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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Goertler, Senta Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

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3.5 Overview of Teacher Turns………………………………………………………...116

3.6 Corrective Feedback………………………………………………………………..117

3.7 Data Types and Collection Methods………………………………………………..123

4.1 Chatting……………………………………………………………………………..127

4.2 Case Study Subjects………………………………………………………………...130

4.3 Teacher Word Count and Teacher Words per Minute……………………………...138

4.4 Test of Between-Subjects Teacher Effects of Teacher Input (Dependent Variable: Words per Minute (input)) ……………………………………..140

4.5 Test of Between-Subjects Class Effects of Teacher Input (Dependent Variable: Words per Minute (input)) …………………………………………………..142

4.6 Planned Comparison of Teacher Input between NSC and SSC …………………...142

4.7 Teacher Target Language Use……………………………………………………...146

4.8 Teacher Target Language Use – Chi Squared……………………………………...146

4.9 Teacher Error Rate………………………………………………………………….146

4.10 Difference in Teacher Error Rate………………………………………………….147

4.11 Teacher Feedback Styles…………………………………………………………..149

4.12 Corrections Made by Teacher……………………………………………………..151

4.13 Differences in Errors Receiving Teacher Feedback ……………………………...151

4.14 Teacher Moves…………………………………………………………………….153

4.15 Feedback Rates by Transcript Set…………………………………………………158

4.16 Corrective Feedback Moves………………………………………………………161

4.17 Feedback Form by Source………………………………………………………...162

4.18 Student Output…………………………………………………………………….166

4.19 Teacher – Student Output: Test of Between-Subject Effects……………………..167

4.20 Class – Student Output: Test of Between-Subject Effects………………………...168

4.21 Uptake……………………………………………………………………………..170

4.22 Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts of Pre- and Post-Test………………………...174

4.23 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects of Pre-and Post-Test………………………….174

4.24 Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts of Pre-and Post-Test – Class Difference…….175

4.25 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects of Pre- and Post-Test – Class Difference…….175

4.26 Error Uptake……………………………………………………………………….177

4.27 Error Type and Error Uptake……………………………………………………...179

4.28 Source of Error and Uptake……………………………………………………….182

4.29 Differences between Error Uptake by Source ……………………………………182

4.30 Correlation between Error Uptake Rate and Teacher Feedback Rate…………….201

4.31 Correlation between Teacher Feedback Rate and Self-Correction Rate …………202

4.32 Correlation between Fluency and Accuracy………………………………………203

4.33 Case Study Subjects’ Use of Target Language……………………………………207

–  –  –

3.1 College of Humanities Collaborative Computer Lab………………………………..87

3.2 Screen-Shot of Chat Server…………………………………………………………..88

4.1 Teacher Output Comparison………………………………………………………..143

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: Error Coding Sheet……………………………………………………..253 APPENDIX 2: Sample Chat Transcript………………………………………………...254 APPENDIX 3: Pre-Survey……………………………………………………………...255 APPENDIX 4: Pre-Test………………………………………………………………...258 APPENDIX 5: Teacher Manual (excluding portions already in Appendices)…………264 APPENDIX 6: Activities……………………………………………………………….287 APPENDIX 7: Post-Survey…………………………………………………………….310 APPENDIX 8: Post-Test……………………………………………………………….313 APPENDIX 9: Self-Report Form………………………………………………………318 APPENDIX 10: Test Score-Card……………………………………………………….319 APPENDIX 11: Combined Survey……………………………………………………..322 APPENDIX 12: Processed Transcripts…………………………………………………327 APPENDIX 13: Coded Transcripts…………………………………………………….330 APPENDIX 14: Students’ Answers on Survey………………………..……………….331 APPENDIX 15: Students’ Comments on Survey…………..…………………………..337





ABSTRACT

This mixed design multiple case study of learners’ interactions explores the effects of teacher participation during third semester German in-class chatting activities.

Three third-semester German courses taught by two different teachers were investigated over the course of one semester, during which the class members were asked to chat for 20 minutes per week using activities design by the researcher and adapted from the textbook.

Multiple data sets were collected: teachers’ participation styles and feedback moves; students’ language learning achievement levels; students’ attitudes towards corrective feedback and technology; their experience with feedback and technology; and evidence in chat transcripts of errors, uptake, and error uptake. Students were administered a pre- and post-instruction achievement test on the structures taught during third semester German. In addition, they were surveyed at the beginning and the end of the semester on their attitudes and experiences with feedback and technology in the foreign language classroom. Furthermore, chat transcripts were analyzed to identify errors, corrective feedback, teacher moves, uptake, error uptake, student and teacher word count and words per minute, error rate, and target language use. In order to better understand the context of the transcripts, classroom observations were conducted once a month, and students completed a self-report form after each chat session. Informal conversations with the teachers provided additional insights.

It was found that the students overwhelmingly appreciated teacher involvement and feedback, and that they saw chatting as both fun and beneficial for language learning.

The corrective feedback rate was generally low, as were rates of uptake and error uptake.

The two teachers were found to have different interaction and feedback styles.

Furthermore, the three classes operated with differing levels of technical support during the lab sessions, which did not appear to influence the students’ experiences except for the amount of teacher output. Six case study subjects, namely the two students from each class who contributed the most to chat sessions, were selected for an in-depth analysis of their chat transcripts.

–  –  –

1.1 General Introduction to the study Computer-assisted instruction has led to new approaches to teaching, from computer-enhanced classes, to classrooms in which portions of syllabi are conducted remotely, to exclusive remote delivery of instruction. In each of these cases, especially during the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) activities, the role of the teacher varies from what we have become accustomed to in the traditional classroom.

That is, according to research on CMC in language instruction, a teacher’s dominance decreases and student participation is more democratic (for a summary see Ortega, 1997).

While many studies have explored the changed roles and conditions for students in a CMC environment, little research has been conducted on the role of the teacher and its influence on student learning. Yet, this research is necessary in order to understand effective teaching with CMC, as well as teacher training and program administration toward an ideal CMC teaching environment, which may not exist. As Blake (2000) points out, technology will not replace teachers, but teachers who know how to use technology will replace teachers who do not. Thus, the effective use of technology in the classroom will become an important factor in teacher employability and retention. Although Blake refers to technology in general, CMC has become recognized as a major factor in technology-enhanced instruction, and due to its interactive nature the question of the role of the teacher becomes especially crucial for this form of technology in the classroom.

The teacher’s role in the CMC environment, then, must be paid greater attention than has been the case in CMC research in the past.

This dissertation investigates teacher participation styles, including comfort levels, feedback styles, and influences on student language learning and language production within synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) in beginning German-as-a-foreign-language classrooms. In this study, SCMC refers to text-based synchronous communication on local chat servers. The project builds on and is inspired by a previous study conducted by Ene, Goertler and McBride (2005), initially intended to investigate the effect of teacher presence or absence on students’ language production.

These researchers found, however, that teacher presence or absence has less influence on the students’ language production than teacher participation style. It appeared that the teacher who provided more explicit feedback and saw her main role as a corrector, had a silencing effect on her students.

This dissertation consists of a background and a main study. In the background stydy, chat transcript sets from randomly chosen SCMC sessions are used to describe the participation patterns of 5 teachers, particularly in regards to corrective feedback. This part informed the main study. The mains study consists of an analysis of three thirdsemester German courses taught by two teachers, focusing on patterns of teacher participation styles, corrective feedback, and student proficiency levels. The teacher’s comfort level with technology and support through lab assistants were considered as possible contributing factors to the students’ experiences. In addition, the analysis focuses on students’ error patterns and consequential error treatment (or lack thereof), uptake, and error uptake. The relationships between error type and corrective feedback type, corrective feedback type and uptake, and error type and error uptake are all considered. In addition to the analysis of the transcripts, this study also reports the kinds of interactions that occurred in the physical space to provide recommendations for adjustments when CMC activities are moved into a remote setting.

This study is grounded in an interactionist framework, one that encompasses various theories on second language acquisition (SLA), and assumes interaction to be beneficial for language learning. Early comparative research studies on CMC claim that it has benefits for language learning. Yet, most CMC studies have focused on either comparing CMC with traditional instructional delivery in the classroom, or on an analysis of the discourse in CMC without regard for the events in the physical environment. In addition, previous studies on error treatment focus only on face-to-face interactions, versus the more anonymous environment occurring with CMC. Thus, while most other studies of SCMC have focused solely on the analysis of transcripts, this study draws from additional data sets to enhance the analysis of the transcripts, such as self-report forms, informal conversations, classroom observations, and attitude surveys.

One of the interesting aspects of SCMC is that it has discourse features of both written and oral communication, and is becoming a form of communication with its own rules, especially with the young generation of college language learners. Because of these unique discourse features, teachers must consciously decide how to treat errors in this mode of communication. In Ene et al., one teacher treated SCMC as a written form of communication, correcting errors more often and explicitly because she believed that non-corrected errors would lead to fossilization. The other teacher, however, focused on the spontaneous element of SCMC, treating errors implicitly and generally only if they inhibited comprehension. She assumed that the language practice would lead to language acquisition, and error correction would instill fear of production. Other than Ene et al.

and this dissertation, I am unaware of any other study investigating teachers’ treatment of errors in CMC. However, as CMC becomes a more frequent component of language courses, it is important that language teachers, program administrators, and teacher trainers understand the intricacies and complexities of these interactions.

1.2 Research Questions and Overview of the Study This research is guided by five questions: the first addresses how the two teachers under investigation participate during chatting; the second considers relationships between corrective feedback and language learning for the students in this study during chatting; the third analyzes patterns evolving from varying error types during the chatting in this study; the fourth investigates the perceptions of teachers and students in this study;

and the fifth acknowledges the elements of chat interaction that occur in the physical environment in place of the virtual environment performed by the students and teachers in this study.



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