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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Goertler, Senta Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Teacher Participation and Feedback Styles During Classroom

Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in

Intermediate German: A Multiple Case Study

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Goertler, Senta

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 21-Oct-2016 16:37:29 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195886

TEACHER PARTICIPATION AND FEEDBACK STYLES DURING CLASSROOM

SYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION IN

INTERMEDIATE GERMAN: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY

by Senta Goertler _____________________

Copyright © Senta Goertler 2006 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of

SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND TEACHING

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Senta Goertler entitled “Teacher Participation and Feedback Styles during Classroom Synchronous Computer-mediated Communication in Intermediate German: A Multiple Case Study” and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy _______________________________________________________Date: May 09, 2006 Dr. Mary Wildner-Bassett _______________________________________________________Date: May 09, 2006 Dr. Robert Ariew _______________________________________________________Date: May 09, 2006 Dr. Renate Schulz _______________________________________________________Date: May 09, 2006 Dr. Linda Waugh Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: May 09, 2006 Dissertation Director: Dr. Mary Wildner-Bassett

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

–  –  –

I would not have been able to complete this dissertation without the cooperation, support, help, and feedback of many others. I would like to thank my committee, especially Dr.

Wildner-Bassett for providing excellent feedback. Furthermore, I would like to thank my colleagues Tina Badstübner, Karen Barto-Sisamout, Kay Huxford, and Kara McBride for their feedback and assistance. In addition, I would like to thank the students and teachers who participated in this study, and the administrators who allowed me to conduct the study.

Much thanks also goes to those who have supported me emotionally, which includes the above mentioned colleagues and committee members, but also my husband, Alexander Ellis, my parents Rosi and Dirk Görtler and the rest of my family. Thanks also goes to our then to be born son who assured that I took breaks and caused me no major problems.

Furthermore, I would like to thank those who have inspired me along the way: my grandfather, Dr. Henry Görtler, my first grade teacher, Frau Ries, my thesis advisor, Dr.

Marjorie Terdal, my peer mentor, Dr. Claudia Kost, and my dissertation chair, Dr.

Wildner-Bassett. Without these people, I would not have made it to this point.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………...8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.……………………………………………………………10 LIST OF APPENDICES...……………………………………………………………….11 ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………..12 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………...13

1.1 General Introduction to the study………………..……………………………...13

1.2 Research Questions and Overview of the Study……..………………………….16

1.3 Background to the Study………………………………………………………..20

1.4 Theoretical Grounding………………………………………………………….22





1.5 Rationale for the Study…….……………………………………………………23

1.6 Definition of Key Concepts.……………………………………………………24

1.7 Organization of the Dissertation…….…………………………………………..26 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FOUNDATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW..…...28

2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………..28

2.2 Theoretical Foundations of the Interactionist Framework on SLA………….28 2.2.1 Input………………………………………………………………..29 2.2.2 Output……………………………………………………………...30 2.2.3 Noticing ……………………………………………………………31 2.2.4 Negotiation of Meaning……………………………………………32 2.2.5 Limitations of the Interactionist Framework…………………...….38

2.3 Corrective Feedback ………………………………………………………...39 2.3.1 Positions……………………………………………………………40 2.3.2 Definitions…….……………………………………………………41 2.3.3 Research Results…………………………………………………...46 2.3.4 Gaps in the Literature………………………………………………55

2.4 CMC …………………………………………………………………………56 2.4.1 Problems in Research Design:……………………………………..57 2.4.2 CMC and Language Learning………….…………………………..58 2.4.3 CMC vs. Classroom.……………………………………………….60 2.4.4 CMC as Part of Class vs. Independent of a Language Class………62 2.4.5 CMC Asynchronous vs. Synchronous……………………………..63 2.4.6 CMC from the Same Location/Time vs. CMC from Different Locations/Times…………………………………………………………65 2.4.7 CMC Non-Native Speaker & Native Speaker Dyads vs. Non-Native Speaker Dyads…………...……………………………………………...66 2.4.8 CMC Group-Size…………………………………………………..66 2.4.9 CMC and Task Type……………………………………………….67 2.4.10 CMC and Measurements of Language Quality…………………..68 2.4.11 CMC and the Role of the Teacher………………………………..69 2.4.12 CMC and Error Correction……………………………………….71

2.5 Gaps in the Literature………………………………………………………...72

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

2.6 Methodological Issues……………………………………………………….73

2.7 Summary…..…………………………………………………………………74 CHAPTER III: METHODS AND PROCEDURES…..…………………………………76

3.1 Introduction…..………………………………………………………………76

3.2 Methodological Overview…………………………………………………...79

3.3 Research Questions…………………………………………………………..82

3.4 Setting………………………………………………………………………..85

3.5 Subjects………………………………………………………………………91 3.5.1 Teachers……………………………………………………………91 3.5.2 No-Support Class…………………………………………………..92 3.5.3 Some-Support Class………………………………………………..93 3.5.4 Expert-Support Class ……………………………………………………...94

3.6 Student Participants’ Background……………………………………………96

3.7 Tasks…………………………………………………………………………98

3.8 Procedures…………………………………………………………………..101 3.8.1 Implementation of Chatting………………………………………103 3.8.2 Data Collection…………………………………………………...104 3.8.2.1 Pre- and Post-Test………………………………………105 3.8.2.2 Pre-and Post-Survey………………….…………………108 3.8.2.3 Transcripts………………………………………………113 3.8.2.4 Analysis Sheets…………………………………………118 3.8.2.5 Self- Report Forms…………………….………………..118 3.8.2.6 Classroom Observations………………………………..120

3.9 Summary……………………………………………………………………122 CHAPTER VI: RESULTS.……………………………………………………………..125

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………125 4.2.1 Research Question 1 ……………………………………………..134 4.2.2 Research Question 1b…………………………………………….155 4.2.3 Research Question 1c

4.3.1 Research Question 2a

4.3.2 Research Question 2b ……………………………………………169 4.3.3 Research Question 2c

4.4.1 Research Question 3a

4.4.2 Research Question 3b

4.4.3 Research Question 3c

4.5.1 Research Question 4a

4.5.2 Research Question 4b

4.6.1 Research Question 5a

4.6.2 Research Question 5b

4.7 Additional Findings………………………………………………………...199

4.8 Summary……………………………………………………………………204

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

CHAPTER V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ………………………………….206

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………206

5.2 Role of the Teacher in SCMC………………………………………………207

5.3 Corrective Feedback in SCMC………………………………………….….214

5.4 Language Use in SCMC……………………………………………………217

5.5 Students’ Preferences and Actual Practices………………………………...222

5.6 Implications for Teaching…………………………………………………..223

5.7 Implications for Program Administrators…………………………………..227

5.8 Implications for Teacher Training………………………………………….230

5.9 Connections to SLA Research……………………………………………...235

5.10 Connections to CMC Research……………………………………………243

5.11 Limitations………………………………………………………………...248

5.12 Directions for Future Research……………………………………………250

5.13 Final Comments…………………………………………………………...252 APPENDIX 1: Error Coding Sheet……………………………………………………..253 APPENDIX 2: Sample Chat Transcript………………………………………………...254 APPENDIX 3: Pre-Survey……………………………………………………………...255 APPENDIX 4: Pre-Test………………………………………………………………..258 APPENDIX 5: Teacher Manual (excluding portions already in Appendices)…………264 APPENDIX 6: Activities………………………………………………………………287 APPENDIX 7: Post-Survey……………………………………………………………310 APPENDIX 8: Post-Test…………………………………………………………….…313 APPENDIX 9: Self-Report Form………………………………………………………318 APPENDIX 10: Test Score-Card………………………………………………………319 APPENDIX 11: Combined Survey……………………………………………………..322 APPENDIX 12: Processed Transcripts…………………………………………………327 APPENDIX 13: Coded Transcripts…………………………………………………….330 APPENDIX 14: Students’ Answers on Survey……………………………...…………331 APPENDIX 15: Students’ Comments on Survey………………………………………337 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………354

LIST OF TABLES

3.1 Overview of Procedures……………………………………………………………...81

3.2 Reported Feedback Received from Previous Teachers……………………………...97

3.3 Previous Experience with Messaging………………………………………………..98

3.4 Overview of Activities……………………………………………………………...100



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