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«Year: 2016 On the origin of post-aspirated stops: production and perception of /s/ + voiceless stop sequences in Andalusian Spanish Ruch, Hanna; ...»

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In conclusion, the gradual sound change from pre- to post-aspiration might have arisen from the variably released /s/ + voiceless stop closures that are sometimes slightly postaspirated. If social factors are favourable, the aspirated stop release is imitated by other speakers in the dental context, where it is perceptually more prominent. The imitation by other speakers and the concomitant propagation of the new feature, i.e., sound change actuation, is possible because a slightly post-aspirated stop is not perceived as a deviant production variant of /sC/, but as an additional cue to the underlying phonological /s/.

The greater VOT is no longer automatic variation or a result of coarticulation, but increasingly used as a cue to /sC/ in production and perception. If the total duration of the glottal

A possible exception is the Spanish of speakers in Colombia in rural areas of Cundinamarca and Boyacá:

Rodríguez de Montes (1972) reports on aspirated stops as variants of /p, t, k/ in intervocalic position and following /n, s, r, l/.

Ruch and Peters: On the Origin of Post-Aspirated Stops Art. 2, page 31 of 36 opening remains constant, the process of phonologization likely leads to a further lengthening of post-aspiration and the concomitant shortening of pre-aspiration and/or closure duration. To shed light on the use and weighting of different acoustic cues in a sound change in progress, perception tests that variably manipulate closure duration, VTT, VOT, or the C:V-ratio could be conducted. Physiological investigations into the coordination between the oral closure and the glottal opening gesture are needed to understand how the slightly longer VOT in /s/ + voiceless stops arises. Of particular interest for the question of sound change actuation would be a comparison between Andalusian Spanish and another variety with /s/-lenition since coarticulation and gestural coordination is known to be language- and dialect-specific (Browman & Goldstein, 1992; Garrett & Johnson, 2013; Solé, 2007). Such an investigation could shed light on the question of whether postaspirated stops in Andalusian Spanish are due to a dialect-specific coordination between oral and glottal gestures (as suggested by Torreira, 2012), or if such a process is likely to take place in other varieties of Spanish as well.

Competing InterestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgements We thank our subjects in Granada and Seville for participating, Regula Hauser for help with data collection, and Ulrich Reubold for help with stimuli preparation. We are very grateful to Jonathan Harrington and to colleagues at IPS Munich for discussion and feedback on this project at various stages. We also thank Associate Editor Lisa Davidson and two anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. This work has been funded by a fellowship 144359 of the Swiss National Science Foundation to Hanna Ruch, the Linguistisches Internationales Promotionsprogramm at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, and the URPP Language and Space at University of Zurich.

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