FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 34 |

«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Goertler, Senta Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

-- [ Page 10 ] --

Much of the literature discussed in Chapter II forms the basis for this study in terms of its theoretical framework and research design. Most prior studies within the interactionist framework have focused on non-native speaker – native-speaker (NNS-NS) dyads rather than on learner-learner interactions, and were not a required component in a foreign language class. Studies investigating the benefits of learner-learner interactions in a CMC context have generally focused on differences in language learning opportunities and contexts between CMC and F2F interactions. The changed role of the teacher in a CMC setting and its relationship with students’ learning opportunities have not been sufficiently considered. Few studies of corrective feedback and CMC within an interactionist framework have investigated a variety of data sets to provide a more detailed view of the nature and the potential outcomes of interaction, especially with CMC that involves the teacher. And fewer studies still have been conducted on the interactions that occur and the resources that are consulted in the physical environment while chatting as part of a lab session of a foreign language course.

The purpose of this study is multifaceted, and since research on this topic is limited, it is also explorative in nature. First and foremost, this study seeks to explore the role of the teacher during CMC both in the physical and in the virtual environment. As a pioneer study, I sought the most natural setting for the teacher. As discussed in Chapter two, asynchronous CMC or any form of CMC involving tandem learning does not generally encourage an active role of the teacher. Therefore I decided to conduct this study in a SCMC environment in which students chatted with other students in the presence of the teacher. I also decided to use in-class activities to ensure that students would participate. Furthermore, I observed the classes to analyze the kinds of interactions in the physical environment in order to make suggestions for changes in activity design if used from remote locations, i.e., distance learning, in the future.

The focus of the investigation is on the teachers’ use of corrective feedback and its effect on the learners. Traditional frameworks of error categorization and corrective feedback categorization are challenged. Since this study aims to understand the choices made by the instructor, I decided to use an error categorization system that is often used by teachers for the correction of essays, so that errors are coded from the perspective of the teacher rather than from the perspective of a linguistic analysis (see Appendix 1 for Error Correction Sheet). The use of CMC may make a new categorization of feedback moves necessary. As discussed in Chapter two, delayed conversation and the option of multiple simultaneous conversation threads may encourage different and even new forms of feedback. In addition, as a written yet spontaneous medium, chat may encourage new corrective feedback conventions such as a repetition marked with a special symbol to indicate an error. As discussed by Smith (2001) and by Fernandez-Garcia and MartinezArbelaiz (2002), the negotiation of meaning sequence that had previously been identified by Gass and Varonis (1985) may not require all steps during CMC. The analysis of this dissertation data will, on one hand, attempt to revise the current analysis practices of error correction, and, on the other hand, provide recommendations for effective use and implementation of CMC activities by the teacher for teacher training.

This research study is further intended to explore relationships between error type and corrective feedback type, and between corrective feedback type and instances of uptake. Since research on corrective feedback remains controversial, it is important to understand which errors receive what kind of feedback and whether or not such feedback is effective.

I will also analyze the teachers’ turns to better understand their purpose in the discourse. Since few studies have reported if and how the teacher interacts with the students during CMC activities, it is important to understand the teachers’ postings.

Information about the timing, the purpose, and the nature of teachers’ postings can provide recommendations for teacher training and the implementation of CMC in language programs.

Finally, this study aims to describe the events in the physical space that accompanied the virtual interactions in order to provide recommendations for curriculum and activity design utilizing CMC through remote access.

3.2 Methodological Overview The study includes five phases (see table 3.1.). First, data from a background study which collected chat transcripts in similar classes over a period of three years were analyzed to find effective ways of categorizing errors and corrective feedback in chat transcripts (see sample chat transcript in Appendix 2). The chat transcripts under investigation were samples from five teachers chatting in German-as-a-foreign-language classes at the University of Arizona. The primary purpose of this phase was to categorize and identify participation and corrective feedback styles used by a variety of teachers using chat as part of their German classes. This information was then used in the training of teachers involved in the semester-long study of this dissertation project as will be discussed later. The courses in the main study were similar to the classes in the background study, providing relevant examples which could be used for training purposes.

The second phase was the development and the piloting of research instruments.

During the summer semester prior to data collection, the surveys, the activities, and the tests were piloted with a group of students similar to the target audience. After a first round, all of the instruments were revised, but after a second round, only the survey was revised. The purpose of the pilot study was to ensure that the questionnaire was easy to understand and elicited authentic answers according to students’ perspectives.

Furthermore, the pre- and post-test had to be reliable, needed to assess students’ usage of the major grammatical structures covered in third-semester German classes, and had to take no more than one hour to administer. This phase also helped to ensure that the instructions of the activities were easy to follow, and that the students were engaged for 20 minutes while completing the chat activities.

The third phase was the administration of the pre-survey (see Appendix 3) and the pre-test (see Appendix 4) at the beginning of the semester of the main study during one fall semester. The purpose of the pre-instruments was to establish a baseline of the students’ language ability, as well as their experience with and their attitude towards corrective feedback, language learning, and technology. During this phase, the teachers were also trained on the technology used and instructed on how to implement the activities. The purpose of the training was to familiarize the teachers with the software so that they would be in the position of handling the implementation of the activities from a technological standpoint. They were also provided with a manual (see Appendix 5) that outlined instructions for the daily procedures, instructions on using the software, sample teacher interactions, descriptions of all activities (see Appendix 6), a copy of all instruments, worksheets for trouble-shooting the server, and important contact information to refer to in case problems should occur during chatting. Since the purpose of this study was to explore how teachers use chat in the classroom, no specific guidelines on participation or corrective feedback style were given. Examples from the

chat transcripts from the background study were presented to the teachers, such as:

–  –  –

The fourth phase of this study was the chat phase, during which the teachers and the students engaged in weekly 20-minute chat sessions, completing self-report forms after each session. During this phase I observed each of the two classes once a month.

The purpose of the observation was to capture the student-student and student-teacher interactions in the physical space, and to learn more about the use of resources by the students during these sessions.

The fifth phase was the post-instrument phase, during which the post-survey (see Appendix 7) and the post-test (see Appendix 8) were administered. The post-test was administered to measure gain in language skills of the structures under investigation. The survey’s purpose was two-fold—to measure change in attitude, and to allow the students to evaluate the experience. Also during this phase, I conducted several informal conversations with the teachers. The purpose of the conversations was to help me understand the motivation behind the interaction patterns they chose to implement.

–  –  –

3.3 Research Questions Since the role of the teacher in CMC has not been previously explored, my research questions are broad in scope, addressing various facets of the teacher’s role in classroom-based CMC. The research questions have already been stated in Chapter I, and

are briefly reviewed at this point:

(1) How do two case study teachers participate in foreign language classroom chatting?

–  –  –

(b) What form does corrective feedback take during chatting in this study?

Question 1 was addressed with the help of the chat transcripts. In the background study, a chat sample was examined to establish common participation and corrective feedback patterns. Then, the styles were categorized (more details in section 3.8.3.c), and those categories were applied in the analysis of the chat transcripts for the fourth phase.

The teacher’s definition of her role was taken from the chat transcripts and the informal conversations. Feedback style patterns were then established for the teachers involved.

(2) What influence do corrective feedback styles have on students’ learning, as

–  –  –

(a) language production during the chat as measured through word count;

(b) learner uptake as measured by evidence of correction uptake within the

–  –  –

The second question was addressed with the help of the transcripts and pre- and post tests from phases three to five. The question explores if possible which type of corrective feedback is most effective. Since opportunities for output have been found to be beneficial for language learning, analyzing the amount of language produced in relation to teacher style is important. Ene et al. (2005) found that an explicit feedback style had a silencing effect, i.e., decreased opportunity for student output, but also led to greater uptake, presenting both detrimental and beneficial effects. Uptake in this study, is defined as self-correction within the same transcript. It is assumed that the correct use of a form after receiving correction on that form is an indicator of learning. However, as previously mentioned, caution must be expressed in relation to the long-term effect of such learning, I also utilized the gain scores of the achievement tests to measure effectiveness of feedback styles. One of the issues in corrective feedback studies has been the lack of agreement on what can be considered evidence of language learning. To address this, I decided to utilize several common forms of evidence for this study.

Dominant teacher feedback styles were identified and differences (or lack thereof) in gain scores on the tests, word counts, and uptake measures between the groups were established using statistical analysis where possible.

–  –  –

To answer the third question, the transcript data from the main study were used to identify patterns between errors and consequential moves in the SCMC. From each class six case study subjects were selected based in the total amount of time chatting. In the transcripts of these students, first, all errors were categorized. Then, I analyzed which error types were treated, how they were treated, and which error types resulted in error uptake by others.

The fourth question investigates the learners’ and teachers’ perceptions about the teacher’s role and how well they match with actual practice.

(4) (a) How do students perceive the teacher’s role in the chat room and in the physical space? (b) How do these perceptions correspond with actual practices?

In this phase, comments from the surveys and from the informal interviews were analyzed in relation to the qualitative analysis of the transcripts and the classroom observations.

The fifth question is particularly interesting for program administrators wondering if SCMC activities could be scheduled outside of class time and/or from remote locations.

(5) (a) Which parts of the interaction are happening in the physical space and not in the virtual space? (b) What modifications would have to be made when moving SCMC activities to a remote location?

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 34 |

Similar works:

«THIRTY-ONE JOURNAL OF THE HUYGENS-FOKKER FOUNDATION THE Stichting Huygens-Fokker Centre for Microtonal Music Muziekgebouw aan ’t IJ Piet Heinkade 5 1019 BR Amsterdam The Netherlands info@huygens-fokker.org www.huygens-fokker.org Thirty-One Estd 2009 ISSN 1877-6949 thirty-one@huygens-fokker.org www.thirty-one.eu EDITOR Bob Gilmore DIRECTOR, HUYGENS-FOKKER FOUNDATION Sander Germanus CONTENTS (SUMMER 2009) VOL.1 EDITORIAL 4 Bob Gilmore MICRO-ACTUALITIES / MICROACTUALITEITEN 5 Sander Germanus...»


«Assessment in Universities: a critical review of research Lewis Elton University College London and Brenda Johnston CHERI, The Open University Acknowledgements We would like to express our thanks to the Generic Centre of the LTSN network which funded this review project. We would especially like to express thanks to our contact person in the Generic Centre, Professor Brenda Smith, who provided us with support throughout the process, Lewis Elton and Brenda Johnston LTSN Generic Centre 2...»

«MILLSTONE TOWNSHIP BOARD OF ADJUSTMENT MEETING MINUTES MARCH 28, 2012 Meeting called to Order by Chairman Novellino at 7:30 p.m. Reading of Adequate Notice by Vice Chairman Barthelmes. Salute to the Flag and observance of a moment of silence for the troops. Roll Call: Present: Lambros, Novellino, Bailey, Conoscenti, Frost, Barthelmes and Mostyn. Absent: Morelli and Curcio. Approval of Minutes: February 22, 2012 The members having received and reviewed the draft minutes and recommend changes...»

«“THE CONCEPT OF PERFECT MAN IN MANICHAEISM AND IBN ‘ARABI’S DOCTRINE” A thesis submitted to the faculty of At San Francisco State University 30 In partial fulfillment of 5-6(5 The Requirements for •Q34 The Degree Master of Arts In Humanities by Samaneh Gachpazian San Francisco, California May 2015 CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read “The Concept o f Perfect M an in Manichaeism and Ib n ‘A rabi’s D octrine” (The Islamization o f M anichean Ideas in Islamic...»

«Home Blog Europe with Kids Our Guide to Things to Do in Vilnius Our Guide to Things to Do in Vilnius 10 July, 2015 Our next stop after Riga was Lithuania’s capital, Vilnius. It’s not a place I knew much about, so I was excited to visit Vilnius and learn more about it. The city certainly delivered, with a good range of attractions, dining and a relaxed atmosphere I loved. Vilnius is the Baltic States’ second largest city after Riga and has a lot to offer visitors. We were blessed with...»

«The Polygons of Albrecht Dürer -1525 G.H. Hughes The early Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer published a book on geometry a few years before he died. This was intended to be a guide for young craftsmen and artists giving them both practical and mathematical tools for their trade. In the second part of that book, Durer gives compass and straight edge constructions for the „regular‟ polygons from the triangle to the 16-gon. We will examine each of these constructions using the original 1525...»

«Dprr nt fnfrr inond o mprrinc e ea me ntI I mao a ndmp e S e nc Dp t o fo ma n aC out e Si e et me o nf tt a o i C ut cc e LLanguageand do anguageand do mainmaininde nde txtmining inde nde txt pe nte mining pe nte MrrSnna uke r a a P a k i M Snna a uke aa ii P kri DD COA OO T RL COA T RL DD SAI NN ISRRAI S SSET TS I TT O E O Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS 137/2012 Languageand domainindependent text mining Mari-Sanna Paukkeri Doctoral dissertation for the degree of...»

«2 DEDICATED TO THE ONLY BEGOTTEN SON WHO WAS MURDERED BY THE SNAKES Oh, dear, precious son, your blood will be avenged by the avenger. May that day be hastened. 1st Printing: March, 2004 Published by Scriptures for America, P.O. Box 766, LaPorte, CO 80535 www.scripturesforamerica.org 3 CONTENTS Introduction About This Book Part I: The Moon is Not to be Used To Calculate the Feast Days Part II: The Importance of Keeping The Passover Part III: Warnings Part IV: Calculating the Day of Pass over...»

«The Word Up Project: Level Yellow Unit 1 Too Easy 1A Introduction Ever wished you had a superpower? If you had to choose one, which would it be? The ability to fly? To be invisible? To walk through walls? Or would you rather just be like everyone else and lead a normal life? The character in this story wasn’t looking for superpowers. But sometimes you don’t choose things. They choose you. 1B Song Lyrics I was a normal kid with a normal life, School during the day, sleep during the night....»

«CRESST REPORT 779 WHEN TO EXIT ELL STUDENTS: Jinok Kim Joan L. Herman MONITORING SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN MAINSTREAM CLASSROOMS AFTER ELLS’ RECLASSIFICATION DECEMBER, 2010 The National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing Graduate School of Education & Information Sciences UCLA | University of California, Los Angeles When to Exit ELL Students: Monitoring Subsequent Success and Failure in Mainstream Classrooms after ELLs’ Reclassification CRESST Report 779 Jinok...»

«Labelling the tea sectors in Ha Giang and Lai Chau Master Thesis Joris Kok University of Twente December 2009 Labelling the tea sectors in Ha Giang and Lai Chau Organizational Details Graduate student Name: Joris A. Kok Address: Andries van Altenalaan 44 3829 BN Hooglanderveen The Netherlands E-mail: joris84@gmail.com Principal of the research Principal: Mr. Paul Weijers Organization: SNV Netherlands Development Organisation Address: 6th floor, Building B, La Thanh Hotel 218 Doi Can Street, Ba...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.