore's tale the couple join in a ghostly reunion, but the 65R.J.E. Tiddy. The Mummer's Play (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1923), pp. 230-1.

66S poken by the "young man." I have modernized the quotation marks. In The Poetical Works oj Thomas Moore, collected by himself, 10 volunles (London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green. & Longmans, 1840), n.223-2--l.

likeness of these poems is more than coincidental. The Dong also resembles forsaken figures like Tennyson's Mariana, whom Lear often echoes in his diaries,67 and especially Wordsworth's Margaret in The Ruined Cottage, who wanders the wilds after haYing lost

her eldest child:

–  –  –

In this aimless wandering she resembles the Dong who, after the Jumbly girl leaves him, "arose and said;-- / 'What little sense I once possessed / Has quite gone out of my head!' --" The Dong also searches in deluded hope, as he "seeks in vain / To meet with his Jumbly Girl again." Echoes like those found in The Courtship of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo and The Dong with a Luminous Nose are common, and often noted by critics. Elizabeth Sewell finds Spenser's Epithalamion and Milton's Comus in The Dong and The Owl and the Pussy-cat, and nursery rhymes in The lumblies (1871), while Thomas Byrom finds echoes from Shakespeare, Gray, Bums, Wordsworth, Keats, Tennyson, and Arnold in Lear's "Cold are the Crabs. ''68 I do not have the space here to list all of Lear's referential nonsense, and the specific implications of it do not concern this thesis; they could easily constitute a separate study. In all of these textual references, whether direct, distant, or coincidental, Lear betrays, among many things, his love for Romantic melancholy and for the solitary. His intertextual references add to the richness of his texts but are usually understated or vague enough not to be easily noticed, and far from indicating parody, they usually show a deep respect for the spirit of the original, often startling us into seeing the close thematic similarities of the echoed poems and nonsense.





When Lear chose to create an unequivocal parody, it differed significantly from his attempts at non-parodic children's literature and nonsense. In fact, some of his straightforward parodies came in the form of humorous illustrations to the popular ballads which he himself sang throughout the drawing-rooms of well-to-do Victorian society. Lear 67Lear, in ill-health, writes in his diary for February, 1866, "He only said--my life is ugly-- / \ly life's a bore he sai d. " 68S ew dl, pp. 6-1--69; Byrom, p. 230.

illustrates many of these songs, often providing parody by making ridiculous the serious sentiments therein. In his parody of William Mee's "Alice Gray" (1815~ also parodied by Carroll in 1855), Lear's joke, which is no longer very funny, is to portray Alice as a scrawny black woman, wearing the fashionable gear of the day. Her suitor mourns her profusely, and in Lear's close-up drawing of her face, we see the contrast between the lyrical text and the ugly illustration.

–  –  –

Lear's exaggerated inversion of the beautiful Alice Gray makes the poem, and its melodramatic genre, quite absurd. The parody consciously engages with the conventions of the genre and explodes them by showing the inappropriateness of the poem's subject.

A similar device is used in Lear's illustrations for Thomas Moore's "Rich and Rare were the Gems She Wore" (1807). The subject of the poem, a beautiful young woman who fearlessly displays her beauty and her wealth on "this bleak way," is drawn by Lear as an old hag, whose "rich and rare" gems consist of a huge ring through her bulbous no e, 9Lear ill/he Original, p. 145.

an outrageously large earring, and other absurd adornments. The last drawing, of the line "On she went & her maiden smile" shows the old woman striding away, cane in hand, flashing a particularly devious and altogether un-maidenly smile.

–  –  –

These series of illustrations directly engage and negatively criticize the poem's subject, as well as the style and genre.

Outright parody also occurs in some of Lear's alphabets, such as the alphabet starting "A tumbled down, and hurt his Arm.... " This alphabet is modelled after one which was well-known in 1671, starting "A was an apple-pie; / B bit it, / C cut it, D dealt it,.... " The old version continues in this way, each letter having something to do with the applepie. Again, such an old alphabet is relevant here, as it was very popular in the nineteenth

century, and is still being reprinted. 70 Lear wrote an alphabet in a similar vein:

–  –  –

70 pi, pp. 47--+8.

if only it would wink.'" and "W said, 'Some Whisky-Whizzgigs fetch, some marbles and a ball! '" These small instances of nonsense-like levity are amusing, but do not mark the alphabet as anything other than what it claims to be; however, they hint at the culminating

joke of this alphabet. After all the letters offer their advice, we hear from ''Z'':

–  –  –

Here, in the true colours of parody, Lear turns the rhyme upon itself, with the last letter finally fed up with this never-ending good advice and kindness. "Z" lashes out, creating, true to the definitions of parody, "a ridiculous effect" by way of commenting directly on the form and content of this traditional alphabet.

Carroll also participated in definite moments of parody, particularly in some of his early poetry. Like Lear, Carroll was raised on the popular children's literature of the nineteenth century. Throughout his life, the Reverend Dodgson himself wrote many morally and religiously didactic verses in the same vein as the ones he seems to mock in his parodies and nonsense as "Lewis Carroll." This apparent contradiction in ideology and method cannot be reconciled, nor need it be, but it can provide a clue as to the functional ambiguities of some of his imitations. While the literary nonsense of Lear and Carroll breaks out of the rigidly edifying conventions of children's literature, their parodies speak more directly in criticism and mockery, and they do this with little or no use of nonsense, even as a device. Carroll's "Brother and Sister," written when he was fifteen years old, is

a typical example of didactic verse parody:

–  –  –

The poem continues, with the brother asking the cook for a pan to cook his sister in an Irish stew. After the cook refuses, we are given the ridiculous moral: "Never stew your.I sister." Compare these sibling relations with the conventional ones portrayed in The Parent's Cabinet of Amusement and Instruction, of 1834: in a piece called ''Toast and Tea" two brothers amicably share their treat: ''Their father used to give to each of the boys a share. But each boy did not eat his own. The fun was for each to share with the other" (p.

191). In showing vicious, unrepentant, and unpunished children, Carroll parodies the whole genre of moralistic, didactic children's literature, portraying absurdly good children.

Carroll wrote many other parodies, including ones imitating Old and Middle English, such as the famous "Jabberwocky" (originally "Stanza of Anglo-Saxon Poetry") and "Ye Carpette Knyghte" in Phantasmagoria (1869).

In the Wonderland version of Watts's "Against Idleness and Mischief" Carroll gives us a verse closely related in structure and meaning to Watts's original. Watts's poem, from his Divine Songs for Children (1715) begins,

–  –  –

The poem, like all of Watts's verse for children, is a moral lesson. It teaches us that idleness leads to evil, which is a sentiment Dodgson approved of in other works.73

Nevertheless, Wonderland causes Alice to recite this poem quite differently:

–  –  –

71 From The Complete Works of Lewis Carroll (London: Nonesuch Press, 1940) p. 782.

72Issac Watts, Divine and Moral Songs for Children (London: Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1866), Moral Songs, Song XX.

73S ee his introduction to Sylvie and Bruno (1889), in which he proposes to write a "Child's Bible" and a book of Bible selections which would, during times of idleness, "help keep at hay many an--uous thoughts.

worrying thoughts, uncharitable thoughts, unholy thoughts" (Carroll, Complete, p. 282)

–  –  –

Carroll's version is quite close structurally to the original. In the first line only the animal in question is replaced, while the succeeding lines follow fairly closely the syntax of Watts.

However, he replaces the signifiers of the old version and creates a new, though related description. Linda Shires notes, "By... supplying new signifiers for his poetic formula, Carroll calls Watts's words into question.... he mocks the moral and parodies the process of moralizing" (p. 275). I would argue, however, that the aim of this parody is not Watts's moral, "do not be idle" so much as it is the genre in which he wrote. The result is anything but nonsense: the crocodile beautifies himself in order to attract his meal of fish.

In this light, it falls particularly under the label of parody according to Bex, who asserts that parody is almost always directed towards genre rather than individual texts or authors (p. 226). Here, in a moralistic frame, cleanliness is promoted, but only as a deceitful and cunning ploy to kill fish. This goes against one of the most popular themes of children's literature, kindness to animals, not to mention the evils of lying and vanity, also among the most popular themes of the day. In nearly every nineteenth-century work for children, as well as the many earlier works still popular, these three themes would have been found, and the audience of both children and adults would probably have been shocked or amused at such a contrary treatment of moral transgressions. The structural similarity, along with the direct thematic relevance to the genre, place this in the category of parody.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 4 | 5 || 7 | 8 |   ...   | 39 |


Similar works:

«Terra in Furs by Evil Dolly HouseOfLostDolls@aol.com www.evil-dolly.com All rights reserved. Terra fidgeted under the gaze of the two women as she stood before them in their sitting room. She had a plain, leaning-towards-pretty, face and kinky, long hair that was a little fried from too-frequent bleaching. Although she looked healthy, she had rings beneath her eyes and her cheeks were a little on the gaunt side. She wore baggy pink nylon jogging pants and a loose white t-shirt that mostly hid...»

«WINTER 2016 NEWSLETTER SPOTLIGHT! Faculty Ozge Samanci is an accomplished comics artist with an extensive background in media arts. Her interactive digital media installations and other collaborative works have been exhibited in numerous venues internationally including SIGGRAPH, ISEA, Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE), Tangible and Embedded Interaction (TEI), Tech Museum at San Jose, WRO Media Art Biennial, Athens International Festival of Digital Arts and New Media, Eyedrum Gallery,...»

«Texas Motorcycle Rights Association AUGUST 2013 The WARRIOR 2 “Dedicated to defending and preserving the rights of ALL motorcyclists in the Lone Star State” MOTORCYCLE ONLY CHECKPOINTS are un-Constitutional and un-American Members Square2 Chairman’s Corner Update Upcoming Events from the Capitol ♦ TMRA2 Support Members Current News ♦ REGISTRY of Officers, Chapters, DA’s Chapter Reports Connect with TMRA2 The Lone Star Warrior is the state publication of the Texas Motorcycle Rights...»

«MINUTES OF THE REGULAR MEETING OF THE FAIRFAX COUNTY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING AUTHORITY December 12, 2013 NOTE: Prior to convening its December 12, 2013 Meeting, the Fairfax County Redevelopment and Housing Authority (FCRHA) hosted the annual Conrad Egan Excellence Awards Ceremony. Named for former FCRHA Chair Conrad Egan, Excellence Awards were presented as follows: for Achievement, David Jones, Senior Program Manager; for Service, Navneet Sohi, Public Information Officer and Diane Jenkins,...»

«WHAT’S INSIDE ABOUT THIS BOOK CHLAMYDIA CRABS GENITAL WARTS GONORRHEA HEPATITIS B HERPES HIV/AIDS SCABIES SYPHILIS TRICHOMONIASIS YEAST BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS. 42 NO GLOVE, NO LOVE!. 44 GLOSSARY 1 ABOUT THIS BOOK. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are diseases • that affect your sex organs (pussy and cock) both inside and outside the body. You can get a STD by having sex (straight fucking, • butt sex, blowjob) with someone who is infected. There are many STDs out there and you never •...»

«Joe-What You Have To Understand. Hosted by Joe. Written by Joe. Podcasted by Joe. Investigated by Joe. Developed for television by Joe. What You Have To Understand brought to your earholes by Joe. Thank Joe later. Cue explosions. [Explosions] J-Hi there. Welcome to another episode of What You Have To Understand. I'm your host, Joe. And today we're going to talk about the unsolved murder of Ken McElroy. Ken Rex McElroy was a resident of Skidmore, Missouri. He died on July 10, 1981 in front of...»

«Expanding the Horizon: For-Profit Degree-Granting Institutions in Higher Education Vicente M. Lechuga William G. Tierney Guilbert Hentschke Expanding The Horizon Introduction In recent years, higher education has witnessed the entry of a new breed of postsecondary education providers. These institutions have reshaped the traditional views of the function and purpose of higher education. For-profit education institutions provide a small but rapidly growing segment of the student population with...»

«Master Data Services Training Guide Managing Entities Portions developed by Profisee Group, Inc. © 2010 Microsoft Entities Overview Entities Entities in a Master Data Services model act as containers for sets of members. These members can be master data members as well as attribute value sets. For example, the Product entity could contain all product members and a Color entity could be defined to contain a list of all color values. The Product entity could then have a Color domain-based...»

«APPLICATION FOOTNOTES TTi Performance Exhaust and Headers Tube Technologies, Inc. Corona, California 92880-1726 Phone (951) 371-4878 Footnotes refer to a specific part or application www.ttiexhaust.com FN # Footnote 1 Header Adapters are used to bolt-up to an Exhaust System. Your header make and model will be required when ordering. Pre-fabricated Header Adapters: TTi designed adapters utilizing new unmodified Hooker, Headman, & Thorley Headers to mate with TTi exhaust systems. Precision...»

«Pocatello Beauty Academy Inc. d.b.a The School of Hairstyling 141 East Chubbuck Road Chubbuck Idaho 83202 208-232-9170 208-232-9486 fax LindaMottishaw@msn.com www.theschoolofhairstyling.com Revised May 19, 2014 STUDENT HANDBOOK “YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL THE MOMENT YOU START MOVING TOWARD A WORTHWHILE GOAL!” ~1~ MISSION STATEMENT The MISSION of the School of Hairstyling is to assist our students in achieving success within their Cosmetology Career as they progress from student to entry level...»

«Slumming India A chronicle of slums and their saviours Gita Dewan Verma Slumming India Gita Dewan Verma is a professional planner. She studied architecture and planning from the School of Planning and Architecture (SPA), New Delhi and did postgraduate research at the HIS, Rotterdam. A former Senior Fellow at HUDCO-HSMI and visiting faculty at SPA and the TVB School of Habitat Studies, Gita has also been a consultant to numerous national and international habitat agencies. After quitting...»

«Quick Start Guide 0011-01-16-03-000 ZM357S-USB(-LR) Modules 0011-01-16-03-000 (issue B) Document No: INTRODUCTION The MeshConnect™ ZM357S-USB(-LR) Sticks, from California Eastern Laboratories (CEL) are designed to be used along with the Silicon Labs EM35X-DEV(-IAR) Development Kit and software tools. CEL has partnered with Silicon Labs and is using their Ember ZigBee PRO stack. For more information please see the Silicon Labs document EM35x Development Kit User Guide. This Quick Start Guide...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.