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A3.4.1. Without interfering with mission-essential military operations, avoid exposure to nuclear ionizing radiation. Since factors such as sex, age, health, and previous exposure levels influence ionizing radiation effects, no precise guidelines apply equally to everyone in all circumstances. The exposure control program effectiveness depends on knowing how much radiation personnel have been exposed to, what the effects are, and how to limit excessive exposure. For planning purposes, the total accumulated dose should not exceed 150 centigrays per person. However, the installation commander has the authority to adjust this limit, as necessary, to ensure critical mission operations. (AFI 32-4001).

A3.4.2. Include all shelterees in the exposure control system. Use RADIACs to detect and measure the dose rate. Use dosimeters to determine accumulated radiation dosages received (the ADM 300 can be used for both rate and accumulated dosages). The SMT maintains the radiological log. Enter dosages on shelter radiological logs and individual radiological dose records. General purpose worksheets may be used.

A3.4.3. When fallout is expected, conduct continuous monitoring to identify the exact arrival time of fallout radiation. Note the time and intensity on the shelter radiological log. Continue monitoring every 15 minutes until a peak in radiation intensity occurs. Note each time, intensity, and peak on the log. After peak intensity is identified, monitor and record intensity readings every 60 minutes. If an increase is noted, resume monitoring every 15 minutes until a new peak is identified. Record all readings on the shelter radiological log. Use this information to determine the actual decay rate of radiation and plan future military operations. Graphing intensities can provide a clear picture of present exposure and future decay.

A3.4.4. Place dosimeters at several locations inside the shelter and record the average reading on the shelter radiological log. Take dosimeter readings on all dosimeters in the shelter and record the average reading on the radiological log. Continue to read and average dosimeters each hour. Charge (zero) dosimeters if they have reached one-half of the maximum value, and annotate "zeroed" in the remarks column of the shelter radiological log.

A3.4.5. The SMT can determine protection factor by dividing the outside intensity reading by the inside intensity reading on gamma monitoring devices. If hot spots or higher levels of radiation are discovered at various locations inside the shelter, attempt to reduce radiation levels, or relocate personnel to safer areas in the shelter, or, if permissible, move to another shelter.

A3.4.6. Rotate shelterees through various shelter areas if radiation levels differ significantly inside the shelter. This will help equalize exposure. Keep separate records on shelterees in lieu of a radiological log for the shelter.

A3.5. Recording Individual Doses.

A3.5.1. When performing assigned tasks, many personnel are deployed outside shelters. To help ensure they do not exceed prescribed radiation dosages, each person should maintain their own radiological dose record. Each person enters their personal data and assigned shelter on the record. Personnel complete this record before they depart from, and immediately after they return to, a shelter, or AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 67 upon completing shelter operations if radiation was present. The record is designed for multiple uses before a new record is needed.

A3.5.2. Each person should complete the following items on the individual radiation dose record

immediately before departing the shelter:

A3.5.2.1. Location. Enter the shelter number the person is departing from.

A3.5.2.2. Date/Time. Enter the period of time the person was in the shelter "From" the time of fallout arrival "To" the time the person departs. Then, on the next line’s "From" block, enter the time and date the person departs.

A3.5.2.3. Dose. Enter the accumulated dose received while in the shelter in "This Period." Obtain this information from the shelter radiological log and supplement it with a final dosimeter reading if it has been more than 30 minutes since the last dose entry on the shelter radiological log. Enter the total accumulated dose the person has already received at the departure time in "Total Dose."

A3.5.2.4. Return Before Dosimeter Reads. Enter the maximum allowable dose that a person should not exceed while working outside. The exposure control monitor provides this number (subtract the "Total Dose" and a “Shelter Calculated Dose” from the commander's allowable dose, usually 150 centigrays). This entry lets the person know when to return to the shelter before reaching the prescribed dose. Charge (zero) and issue one dosimeter to each person or one dosimeter per group (if they will be working in the same general area). The “Shelter Calculated Dose” is an estimate based upon previous exposure levels in the shelter, multiplied by the time an individual is expected to remain in the shelter. This number will have to be continually updated as exposure levels within the shelter go down.

NOTE: If the person anticipates numerous trips outside the shelter, then the allowable dose for that person must consider the total allowable dose, minus the total exposure anticipated during each trip. That person keeps the record while outside the shelter.

A3.5.3. Each person should complete the following items on the individual radiological dose record

immediately after returning to a shelter:

A3.5.3.1. Location. Enter "outside" in the location block.

A3.5.3.2. Date/Time. Enter the date and time the person returned in the "To" block.

A3.5.3.3. Dose. Enter the reading from the dosimeter carried by the person at the time of return in "This Period." Add the dose received while outside to the "Total Dose" annotated on the previous line and put the new total in "Total Dose." This will allow immediate determination of the total dose accumulated by that person.

A3.5.3.4. Each person should start a new record when he or she completely fills in the date and time, and dose entries. List the last "Total Dose" entry on the new record and retain the old record until no longer needed. All records should be turned over to medical personnel for recording in medical records.

68 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001

–  –  –


A4.1. MOPP 0. Individual protective equipment is issued to personnel, inspected, prepared for use (OG should remain sealed in its vapor bag until needed), and kept readily available (accessible within 5 minutes). Carry or keep at hand protective equipment such as M8/M9 paper, nerve agent antidotes, and decontamination kits. Field gear may be worn if directed.

A4.1.1. Primary Use – Pre-Attack. Use MOPP 0 during periods of increased alert when the enemy has a CB employment capability, but CB warfare has not begun and there is no indication of its use in the immediate future.

A4.1.2. The time needed to don the equipment is about eight minutes.

A4.2. MOPP 1. The OG, mask carrier, and field gear are worn. Attach M9 tape. Ensure OG is closed.

Carry or keep at hand protective equipment such as M8/M9 paper, nerve agent antidotes, and decontamination kits. Contact lenses must be removed at MOPP 1. Personnel needing vision correction must revert to glasses and the appropriate spectacle inserts for the mask worn.

A4.2.1. Primary Use – Pre-Attack. Use MOPP 1 when CB attack in theater is possible. Personnel should automatically assume MOPP 1 during Alarm Yellow unless directed otherwise.

A4.2.2. Time to achieve complete CB protection is reduced by half -- from 8 to 4 minutes. Hydration standards should be implemented.

A4.3. MOPP 2. The OG, field gear, mask carrier, and footwear covers are worn. Ensure OG is closed.

Carry or keep at hand protective equipment such as M8/M9 paper, nerve agent antidotes, and decontamination kits and remaining IPE (mask/hood, gloves).

A4.3.1. Primary Use – Pre-Attack. Use MOPP 2 when CB attack in theater is probable.

A4.3.2. Mobility is reduced, but personnel can go to a higher MOPP in seconds. Hydration standards should be implemented.

A4.4. MOPP 3. All IPE items, except gloves, are worn and OG and hood openings are closed. Field gear is worn. Carry or keep at hand protective equipment such as M8/M9 paper, nerve agent antidotes, and decontamination kits and remaining IPE (gloves).

A4.4.1. Primary Use – Trans/Post-Attack. MOPP 3 has very limited application. Personnel who need increased dexterity while performing essential tasks should use MOPP 3 in areas with negligible contact hazard. MOPP 3 should not be used if liquid agent contact is possible or existing vapors will present an unacceptable percutaneous hazard.

A4.4.2. Hydration standards should be implemented.

–  –  –

A4.5.1. Primary Use – Trans/Post-Attack. Automatically assume MOPP 4 when CB attack is imminent or in progress and Alarm Red is declared, or as directed. MOPP 4 is used when the highest degree of CB protection is required, when persistent chemical agents are present, or when CB agents are present and the actual hazard has not been determined.

A4.5.2. In MOPP 4, protection is complete, but efficiency will decrease rapidly. Vision and communications are restricted and there is a greater risk of heat stress. Providing personnel with enough drinking water and appropriate rest and relief periods becomes a primary concern. Hydration standards should be implemented.

A4.6. MOPP ALPHA. This MOPP configuration is designed for the BDO only. Only the mask/hood and gloves are worn. BDU sleeves are rolled down. Field gear is worn. Carry or keep at hand protective equipment such as M8/M9 paper, nerve agent antidotes, and decontamination kits and remaining IPE.

A4.6.1. Primary Use – Post-Attack. MOPP ALPHA provides flexibility for accomplishing the mission by performing mission critical tasks in a post-attack environment while wearing the mask/hood and gloves only. This level of protection is a realistic possibility only after confirmation of agent type, persistency, and actual hazard location.

A4.6.2. Likely uses of MOPP ALPHA in a CB environment may be outdoors with a downwind hazard of a negligible chemical vapor hazard agent; when biological agents are being employed; when CB agents are employed; for personnel that remain inside vehicles, buildings, or aircraft; or under nuclear fallout conditions. Hydration standards should be implemented.

A4.7. MOPP Options. In some situations, commanders may need to accept either chemical-biological or heat casualties to accomplish the mission. Therefore, the installation commander can authorize MOPP options, although they increase risk, to provide flexibility within MOPP levels and to minimize the degradation caused by wearing IPE.

A4.7.1. The choice is based on estimated casualties and recovery times from CB agent exposure, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke. Each variation imposes a greater degree of chemical risk than the basic MOPP. Factors affecting a commander's decision to use a variation include: the type of agents present or expected, temperature, work rate, immediacy of the threat, and mission needs. The standard

options are:

A4.7.1.1. Mask-Only Option. Personnel protected from direct contact with chemical warfare agents in liquid/solid form, in conjunction with low to moderate vapor concentrations, need not wear the OG, footwear covers, and gloves. Instead, the mask, hood, and long sleeve duty uniform (for limited skin protection) may be worn. Interiors of buildings, vehicles, and aircraft are examples of areas where this option may be used.

A4.7.1.2. No-BDU Option. Individuals, when directed, wear the OG over underwear when heat stress is expected to be a significant factor. This allows more work to be performed, in the short term, by reducing heat burden.

A4. Since this variation increases the risk of skin contamination and the level of vapor penetration that will occur, personnel must not use it unless absolutely necessary for mission accomplishment. Furthermore the OG may be degraded by direct contact with the individual’s sweat and/or skin irritation may occur from direct contact with activated charcoal.

70 AFMAN32-4005 30 OCTOBER 2001 A4. Personnel using this variation may incur some mechanical transfer of CB contamination to their skin during CCA processing if their ensemble is liquid-contaminated.

A4. Casualty rates, depending on the agent type and the amount transferred to the skin, will increase and as personnel process into the TFA, they could bring in higher levels of contamination.

A4. This option should not be used by personnel reusing liquid-contaminated OGs.

A4.7.1.3. Ventilation Option. In some cases, personnel may, with little risk, open the OG jacket to aid ventilation and reduce thermal build-up. Determining factors are the amount of warning expected before a CB attack, the type of agent(s) present, concentration of agent(s) present, and the expected persistency of the agent(s) present. The ventilation option is automatically revoked with each MOPP level increase, unless specifically reauthorized by the commander.

NOTE: Using the ventilation option involves risk because chemical vapors can be absorbed through the skin and may cause casualties over a period of time. Ventilation periods when agents are present must be limited to the minimum amount of time needed for heat relief.

A4.8. MOPP Authorization. Only the installation commander directs MOPP levels and variations.

MAJCOM or Theater commander must approve modifications to MOPPs and variations.

–  –  –

A5.1. General Guidelines. MOPP analysis, based on the local tactical situation, allows the commander to balance between reducing the risk of casualties and accomplishing the mission. Risk is involved, but

the better the analysis, the lower the risk and higher the performance. They can also be used for estimating personnel requirements for operations in a CB environment. When using Attachment 8 and Attachment 9 remember:

A5.1.1. Task time multipliers, work times, and rest times not stated in the charts can be interpolated from those stated.

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