WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 |

«Zechariah’s astonished horses and the second woe by Douglas E. cox The horses of the prophecy of the 2nd woe may allude to the horses mentioned in ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Zechariah’s astonished horses and the second woe

by Douglas E. cox

The horses of the prophecy of the 2nd woe may allude to the horses mentioned in Zechariah 12,

and 14.

In Zechariah’s prophecies, the armies of those who come against Jerusalem are not killed; instead,

they are smitten with “astonishment," and with “blindness," and other plagues. This illustrates that

they are involved in warfare of a spiritual nature, not a flesh and blood conflict.

Zechariah said Jerusalem will be “a burdensome stone for all people." The conflict is such that “all the people of the earth" are involved. Human nature wars against the Spirit of God.

The Jerusalem to which Zechariah’s prophecy applies is the heavenly city; that is why “all the people of the earth" are involved in the conflict.

Zechariah wrote:

Zechariah 12:1-4 The burden of the word of the Lord for Israel, saith the Lord, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him. Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem.

And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it. In that day, saith the Lord, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness.

Isaiah foretold that in the last days the mountain of the Lord’s house would be established at the top of the mountains, above the hills. [Isaiah 2:2] This was fulfilled, when Jesus ascended to heaven, Copyright c 2014 by Douglas E. Cox All rights reserved after his resurrection. He was the only begotten son of God, so he represents “the mountain of the Lord’s house."

Jesus became king on David’s throne, in the heavenly Jerusalem. Peter said, that God made him “Christ." That implies he was given a perpetual throne over all Israel, in Jerusalem. Mount Zion has become heavenly and spiritual, a mountain that cannot be touched. [Hebrews 12:18] Jesus has reigned over his church throughout its history, and over all nations.

Christians of all nations, representing tens of thousands of denominations, ministries, and sects are included in Zechariah’s prophecy of a siege against Judah and against Jerusalem. They are involved in spiritual warfare about seeking the things promised to the saints, and entering the kingdom of God. This warfare involves the sharp sword of God’s word, and its interpretation.

In Revelation 19 Jesus is depicted mounted upon a white horse, and with a sharp sword going forth from his mouth.

Revelation 19:11-16 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, King Of Kings, And Lord Of Lords.

As Jesus is mounted upon a white horse, his foes are also represented by horses, and horsemen.

In the prophecy of the second woe, [Revelation 9:13-19] the horses have heads of lions. The

apostle Peter compared the devil to a roaring lion:

1 Peter 5:8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh

about, seeking whom he may devour:

There is a connection between the heads of lions of the horses in the second woe, and the devil, as both are lion-like. It may be that by saying the horses had heads of lions, John depicted the natural minds of men, and also alluded to the devil. [Revelation 9:17] The head of a lion represents the natural mind of man which is opposed to the Spirit of God. [Revelation 9:17] In the prophecy, lion-like heads belong to each horse individually.

In Revelation 11:7 the two witnesses are killed by a beast who ascends from the bottomless pit.

Revelation 20 identifies who this beast is.

Revelation 20:1-3 And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season.

The binding of Satan in Revelation 20:1-3 corresponds to the description of the souls of those who were “beheaded" in Revelation 20:4, who reign with Christ, in newness of life. This “beheading" applies to individuals. This prophecy may be compared with the second woe, where horses are described having lion’s heads. Being “beheaded" could be a cure for having the “head of a lion."





But the saints who reign with Christ are not headless; each is a new creation in Christ. Their minds

are subject to Christ and his word, which transforms them. Paul wrote to the Galatians:

Galatians 5:14-16 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another. This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

Paul continued:

Galatians 5:17-18 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.

“Biting" and “devouring" other brethren is one example of lion-like behaviour. It is a metaphor. Paul contrasts those who walk in the Spirit with those who walk after the flesh. The horses of the 2nd woe represent people who belong in the latter category. Their lions’ heads depict carnal human nature. In Revelation 20:4, those who are beheaded reign with Christ; their lions’ heads are gone.

“Beheaded" alludes to repentance and becoming a new creation in Christ.

The beast who kills the two witnesses in Revelation 11 is Satan. While he is bound in the bottomless pit, Satan no longer deceives the nations. Those believers who reign with Christ are led by the Spirit, and follow the Lamb. But when Satan is loosed, and ascends from out of his pit, he kills the two witnesses, the Spirit, and the Word, two things Jesus said will testify of him, each of which dwells in the believer. One who “testifies" is a witness. Spiritual death falls upon one third of men.

[Revelation 9:15] The binding of Satan in Revelation 20:1-3, and the saints’ reigning with Christ, are both said to span a thousand years. John says that when the thousand years are finished, Satan ascends from his pit. He was previously bound, but now he breaks free. This could apply to individual Christians who once reigned with Christ, for whom Satan was bound, but who allowed Satan to ascend from his pit, and deceive them. They ceased to be led by the Spirit of Christ. Instead they become deceived, and believed the delusions of Satan. Otherwise, for those who remain faithful, there is no end to their reign with Christ.

In Revelation 12:4 a third of the stars of heaven are drawn by the tail of the dragon, and are cast to the earth. If the stars represent believers, one third of them being cast to the earth agrees with the interpretation of the horses of the second woe killing one third of men. If the horses of the second woe kill a third of men in a spiritual sense, rather than in a literal or natural sense, those who are killed by them might include believers who return to the world, from which they had escaped. Their

faith is what is “killed." Paul said:

Romans 8:6-8 For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

Scholars have proposed a variety of interpretations for the 200 million horses in Revelation 9:13These may be listed under the following headings: 1. Turks, Arabians; 2. Asian hordes; 3.

wars and artillery, 4. Nuclear war; 5. demons; 6. the Scriptures; 7. hordes of antichrist; 8. No interpretation.

1. Turks, Arabians

Johann Albrecht Bengel interpreted the horses and horsemen as “Tartars and Turks." Their number was two hundred million, and to explain this Bengel added together all the Turkish armies of more than two centuries. Bengel wrote, “When St. John adds that their number was heard by him, he hints that the certain number specified, if it is put for an uncertain one, yet has not a wide uncertainty; and that the greatness of the number, however incredible it may appear, is still to be credited."

William Burkitt interpreted the horses and horsemen as a vast army of Turks, Arabians, Mahometans.

Thomas Coke interpreted the horses as the Turks & Saracens, in the siege of Constantinople.

Paul E. Kretzmann believed them to be “Mohammedan hordes."

William March wrote that the horses and horsemen represent “the Othmans slaying the third part of men, or subduing the Christian states in the Greek or Eastern Roman Empire over a period of three hundred and ninety-one years and fifteen days."

John Trapp claimed horses and horsemen represent Turkish armies and artillery.

2. Asian hordes

Others say they are armies of Asian people who threaten the West.

H. A. Ironside believed the horses and their riders were “Asiatic hordes."

J. Dwight Pentecost quoted William Kelly who wrote of the horses and horsemen of the second woe, “Euphratean horsemen are let loose on the western powers, overwhelming all Christendom, and in particular that west as the special object of the judgment of God."

David C. Pack wrote: “The reference to horses and horsemen is obviously a representation of an immense army. Yes, 200 million is certainly ‘a mighty army.’ In all likelihood, this is an attack by the Russian and Northern Asian hordes (armies) against what is called the Beast and Babylon (Revelation 17 and 18)."

3. Wars and artillery Interpretations in this category claim the horses and horsemen represent armies and their artillery, or war itself.

Adam Clarke wrote of the horses, “Is this an allegorical description of great ordnance?... Fire, smoke, and brimstone, is a good allegorical representation of gunpowder."

George Leo Haydock speculated that the lions’ heads of the horses represent the artillery of the army, or cannon.

Ray Stedman thought that the horses signify a great military campaign.

John F. Walvoord said the second woe horses and horsemen are “a massive force of tremendous military power."

Daniel Whedon wrote that 200 million horses represent “the totality of the wars of the Christian ages."

4. Nuclear war

One person found evidence for a nuclear attack on Europe in the prophecy.

John H. Ogwyn wrote: “When the sixth angel sounds, two events occur. One is the unleashing of a nuclear attack on Europe, and likely on its Latin American allies as well. The other is the massing of the largest army ever assembled on the east bank of the Euphrates–200 million men."

5. Demons

Another theory says the horses and horsemen are demons. If this theory is true, the horses must be invisible. Their colourful breastplates cannot help us in identifying them.

Charles D. Alexander interpreted the second woe horses and horsemen as “hellish squadrons;

“200,000,000 demon horsemen."

William Barclay referred to the horses and their riders as “squadrons of demonic cavalry."

G. K. Beale wrote that the horses and their riders are “ungodly spiritual forces, which are portrayed as a multitude of armies on horses... demonic beings are presented as monstrous horses."

E.W. Bullinger claimed that they are “supernatural beings... They are not human. They come from below. We know of nothing like them. When God thus describes them nothing ought to be easier than to believe what He says. They need no explanation."

He wrote: “When Israel would trust in the horses of Egypt they were warned that their riders and horses were ‘flesh and not spirit’ (Is. xxxi. 3). Here we have horses that are spirit, and not flesh."

Friedrich Düsterdieck wrote: “the armies in this vision, like the locusts of the fifth trumpet, are of a demoniacal kind."

David Guzik wrote, “The safest interpretation is to see this as a literal 200 million strong army, but a demonic army invading earth."

Clarence Larkin referred to them as “infernal cavalry."

John MacArthur suggested that these horses signify a demon force.

Heinrich Meyer wrote that the horses and their riders are “a supernatural army" or plague.

Henry Morris claimed that the horses were “a demonic legion of nightmarish animals indwelt by evil spirits." He also claimed they will be specially created.

Peter Pett stated that the horses are demons, or evil angels.

Joseph Augustus Seiss claimed the horses are “supernatural horses;" “infernal horses."

J. B. Coffman called the horses “monstrous hordes of destroying cavalry."

6. The Scriptures Christopher Wordsworth wrote, referring to the horses of the second woe, “The Scriptures, in swiftness and strength, like an innumerable Army of Horsemen, are now sweeping over the world."

7. Hordes of antichrist John Hooper wrote, “these symbolic horsemen are Apostles of Satan, sent forth by him for the destruction of that outward fabric of Christian polity and government."



Pages:   || 2 |


Similar works:

«Narrativity and Textuality in the Study of Stories Moshe Simon-Shoshan Rothberg International School Hebrew University Jerusalem, Israel mdshoshan@gmail.com Abstract This paper seeks to investigate some of the defining elements of narrative. The underlying assumption of my discussion is that the terms “narrative” and “story” do not refer to clearly defined, self-enclosed genres. Rather, they are part of a spectrum which embraces all forms of texts. Similarly, narratives and stories...»

«Community vulnerability to elevated sea level and coastal tsunami events in Otago 81 17. Karitane and Waikouaiti 17.1 Community description The towns of Karitane and Waikouaiti are located half an hour’s drive north of Dunedin and at opposite ends of Waikouaiti Beach (Figure A92)78. Karitane is located at the mouth of the Waikouaiti River (Figure 33), while Waikouaiti is situated 4km to the north near the Hawksbury Lagoon. There are primary schools in both towns and early childcare facilities...»

«From Axioms to Rewriting Rules Guillaume Burel ÉNSIIE/Cédric 1 square de la résistance, 91025 Évry cedex, France guillaume.burel@ensiie.fr http://www.ensiie.fr/˜guillaume.burel/ Abstract Deduction modulo is a generic framework to describe proofs in a theory better than using raw axioms. This is done by presenting the theory through a congruence over propositions that is most often defined by means of rules rewriting terms and propositions. It has been shown that such representations of...»

«Motivations for volunteering on heritage railways John Canning This paper was written between about 1999 and 2003. It was based on my master’s dissertation: Motivations for the preservation of steam railways: Volunteer perspectives. (Unpublished MSc dissertation, 1998), University of Bristol. It was submitted for publication in a journal, but was never published. However, feeling that it deserved an audience, I self-published it on my website at www.johncanning.net in 2008. The referenced...»

«Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 26 (2006) 371-416 Submitted 11/05; published 8/06 Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas Enrico Giunchiglia giunchiglia@unige.it Massimo Narizzano mox@dist.unige.it Armando Tacchella tac@dist.unige.it DIST Universit` di Genova a Viale Causa 13, 16145 Genova, Italy Abstract Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula...»

«Cooking, 7404 TS-63 February 1992 Federal Wage System Job Grading Standard for Cooking, 7404 Table of Contents WORK COVERED WORK NOT COVERED TITLES GRADE LEVELS COOK, GRADE 4 COOK, GRADE 6 COOK, GRADE 8 U.S. Office of Personnel Management Cooking, 7404 TS-63 February 1992 WORK COVERED This standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the preparation of regular or special diet foods and meals. This includes cooking meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, and vegetables and making soups, gravies,...»

«UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, DC 20549 FORM 10-K [x] Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2006, or [] Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 For the transition period from to _. Commission File Number 1-32663 CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR HOLDINGS, INC. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) Delaware 86-0812139 (State of...»

«STAFF REPORT WETLANDS IN THE •., NORTH BAY PLANNING AREA February, 1997 Prepared for the North Bay Steering Committee SAN FRANCISCO BAY CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION REVISED STAFF REPORT WETLANDS IN THE NORTH BAY PLANNING AREA February, 1997 Prepared for: The North Bay Steering Committee Prepared by: San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission Thirty Van Ness Avenue, Suite 2011 San Francisco, California 94102 CONTENTS FORWARD CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Report Structure...»

«Studying Development 1 (30 ECTS credits) The study plan was approved by the Dean 24.06.2009. Update approved by the Vice-Dean 02.09.2013. Reading list updated 01.06.2015. Changes may occur. Introduction Oslo and Akerhus University College of Applied Sciences (HIOA) offers a one semester full-time course (30 ECTS credits) in development studies in Hoi An on the east coast of Vietnam. The course, Studying Development, starts each semester in August and January respectively. The course is a joint...»

«Towards a Prague Definition of Grey Literature Joachim Sch¨pfel o To cite this version: Joachim Sch¨pfel. Towards a Prague Definition of Grey Literature. Twelfth International o Conference on Grey Literature: Transparency in Grey Literature. Grey Tech Approaches to High Tech Issues. Prague, 6-7 December 2010, Dec 2010, Czech Republic. pp.11-26, 2010. sic 00581570 HAL Id: sic 00581570 https://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic 00581570 Submitted on 31 Mar 2011 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open...»

«See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227834242 Embellishing the Past: Middle Manager Identity and Informality in the Implementation of New Technology Article in New Technology Work and Employment · March 2004 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-005X.2004.00127.x CITATIONS READS 1 author: Jerry Hallier University of Stirling 42 PUBLICATIONS 466 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Jerry Hallier Retrieved on: 14 October 2016 New...»

«POWER AND INITIATIVE IN TWENTIETH CENTURY GERMANY THE CASE OF HUGO JUNKERS by RICHARD WILLIAM EDWIN BYERS (Under the direction of John Morrow) ABSTRACT This dissertation explores the relationship between private enterprises and nation states in high technology research and applications. As the twentieth century progressed, this relationship became more contentious as state organs, citing national security priorities, attempted to assert their influence on private manufacturers. Nowhere is this...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.