«BY ORDER OF THE AIR FORCE MANUAL 32-4005 SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE 30 OCTOBER 2001 Civil Engineer PERSONNEL PROTECTION AND ATTACK ACTIONS NOTICE: ...»
A2.11.2. Egress Signs: Within the egress section of the area, utilize these signs to provide information concerning proper IPE wear and indicate what the current alarm condition and MOPP level are at
the main base. Use Table 2.10. for Egress Processing. For example, you might have signs that read:
The current alarm condition, MOPP level and variation is _______________.
58 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001
BDO Preparing the BDOs for aeration.
1. Inspect for serviceability.
2. Brush off excess decontaminant.
3. Check suits for signs of liquid contamination.
4. Separate vapor contaminated suits from liquid contaminated suits.
5. Remove M9 tape.
6. Sort the BDOs by size to ease future identification.
7. Tag each overgarment with the date and start time of aeration.
8. Hang BDOs for aeration. See A2.8.2. for additional guidance on overgarment aeration.
9. Monitor with a Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) prior to removing them from aeration. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
MCU-2A/P and M-45 Mask Refurbishment Procedures See Figure A2.1. for example of station layout.
Station 1 - Mask Decontamination – 1 Attendant
1. Remove and discard the filter canister.
2. Submerge the mask in a 5% chlorine solution for 30 seconds.
Station 2 – Mask Aeration –2 Attendants (Recommended) Preparing Mask for Aeration
1. Remove the head-harness from the mask and submerge in water for approximately two minutes. Note: Remove the head-harnesses by cutting the straps immediately below the metal tab and discard the headharness.
2. After the two-minute rinse, remove the eyelens cover and wipe the cover with a dry towelette.
3. Hang mask for Aeration.
Station 3 – Mask Re-Service – 1 Attendant This Station attendant is responsible for removing the mask from aeration and preparing them for re-issue.
Prior to removing the mask from aeration the attendant will monitor the inside and outside of the mask with a Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM). See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
Preparing the mask for re-issue
1. Refit the mask with an eye lens cover and place a new head-harness inside the mask. The processee is responsible for replacing the head-harness.
2. Conduct a visual inspection and replace parts as needed.
Station 1 – Interspiro CW Mask Refurbishment Note: Fire Department and EOD personnel will refurbishment the Interspiro CW Mask.
1. Disassemble the mask by removing the Nomex hood, C2 canister, hose cover, beard, voice cone and breathing valve assembly.
2. Seal the canister hose and discard the canister.
3. Hang up the Nomex hood, beard, and hose cover to aerate. Check with the CAM before reuse. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines
4. Wipe the breathing valve assembly with 5% chlorine solution and rinse with water.
5. Submerge the disassembled mask in a 5% chlorine solution for 30 seconds and then rinse and agitate in a water solution for 30 seconds.
6. Hang the mask for aeration. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines
7. Monitor the inside and outside of the mask with a Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) prior to removing the mask from aeration. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
8. Reassemble the mask and transfer to the Vapor Hazard Area.
Station 2 – Bunker Boots – 1 Attendant
1. Set boots into 4 inches of 5% chlorine solution for approximately 30 seconds. Scrub the bottom of the boots using a stiff brush. After wiping the sides of the boot with the chlorine solution, place the boot on the rinsing table. Note: Try and keep the inside of the boot as dry as possible.
2. Rinse the boots in the same manner as described in Step 1.
3. Hang boots upside down to aerate.
4. Monitor the boots with a Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) prior to removing them from aeration. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
5. Transport the boots to the VHA.
Station 3 - Firefighter Proximity Suit – 1 Attendant
1. Separate the exterior aluminized shell (silvers) from the interior bunker liners.
2. Separate the bunker suspenders from the proximity trousers.
3. Hang the bunker liners and suspenders for aeration.
5. Rinse by submerging them in a water solution for 30 seconds.
6. Hang the bunker silvers for aeration.
7. Monitor the bunker silvers with a chemical agent monitor prior to removing them from aeration. See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
8. Monitor the bunker liners and suspenders with a chemical agent monitor prior to removing them from the aeration rack.
See Table A2.12. for monitoring guidelines.
9. Reassemble the bunker liners, silvers, and suspenders before transporting to the VHA.
Station 4 – Modified Structural ARFF Helmet – 1 Attendant
1. Submerge the ARFF helmet with aluminized dome cover and shroud (attachments) in the 5% chlorine solution for approximately 30 seconds.
2. Rinse the helmet and attachments with water in the same manner as step 1.
3. Place the helmet and attachments into aeration.
4. Monitor the helmet with attachments with a CAM prior to removing them from aeration before transporting to the VHA.
Station 5 – Fire Fighter/CW Protective Gloves – 1 Attendant
1. Submerge the gloves in the 5% chlorine solution for approximately 30 seconds.
2. Rinse the gloves by submerging and agitating in water for approximately 30 seconds.
3. Place the gloves into aeration.
4. Monitor the gloves with a CAM prior to removing them from aeration before transporting to the VHA. See Table A2.12.
for monitoring guidelines
A2.12. Determining how many CCA’s your base should setup:
A2.12.1. Ascertain the number of personnel the complex must support (2000 for example).
A2.12.2. Determine the agent’s expected persistency time. This determination will result in one of two scenarios. The agent will remain in the area for a period of time that will require the entire population to process one or more times. The persistency of the agent is such that only those people whose OG was physically contaminated will require CCA processing.
A18.104.22.168. Entire base. In the event of having to process the entire base population:
A22.214.171.124.1. Use all available variables (mission requirements, weather, physical and mental condition of base populace, transportation capabilities, etc.) to determine the amount of time the leadership realistically believes each person should spend on shift. For our example, we’ll use 8 hours as the baseline.
AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 63 A126.96.36.199.2. Determine the amount of time it will take to establish the CCA/TFA complex. If it is already established, use a figure of two (2) hours. This amount of weathering will greatly reduce the contact hazard people bring with them to the CCA, thereby reducing the potential for casualties caused by cross contamination. In our example, we’ll use a figure of 3 hours.
A188.8.131.52.3. Subtract the “establishment” time from the work cycle time (leaving 5 hours in our example).
A184.108.40.206.4. Divide the required number of people (2000 for our example) into the remaining hours (5). In our example, the installation is left with a processing requirement of 400 people per hour.
A220.127.116.11.5. Based on a processing rate of 70 people per hour, your installation would have to establish 6 ground crew CCA’s. See A2.1. for CCA layout.
A18.104.22.168. Limited processing. In the event of only having to process people who contaminated their OG’s.
Protective Mask Refurbishment Area Layout
populace would be caught outside, then we’d use 15 percent as our figure for this step. In our example, 15 percent would equate to 300 people.
A22.214.171.124.2. Assess the number of people, over and above the personnel thought to be contaminated in the last step, who will contaminate their OG (don’t count gloves and overboots), during mission operations. We’ll use another 100 people in our example. This brings the total contaminated populace to 400 people.
A126.96.36.199.3. Use all available variables (mission requirements, weather, physical and mental condition of base populace, transportation capabilities, etc.) to determine the amount of time the leadership realistically believes each person should spend on shift. The same rules apply here as in our earlier example EXCEPT that the contaminated populace should be processed shortly after the agent dissipates from the remainder of the installation if a situation exists where normal shift length exceeds agent persistency. We’ll use 6 hours for this example.
A188.8.131.52.4. Determine the amount of time it will take to establish the CCA/TFA complex. In our example, we’ll use a figure of 3 hours once again.
A184.108.40.206.5. Subtract the “establishment” time from the work cycle time (leaving 3 hours in our example).
A220.127.116.11.6. Divide the required number of people (400 for our example) into the remaining hours (3). In our example, the installation is left with a processing requirement of 134 people per hour.
A18.104.22.168.7. Based on a processing rate of 70 people per hour, your installation would have to establish 2 ground crew CCA’s.
A22.214.171.124. If an installation is capable of operating multiple CCA/TFA locations simultaneously, either open-air or in conjunction with collective protection facilities, the total required processing lines can be distributed between the various locations.
A126.96.36.199. In the case where people only contaminated their gloves and/or overboots, these items
can be decontaminated and disposed of in the following manner:
A188.8.131.52.1. Decontaminate gloves and overboots in a liquid solution containing 5 percent chlorine (straight bleach or suitable slurry).
A184.108.40.206.2. Remove overboots and discard into plastic bags (which will be transported to the contaminated waste disposal area).
A220.127.116.11.3. Remove gloves in typical “both at same time” manner and discard into plastic bags (which will be transported to the contaminated waste disposal area).
AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 65
A3.1. General Information.
A3.1.1. This attachment provides basic information needed to understand nuclear environment effects, i.e. Fallout, with general protective procedures for personnel that may be exposed. It also includes the process of implementing radiological exposure control. Unit commanders should use the radiological exposure control system to control, within limits, personal radiation exposure. It also provides information needed to plan for survival, recovery, and mission operations in a fallout environment.
A3.1.2. Sources of Radiation. In simple terms, radiation sources following a nuclear detonation are categorized as initial radiation and fallout.
A18.104.22.168. Initial radiation is produced within 1 minute after the detonation. Most radiation produced by a nuclear weapon is released at this time and is very limited in range. A lethal exposure to initial radiation is not a main concern during shelter operations because anyone close enough to receive a lethal dose would probably be killed by the blast or heat.
A22.214.171.124. Fallout contains radioactive particulate matter produced by a nuclear detonation. Significant fallout occurs when a nuclear detonation contacts the ground or a large body of water, throwing tons of radioactive debris into the air. As the explosion settles down, the radioactive particles begin to fall back to the ground. The amount of fallout formed and its distribution over the land depends on many factors, such as the design of the weapon, size of the particles, height of the burst above the ground, terrain, weather conditions, etc.
A3.1.3. Categories of Fallout. Fallout may be divided into three phases: immediate, medium range, and long range.
A126.96.36.199. Immediate: (local fallout) The depositing of heavy debris within half an hour of the burst, which occurs mostly in the area in which physical damage is sustained.
A188.8.131.52. Medium range: That which is deposited between half an hour and approximately twenty hours after a nuclear explosion out to the ranges of some hundreds of kilometers from the point of burst in the case of megaton weapons. In general medium range fallout represents the most significant hazard to personnel. The effects of immediate fallout are normally overshadowed by initial radiation, blast and thermal effects in the vicinity of nuclear bursts, and the radiological dose from long range fallout does not reach tactically significant levels.
A184.108.40.206. Long range: The slow removal of very small particles which may continue for months or even years, particularly after a high yield thermo nuclear explosion. This is diffused and eventually deposited over a very large area of the earth’s surface.
A3.2. Fallout Hazards. The primary operational hazard for personnel performing duties outside the shelter is alpha particles, fission fragments, and other heavy nuclei. When ingested or inhaled, these particles can do twenty times more damage to internal tissue than exposure to gamma radiation. The operational hazard for personnel remaining inside during fallout conditions is gamma ray (ionizing radiation) exposure because they penetrate the body and damage internal tissues.
66 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 A3.3. Units of Measurement. Measure gamma radiation amount or dose that a person receives in centigrays. Measure gamma ray strength or intensity in centigrays per hour. Some older radiation detection devices read intensities as roentgens per hour. The terms roentgens and centigrays are interchangeable.
A3.4. Exposure Control Guidelines.