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A9. When mission permits, non-essential heavy physical work should be curtailed or even suspended when indicated by an elevated WBGT index. Whenever possible, plan to perform heavy work and physical training in the early morning or evening. Avoid the heat of the afternoon.

A9. Avoid resting directly on hot ground. The ground heated by the sun can be 30-45 degrees hotter than the air.

A9. Avoid unnecessary standing at attention in the heat, which places an added burden on the body’s circulatory system.

A9. Heat rash can be avoided by keeping skin clean and allowing it to dry between heat exposures.

92 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001

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NOTE: Commanders may choose to use or not use selective unmasking as part of their verification that chemical-biological agents have dissipated or not been used. To eliminate the accidental discharge of firearms due to incapacitation, disarm personnel selected for unmasking.

A10.1. When chemical agent detectors ARE AVAILABLE, conduct tests using all available chemical agent detectors. Perform the following steps only if no agents are detected.

A10.1.1. At each location where selective unmasking is implemented, have one individual unmask for 5 minutes (use enough people to cover all areas of the base). Then have them properly don and check their protective mask and wait for 10 minutes, preferably in the shade.

A10.1.2. Observe the individuals for chemical agent symptoms as specified by local medical authorities.

A10.1.3. If no symptoms are observed, the commander should consider the area free of contamination.

A10.2. Unmasking procedures when chemical agent detectors ARE NOT AVAILABLE are:

A10.2.1. At each location where selective unmasking is implemented (use enough people to cover all areas of the base) have one individual hold their breath, keeping their eyes open, and break the seal of their masks for 15 seconds. Then have them properly don and check their protective mask and wait for 10 minutes, preferably in the shade.

A10.2.2. Observe the individuals for chemical agent symptoms as specified by local medical authorities.

A10.2.3. If they have no symptoms, have them again break the seal of their masks and take two or three breaths. Have them don and check their protective mask and wait for 10 minutes, preferably in the shade.

A10.2.4. Observe the individuals for chemical agent symptoms.

A10.2.5. If they have no symptoms, have the individuals unmask for 5 minutes. Then have them properly don their protective mask for 10 minutes, preferably in the shade.

A10.2.6. Check the individuals for chemical symptoms as specified by local medical authorities.

A10.2.7. If the individuals have no chemical symptoms, the commander should consider the area free of contamination.

AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 95

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A11.1. Contamination Control. This attachment identifies the components of contamination control i.e., avoiding, marking, and detecting contamination and by decontamination. Of these components, contamination avoidance before an attack is the most effective, cheapest, and easiest to perform.

A11.2. Pre-attack Measures. Units should:

A11.2.1. Protect critical resources by covering or placing inside a structure. Also, close aircraft canopies and doors, vehicle doors and windows, and building doors, windows, and openings; cover intakes; and shut down non chemical-biological filtered ventilation systems.

A11.2.2. Fill and seal water containers for later use.

A11.3. Trans-attack Measures. Take the best available cover in the immediate area and don all remaining required IPE. Seek protection from blast, projectiles, shrapnel, heat, and contamination, as directed by the threat.

A11.4. Post-attack Measures. Once contamination is present, units should consider implementing these

measures to minimize the spread of contamination:

A11.4.1. Avoid obviously contaminated items and areas.

A11.4.2. Restrict movement to that needed for critical mission, damage assessment, and recovery tasks. Keep other non-essential personnel in their shelters.

A11.4.3. Employ contamination control measures outside each operational/occupied facility to reduce the accumulation of liquid chemical agent within the facility.

A11.4.3.1. Use the boot and glove bath or shuffle box at the entrance; and monitor for liquid contamination (M8 paper or M9 tape) at the entrance, either individually or using the buddy system or by assigned shelter team members. They should continue to do so until it has been determined there is no longer a contamination hazard.

A11.4.3.2. In shelters or work centers, units should, as a minimum, visually check for: unusual substances, dead animals, holes as opposed to UXO entry sites, night time black-out conditions, and visual warning flags as assigned.

A11.4.4. Mark contaminated items and areas using the NBC Marking Kit. Also, detector paper that has changed color should be left in place as an expedient contamination marker.

A11.4.4.1. Contaminated areas should always be marked unless the area is to be abandoned to the enemy. Contamination marking procedures should be designed for both the protection of personnel assigned to an area and for the prevention of casualties or unnecessary exposures among personnel of other commands or services.

A11.4.4.2. The type of contamination or danger in the area of concern is designated using colored warning signs (right-angled isosceles triangles). These signs may be made of wood, metal, plastic, or other adequate material available. SeeTable A11.1.Contamination Marking Signs.

96 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001

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A11.4.4.3. Details of the contamination should be written on each sign, preferably on the front surface. For biological contamination and for persistent or moderately persistent chemical agents, the name of the agent used, when known, and the date and time of detection are required. For radiological contamination write the dose rate, date and time of reading, the date and time of detonation that produced the contamination, if known.

A11.4.4.4. Areas with more than one type of contamination will be marked with the relevant signs placed next to each other.

A11.4.4.5. Place the sign with longest edge up, with the front of sign facing away from the area being marked. Initially, signs may be placed on any suitable fence, tree, pole, etc.. For large or palletized equipment items, place a sign centrally on one side.

A11.4.5. Report contaminated areas to the SRC for plotting and assessment. Determine travel routes and contaminated areas and advise the base populace and command and control elements.

A11.4.6. Process personnel and material moving from a contaminated area to a TFA.

A11.4.7. Ensure personnel decontaminate themselves and their personal equipment as soon as practical after contamination occurs. They should also decontaminate items to reduce contact hazards or minimize contamination transfer.

A11.5. Decontamination. Decontamination efforts should be consistent with available resources and the contamination’s effect on critical mission operations. Limit decontamination operations to those necessary to minimize contact hazards and to limit spreading contamination to uncontaminated mission critical areas. The four types of decontamination operations are immediate, operational, thorough, and reconstitution. See Attachment 1 for complete definition of immediate, operational, thorough, and reconstitution decontamination.

A11.5.1. Decontamination Equipment. Units should equip contamination control teams when


A11.5.1.1. Responsible for chemical-biological warfare agent decontamination with the chemical defense groundcrew ensemble and wet weather clothing for splash protection.

A11.5.1.2. With brooms, mops, brushes, buckets, and soap. Units should also consider equipping these teams with the lightweight decontamination apparatus. T.O. 11C15-1-3, Chemical Warfare AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 97 Decontamination, Detection and Disposal of Decontaminating Agents, contains additional equipment requirements.

A11.5.1.3. With detection equipment to determine the effectiveness of their decontamination operations.

A11.5.1.4. With marking equipment to mark and identify contaminated areas resulting from decontamination operations.

A11.5.2. Primary Emphasis. Place primary emphasis on contamination avoidance, immediate decontamination, and operational decontamination.

98 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001

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A12.1. This attachment identifies certain actions to take in a NBC environment. Use AFH 32-4014 Volume 4, USAF Ability to Survive and Operate Procedures in a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Environment for key information, procedures, and actions needed to prepare for, survive, and restore mission capability after a NBC or conventional attack.

A12.2. Pre-attack.

A12.2.1. Units should plan to take these actions during the pre-attack phase.

A12.2.1.1. Disperse critical material. Place in protective shelters or provide other forms of protection against contamination, blast, and splinter.

A12.2.1.2. When an attack is probable, shelter personnel not performing mission essential tasks.

A12.2.1.3. When an attack is imminent, suspend all noncritical operations and put facilities, systems, and personnel in a full protective posture, to include sheltering personnel.

A12.2.2. Conventional Attack. Issue conventional IPE.

A12.2.2.1. Issuing and operationally checking individual and unit CB warfare defense material.

Keep IPE available for immediate use.

A12.2.2.2. Beginning CB agent pretreatment. Seek advice from medical authorities.

A12.2.2.3. Recalling specialized teams to prepare CB defense material, facilities, and systems for operation. When ready, the teams may be released on standby.

A12.2.2.4. Upgrading collective protection system configuration from standby to ready. Finish stocking shelters with protective clothing, water, food, and supplies.

A12.2.2.5. Planning for open air CCAs, if applicable.

A12.2.2.6. Activating the NBC reporting system.

A12.2.2.7. Deploying CB detection, identification, warning systems, and CCTs, as required.

A12.2.2.8. Ensuring personnel use individual CB protective equipment (MOPPs 0-Alpha), according to this AFMAN.

A12.2.2.9. When an attack is probable, directing personnel not performing critical mission tasks to collective protection systems or available shelters.

A12.2.2.10. When an attack is imminent, activating CB detection, identification, and warning systems.

A12.2.3. Nuclear Attack. Obtain radiological defense materials from the CE readiness flight. Operationally check the RADIACs. Schedule training for the SMT.

–  –  –

A12.4. Post-attack. Units should plan to take these actions during the post-attack phase.

A12.4.1. Continue to suspend noncritical mission activities until hazards are assessed. Restrict personnel not performing critical mission tasks to shelters. Personnel outside a shelter should use proper IPE. Stress contamination avoidance.

A12.4.2. Perform attack damage and hazard assessment. Survey the immediate area for casualties, unexploded ordnance, damage, indications of chemical agent use, or fallout. Report these findings and any observations on weapons systems, munitions, and tactics used in the attack to the survival recovery center (SRC), through respective unit control centers. Control centers may use AFVA 32-4022, USAF Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) for consolidated UXO recognition and reporting procedures.

A12.4.3. Begin recovery operations. Perform firefighting, rescue, casualty treatment, remains recovery and identification, explosive ordnance disposal, damage assessment, decontamination, and material and facility restoration, as required.

A12.4.4. Conventional Attack. If in a CB threat area and only a conventional protective posture was assumed, be alert for the possible use of CB agent.

A12.4.5. CB Attack: If in a CB threat area:

A12.4.5.1. Perform chemical agent monitoring to verify the presence or absence or presence and extent of chemical agents. Be alert for indications of biological agent use. If contamination is absent, direct a protective posture applicable to threat or further attack. If contamination is


A12.4.5.2. Conduct surveys to define and mark contaminated areas. Plot contaminated areas, advise the SRC on the agent persistency, and provide NBC reports and warnings.

A12.4.5.3. Implement contamination control measures to continue the mission and reduce the hazard. Inform personnel of the hazards and required protective actions.

A12.4.5.4. Implement the following contamination avoidance procedures:

A12. Keep everyone under cover, when possible.

A12. Keep vehicle windows rolled up and doors locked when unattended.

A12. Ensure facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are de-energized and windows are closed and cracks are taped.

A12. Ensure hatches on unsheltered aircraft are closed and sealed when possible.

A12. Place as much equipment as possible indoors or under cover. If the equipment cannot be placed under cover, wrap or cover it with plastic sheets, canvas, tarpaulins, etc.

Coverings should be changed after an attack to prevent agent penetration.

A12.4.5.5. Change chemical-biological filters according to the exposure and replacement criteria in applicable technical orders.

A12.4.5.6. Biological warfare presents special problems due to the wide range of potential agents and methods of dissemination. Detection capability is limited to post-attack medical investigation and confirmation.

100 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 A12. Through all phases of operations, the medical intelligence officer evaluates the potential threat of biological warfare and epidemic diseases.

A12. Maintain good physical condition, obtain required immunizations, and good sanitation and hygiene measures.

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