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A12.4.5.7. Individual protective equipment and decontamination procedures give a large degree of protection and minimize the spread of many agents.

A12.4.6. Nuclear Attack. If in a nuclear scenario:

A12.4.6.1. Monitor for the arrival of fallout.

A12.4.6.2. If fallout arrives at the installation:

A12. Continue shelter operations.

A12. Implement exposure control.

A12. Implement radiological contamination control.

A12.4.6.3. Plot nuclear detonations and fallout, predict radiation intensities, and submit required reports. If tasked as a North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) reporting or collection center, follow the procedures in NORAD Instruction 10-22, NBC Warning and Reporting System.

AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 101

Attachment 13


A13.1. Depleted Uranium (DU) is an extremely dense metal used for protective shielding or in munitions to penetrate heavy armor. Exposure and incidents to DU may occur at anytime there is damage to a DU armor package or when an item (such as a vehicle) is hit with a DU munition. The Air Force primarily uses DU in aircraft counterbalances (C-5, C-141, etc.) and in 30 mm API (Armor Piercing/ Incendiary) GAU-8 munitions.

A13.1.1. DU can present a number of hazards depending on its physical form (solid versus particulate) and chemical form. These hazards can be grouped into three categories ; 1)radiological, 2) toxicological, and 3) pyrophoric.

A13.1.1.1. DU presents a radiological hazard from both an external and internal radiation dose standpoint. Externally, DU and its decay products emit beta and gamma /x-ray radiations which can serve as sources of external radiation for personnel. Contact gamma dose rates from bare DU can be on the order of 15 mrem/hr, while skin contact dose rate due to beta radiation from bare DU is approximately 238 mrem/hr.

Internally, insoluble DU oxide can be inhaled and deposited into the lungs where irradiation by alpha particles is the primary concern. In general, aircraft counterbalances and DU penetrators used in munitions are typically covered to prevent corrosion (oxidation). The primary group at risk for external exposure is munitions handlers and aircraft maintenance personnel. The primary groups at risk for internal exposure is personnel involved with DU contamination which can potentially become airborne and subsequently inhaled.

A13.1.1.2. Soluble forms of DU can present a significant toxicological hazard. Like any heavy metal, DU ingested/inhaled into the body, and subsequently entering the blood stream, may be toxic to the kidneys and other organs.

A13.1.1.3. The pyrophoric hazard presented by DU is normally associated with fine particulates of metallic DU generated during fabrication processes. Particulate oxides of DU are generated as a result of normal corrosive processes on exposed DU, fires, and penetrator impact with armor, but are not pyrophoric.

A13.2. Potentially Contaminated Media. Three areas that we may encounter are intact DU components, vehicle surfaces (inside/outside) and environmental media (soil, water, and air) A13.2.1. The surface of DU comprising certain intact aircraft counterbalances and munition penetrators will corrode or oxidize if exposed to air. This surface oxidation can become a minor source of contamination of personnel, equipment, and vehicles and the local environment.

A13.2.2. Military and civilian vehicles may become contaminated with DU either as a result of direct penetrator strikes, traveling through a DU contaminated environment, or as a result of an accident/fire.

Penetrators striking an armored target essentially burn their way through the armor. As a result, DU oxide particles are formed and can be deposited in or on the vehicle or short distances downwind (typically less than 100 yards). The metal surrounding the DU penetration hole is generally the area of highest contamination. The amount of DU contamination resulting from a crash of an aircraft having DU counterbalances is dependent on its physical integrity. The majority of aircraft accidents involving DU counterbalances, even those involving extensive fire, the counterbalances are normally intact and present only a minor source of contamination.

A13.2.3. Environmental media (and water) can be a receptor of contamination from other sources ( i.e., weathering of intact DU components, DU released from penetrator strikes or fire, etc). The level of this contamination is minor in comparison to that encountered on vehicle surfaces, exposed counterbalance 102 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 surfaces, etc. The one exception is hard target range operations involving DU munitions which are left exposed to oxidize and further add to the soil contamination.

A13.3. Precautions. Ingestion/inhalation of DU from any form of contaminated media is the primary hazard of concern. Taking the necessary precautions to minimize these risk requires appropriate personnel protective equipment (i.e., clothing detection equipment, etc.) and procedures. Required procedures and equipment will vary depending on the type of work to be accomplished. Some common sense rules

to apply when dealing with radioactive material are:

A13.3.1. In general, when radioactive contamination is present, the area should be evacuated or cordoned off and avoided. If it is necessary to work in a contaminated environment you must wear protective equipment. Also health monitoring or exposure control operations will be required.

A13.3.2. Ensure your protective equipment is operational and appropriate for the task to be accomplished A13.3.3. Don’t eat, drink, or smoke in a potential contaminated area.

A13.3.4. Rolling down your sleeves and covering any exposed skin areas. This provides protection from alpha and beta radiation in the form of particles. You should pay particular attention to protecting open cuts or wounds. Cover your mouth with an uncontaminated cloth, surgical mask, or protective mask if available.

A13.3.5. Limit external hazards by wiping or washing exposed areas as soon as possible.

A13.3.6. Minimize time, maximize distance and maximize shielding in order to keep any doses received as low as possible.

AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 103

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This revision incorporates Interim Change IC 2001-1. This interim change provides guidance for the Air Force Contamination Control Area (CCA) processing for the Battle Dress Overgarment (BDO), Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPO), Joint Fire Fighter Integrated Response Ensemble (J-FIRE) and the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Level A Suit. The Contaminant Air Processing System (CAPS) is the Air Force standardized CCA processing system and will be used to the maximum extent possible. However, not possessing the CAPS will not preclude implementing Air Force standardized processing procedures.

It also includes mission critical equipment (MCE) refurbishment procedures. A “|” indicates revisions from the previous edition.

2.5. Site Components. Each CCA must have an entrance, Contact Hazard Area (CHA), Vapor Hazard Area (VHA), and an airlock/transition point between the VHA and Toxic Free Area (TFA). The CCA/ TFA complex is composed of the following sub-elements, each connected in some way and can only be successfully accomplished through cohesive, integrated operations. See Figure 2.3. and Figure 2.4. for an example layout of the CCA site components.

104 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001

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2.5.2. CCA Entrance. The entrance to the CCA includes the following areas: Arrival and Initial Decontamination Area, Weapons Clearing, Wash & Holding Area, and the External Equipment Removal Area.

Use this area to: Perform initial decontamination of yourself and your buddy prior to entering the Contact Hazard Area. See Table A2.9. for CCA processing procedures. Inform the processees of the sequence of events they will experience and any emergency response procedures. Provide a covered area for rest and shade while waiting to process. Allow for turn in of weapons and the removal of external equipment worn other than the overgarment. i.e. Helmet, Vest (aircrew), Web Gear, Mask Carrier, Flak Vest, and Cold/Wet Weather Gear. Most of this equipment cannot be decontaminated to safe levels due to material composition. Equipment will be marked with individual’s rank, name, and duty position for reissue to the same individual.

2.5.7. Mission Critical Equipment (MCE) Refurbishment Area. The purpose of the refurbishment area is to decontaminate MCE and return it to the warfighter as quickly as possible. This area includes refurbishment of groundcrew, firefighter and EOD equipment. Refer to Table A2.13. for MCE refurbishment procedures. To prevent bottlenecks during this process, this function should have dedicated personnel when the CCA is fully operational. Regardless of whether it is a single activity or several line-by-line activities, the people will require large supplies of plastic bags, M8 paper, M291/M295 decontamination kits, sponges and bleach. The refurbishment area should be located outside the CCA processing lines. See Figure 2.3. for an example of the Refurbishment Area location and Figure A2.1. for the Refurbishment Station layout. The refurbishment duties are split between the Contact Hazard Area and the Vapor Hazard Area. Ensure adequate space, dedicated personnel, and supplies are available for this tasking.

2.6. Site Selection. The most important step in selecting a suitable location for the installation CCA/TFA complex(s) sterns from a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. See Figure 2.5. for an example of where to establish the CCA in relation to the chemical deposition. The next consideration is knowing how large of an area will be needed. There are two main directions an installation may take.

AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 107 Figure 2.5.

CCA Site Selection The first variable is the processing requirement. Once a processing line is established and people are moving through it (i.e., as one person leaves a station another person steps up), a relatively smooth flow will begin to take place. The CCA processing lines will take a large amount of space in order to optimize processing and force protection ideals. Spread the lines out (distance between processing stations) as far as reasonably possible. If space permits stations should be spaced approximately 18 meters apart and areas within each station should be 9 meters apart.

Establish the lines in an angular and staggered fashion as opposed to a straight-line concept. The angle of the line should be a 20-degree angular configuration. Using this method, the concentration of ìtrailingî vapor hazards washing over people downwind of each processing station will be significantly reduced.

See Figure 2.4. for the example of a CCA Layout. Once monitored personnel remove their mask and proceed to the TFA. The further the better, but at least 25 meters is recommended from the end of the VHA to the TFA. See Figure 2.4.

2.7.1. Decontaminants. Liquid solution (5% chlorine solution) is preferred for most areas within the CCA. Normal household bleach is made at the 5% chlorine level. Do not use a 5% chlorine solution to decontaminate skin. Chlorine must be reduced to 0.5% for skin decontamination and must not be placed in open wounds. Standard decontamination kits (M291and M295) will also be used as appropriate for the task. The liquid chlorine mixture is placed in shuffle boxes for footwear decontamination and in troughs for glove decontamination steps. The amount needed for sustainment is based upon a number of variables, 108 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 such as the type of protective ensemble the individual is wearing, number of personnel processing and flowrate. The CCA attendants will ensure the shuffle boxes and hand troughs are initially filled and checked periodically for refilling as necessary. For planning purposes; the initial CCA start-up quantity using the groundcrew version CAPS is 73 gallons of bleach at 5% concentration and 46 gallons of water.

See Figure 2.4. for CCA layout. The consumption rate to support 400 personnel is calculated at approximately 60 gallons of bleach (5% percent concentration) for BDO processing and 144 gallons for CPO processing; an average of 12 gallon of water was used for both processes. Consider contacting Civil Engineering Utilities personnel to create the 5% solutions required in order to reduce contract costs and airlift/storage requirements. Caution: shuffle pits become extremely slippery when filled with chlorine bleach. Look for solutions to the problem in advance such as laying terry cloth towels in the bottom of the pit to increase friction between overboots and the shuffle pit.

2.8.2. CCA Assistants. CCA assistants are shelterees selected to help operate the CCA as an additional duty when not performing mission essential duties. They perform assigned CCA support tasks for the CCA supervisor. At fixed sites locations the attendants can be identified through the installation READY program and deployed forces. CCA Entrance. Provide an assistant in the holding area who can answer questions concerning the CCA/TFA, collect classified material and direct people to the appropriate processing line, thereby minimizing bottlenecks. Also provide an individual for weapons clearing/storage operations. CHA Staffing. Minimum staffing, per shift, should be:

Note: The minimum staffing requirements listed below are based upon the complete setup of the CCA layout in Figure 2.4. Manning may fluctuate based upon the setup. Four people to operate and handle suit transport to and from the aeration area. One person to transport contaminated waste to the disposal area. (equipment operator preferably). One person per processing line at the Mask Wipe and Hood Removal Area. One person per two or three processing lines to assist personnel as necessary prior to their reaching the VHA. VHA Staffing. Minimum staffing, per shift, should be:

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