«BY ORDER OF THE AIR FORCE MANUAL 32-4005 SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE 30 OCTOBER 2001 Civil Engineer PERSONNEL PROTECTION AND ATTACK ACTIONS NOTICE: ...»
Weapons Of Mass Destruction (WMD)—Weapons that cause indiscriminate, widespread destruction.
Such weapons include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons in any form, and associated delivery system. These three types of weapons are also referred to as NBC weapons. In arms control usage includes radiological weapons, but excludes the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part of the weapon.
AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 35
A2.1. Shelter Organization and Operation. The installation commander exercises normal command and control over forces in shelters to ensure personnel are available to continue the wartime mission. A shelter command structure should reflect the typical unit command structure. The same personnel who perform these functions during peacetime should continue their duties during wartime shelter operations.
A2.1.1. The owning organization commander is the commander for all organizational shelters.
A2.1.2. The owning organization first sergeant is the administrative first sergeant for all organizational shelters.
A2.1.3. The commander’s support staff continues to perform necessary administrative functions within the shelter community. The most critical functions are to track personnel location and to provide status reports to the personnel readiness unit or equivalent.
A2.2. Shelter Management Teams. Teams are pre-identified by the unit commander for each shelter
and perform the following:
A2.2.1. Operate the shelter.
A2.2.2. Select shelterees to perform shelter operational tasks.
A2.2.3. Control entry, exit, and internal shelteree location.
A2.2.4. Monitor for NBC contamination using prescribed detection equipment and check for symptoms resulting from CB agent exposure.
A2.2.5. Brief personnel egressing the shelter into a contaminated environment on the effects of contamination and exposure limits.
A2.2.6. Perform immediate and the appropriate level of operational decontamination.
A2.2.7. Establish a CCA and TFA within each structure possessing collective protection capabilities.
In lieu of collective protection facilities, SMTs may be required to perform shelter management and CCA duties at open-air rest and relief locations. Equipment needed varies depending on shelter type, location, and size of the CCAs and TFAs.
A2.2.8. Establish radiological exposure control procedures for each shelter, if the threat warrants.
A2.3. Detection, Identification, and Warning. A system for detecting, identifying, and warning others on the type and location of contamination is mission critical. Shelters are an integral part of the installation detection, identification, and warning system.
A2.4. Pre-attack Actions. Units should:
A2.4.1. Recall shelter teams and activate shelters. This involves training SMTs and CCA team members, implementing operating directives and checklists, obtaining and checking equipment and supplies, and preparing the shelters for occupancy. Pre-position personal gear, equipment, food, clothing, first aid supplies, and hygiene kits for occupants.
36 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 A2.4.2. Improve shelter survivability both inside and out. Internal improvements include boarding and covering windows, doors, and other openings; securing loose articles; placing excess furniture and equipment along inside of external walls; and, when necessary, moving people to the innermost part of the shelter. External improvements include revetting or placing earth berms or sandbags against the shelter to increase protection.
A2.4.3. Recall personnel not performing mission critical tasks to their assigned shelter at the proper readiness stage. Control entry and exit through a central point.
A2.4.4. All SMTs should have the ability to detect, measure, and document gamma radiation intensities and dosages and to detect and identify chemical-biological warfare agents if they are a threat to the installation.
NOTE: Personnel may require off-base relocation if there are insufficient rest and relief shelter spaces.
Relocation should be consistent with theater directives, major command requirements, logistics capabilities, security for personnel and resources, and local area capability.
A2.5. Trans-attack Actions. SMTs should:
A2.5.1. Suspend shelter in and out processing and secure doors.
A2.5.2. Instruct personnel to take whatever cover is available. Personnel may use shelter CCAs and other covered areas for blast and shrapnel protection.
A2.5.3. Instruct personnel to don IPE items if required.
A2.5.4. Monitor overpressure and filtration systems for proper operations, when applicable.
A2.6. Post-attack Actions. SMTs should:
A2.6.1. Check for damage, unexploded ordnance, casualties, and determine if contamination is present in or around the outside shelter area. Report findings to the SRC through unit control centers.
A2.6.2. For a nuclear attack:
A126.96.36.199. For nuclear fallout, SMTs should check radiation intensity outside the shelter by using prescribed detection equipment. Report readings and the shelter protection factor through the unit control center to the NBC Control Center/SRC.
A188.8.131.52. Implement radiological exposure control procedures outlined in Attachment 3.
A184.108.40.206. Curtail outdoor operations during fallout conditions until radiation decays to a level as determined by the installation commander. Perform only those outside tasks required to continue mission-essential functions.
A220.127.116.11. Radiological decontamination. Initiate decontamination procedures for people, supplies, and equipment entering the shelter. Decontamination methods include brushing, vacuuming, removing clothing and washing. Background radiation levels may preclude monitoring to determine if contamination still exists (as a standard, decontaminate those who arrive at the shelter after fallout has arrived and those who exit and return.) Perform operational outside decontamination only when necessary to reduce dangerous inside radiation exposure levels. This usually involves removing radioactive materials from outside the facility (e.g. hosing off the roof or moving materials away from the building).
AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 37 A18.104.22.168.1. Radiological decontamination of personnel. It is important that all people, and particularly those directing emergency operations, understand that the total radiation injury from fallout is a composite due to several causes, including contamination of the surrounding areas, contamination of skin areas, and ingestion and inhalation of fallout materials. To keep the total radiation injury low, the effect of each potential source of radiation on the total radiation exposure must be kept in mind, and each contributing element should be kept as low as operationally feasible. Normally, ordinary personnel cleanliness procedures will suffice for personnel decontamination during shelter stay and after the fallout period.
A22.214.171.124.2. All persons entering the shelter after fallout starts should brush or shake their outer clothing before entering the shelter. Persons should brush or shake from the downwind side to keep the contaminated dust from blowing into the shelter. If the weather is damp or rainy, the outer clothing should be removed before entering the shelter.
A126.96.36.199.3. After entering the shelter and as soon as practicable, a person exposed to fallout should wash, brush, or thoroughly wipe the exposed portions of the body, such as the hands, face, and hair. If there are shower facilities or sufficient quantities of water are available, persons should bathe with plenty of water and soap.
A188.8.131.52.4. After washing and putting on clean clothing, the person should go to the clean areas of the shelter.
A184.108.40.206.5. Radiological decontamination of clothing. Thorough decontamination of clothing can be deferred until after the emergency shelter period when supplies of water and equipment are available. Equipment for decontamination of clothing includes brooms, brushes, and vacuum cleaners (if available). For more effective decontamination of clothing, washer and dryer equipment should be available.
A220.127.116.11. Use the duty uniform, field jacket with hood, and standard footwear as personal protection. Expedient respiratory protection is available through handkerchiefs, T-shirts, towels, etc. If available and considered necessary, use the protective mask for added protection. Tape uniform openings shut.
A2.6.3. For a CB attack:
A18.104.22.168. If available, verify the integrity of the filtration and over pressurization systems. Direct personnel in the shelter to utilize the appropriate amount of individual protection i.e., IPE immediately available but not worn, mask only worn, full IPE worn, etc.
A22.214.171.124. Implement contamination control/avoidance procedures for all personnel performing outside mission essential tasks.
A126.96.36.199. Initiate the appropriate level of chemical-biological agent decontamination. Decontaminate and process equipment through a CCA. Remove protective coverings from items before placing them in the airlock. Remove vapor contamination from equipment and supplies by allowing the items to off gas.
NOTE: Decontaminate masks in the CHA/VHA and pass them into the TFA (in a sealed water-proofing bag) following a chemical attack.
A188.8.131.52. Wear IPE in accordance to technical directives specified in this AFMAN when directed by the installation commander.
38 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 A2.7. Shelter Equipment.
A2.7.1. Plan for the following equipment requirements.
A184.108.40.206. Each shelter should have a shelter kit. Contents may vary; however, each kit should
A220.127.116.11. First aid kit sufficient for the expected number of shelterees and their likely medical needs.
A18.104.22.168. Floor plan identifying preplanned areas (to include key item locations, e.g., dosimeters, other detection and warning devices, and fire extinguishers) and emergency utility shut off locations.
A22.214.171.124. Base grid map with medical facilities, shelters, control centers, and key phone numbers indicated.
A126.96.36.199. SMT identification devices (e.g., badge or armband).
A188.8.131.52. T.O.s and operational manuals for the shelter system, other support equipment, and specialized equipment.
A184.108.40.206. Shelter directives and operational checklists to cover all shelter operation aspects.
A220.127.116.11. Administrative supplies needed for maintaining personnel accountability, exposure control, and log of events, etc.
A2.7.2. Supplies and equipment are needed for effective shelter operation. Below are items that may be useful. The list is not all inclusive and serves only as a guide.
A18.104.22.168. Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense Equipment. Table A2.1. Contains chemical warfare defense equipment recommended to be stocked in the shelter.
High and Low Range CDV instruments Dosimeters and Chargers ADM-300 Radiacs A2.8. Individual Protective Equipment Disposition. Process equipment contaminated with vapor/liquid/solid chemical warfare agents as described below and using Table A2.13. for refurbishment of mission critical equipment. Coordinated base planning is necessary to identify decontamination facilities and contaminated waste disposal areas, and to develop operating procedures. Avoid extensive decontamination, because it is labor and resource intensive and not always effective.
A2.8.1. The overall decontamination method for the BDO is aeration. However, if the overgarment (BDO/CPO) is initially decontaminated soon after contamination fall (within 15 minutes) with the M291/M295 Decontamination Kit, the amount of chemical warfare agent absorbed by the OG could be greatly reduced. Furthermore, decontaminating with the M291/M295 will enhance the protection capability afforded by the OG. Although the BDOs may present a vapor hazard, they may have to be reused if OG stocks are depleted. Wearers of previously contaminated BDOs should be observed for any indication of chemical-biological agent exposure. At the present time CPOs cannot be reconstituted.
A2.8.2. Aerate BDOs outside the TFA and CCA boundaries. The area selected should provide protection from additional liquid contamination and a means of hanging the OG for aeration (racks are provided with the CAPS or the clothesline method is adequate). Special consideration is needed in open air CCAs to ensure that contaminated BDOs are aerated away from the TFA and mask removal point.
Splinter protection is desirable. Aeration time depends on the temperature, amount and agent type, humidity, and airflow. To ensure aeration time is tracked, attach a tag, tape, etc to each BDO with the date and start time of aeration.
A22.214.171.124. Special consideration should be made to whether or not the BDOs were liquid/solid or vapor contaminated. Separate vapor from liquid contaminated suits and only reuse the liquid contaminated suits as a last resort.
A126.96.36.199. BDOs contaminated with VX may take weeks to decontaminate to acceptable levels, and is therefore aeration is not considered a viable option.
A188.8.131.52. Specific aeration times for all variables do not exist. For most agents, at least 72 hours at temperatures above 60 degrees should be sufficient to prevent a contact hazard. However, after one hour of aeration, contamination levels are significantly reduced and may no longer present a transfer hazard. For monitoring purposes, wait 24 hours before initially monitoring aerated suits with the CAM.
A184.108.40.206. Even though the BDO has been aerated, its mission effectiveness may have been degraded by the previous chemical agent exposure.
A2.8.3. Ensure sufficient OG’s are available at the CCA to support extended mission operations.
Deplete new stocks before reusing previously contaminated BDOs.
A2.8.4. Monitor previously contaminated BDOs with the CAM before removing them from the aeration area. Example method: Place the suit into an enclosed container, i.e. plastic bag to concentrate the vapors and then perform CAM check. CAM must read 0 bars to reuse suits. Inform personnel being issued the previously contaminated suits that they were contaminated and that they should watch closely for any signs of CW agent exposure.