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«by David Parker Department of Cultural Studies University of Birmingham Bibliography in Ethnic Relations No.12 Centre for Research in Ethnic ...»

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Driver, C. (1983) The British at Table 1940-80, Chatto and Windus, London.

-- contains some of this food critic's observations on British attitudes to Chinese food.

Economist (1990), "The Chinese in Britain: A Chequered History" 28th April 35-36.

-- a very brief piece in the context of the 1990 Nationality Act arguing that lack of fluency in the English language has hampered the progress of the Chinese community in Britain.

Educational Opportunities Initiative (1992) Educational needs of Chinese adults. Liverpool.

-- a report on Chinese adults in Liverpool and their specific educational needs. A short survey of 52 Chinese people reveals aspirations to move beyond catering, but a sense of frustration in the face of experiences of racial discrimination and inadequate information about courses.

8000 Miles. Chinese Community magazine, London based, PO Box 341 London WC2H 7QJ

-- a bi-monthly magazine, mostly in Chinese but with some articles in English.

Fitchett, N. (1976) Chinese Children in Derby. Bishop Lonsdale College, Derby.

-- a study of Chinese schoolchildren notable for commending their adjustment to England under trying circumstances.

Freeberne, J. (1980) The Chinese Community in Britain, with special reference to Housing and Education. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, London University.

-- a wide ranging, highly subjective, investigation of the circumstances of Chinese families by "a 1950s RAF Chinese linguist" who spent four months in a New Territories village in Hong Kong. Includes a case study of the Lambeth Chinese population.

G.B. Parliament (1985a) House of Commons Home Affairs Committee Report on The Chinese Community in Britain (January 1985) HC102, HMSO London.

-- a major two year Select Committee investigation into the Chinese population of Britain. The report makes 77 recommendations, focussing on the need for more bilingual staff in Section 11 posts, improving English language teaching and ensuring sufficient Chinese language translation of social services information.

G.B. Parliament (1985b) The Government Reply to the Second Paper from the Home Affairs Committee (Cmnd 9586), HMSO London.

-- a feeble and non-committal response by the Government to the Home Affairs Report.

No commitment of resources is given, merely an exhortation that Chinese in Britain "should not hesitate to make full use of the resources available to them."

G.B. Parliament (1985c) Swann Committee Report : Education for All. Cmnd 9453.

-- includes a chapter on the educational experiences of Chinese children. In the absence of extended ethnographic research, the Report gives an impressionistic gloss on the difficulties faced by Chinese young people. Makes the useful point that positive stereotypes of intelligent Chinese children can lead to their needs being ignored by teachers.

Garvey, A. and Jackson, B. (1975) Chinese Children. National Education Research and Development Trust.

-- a self-consciously pioneering work on Chinese children in the early 1970s. Paints a vivid picture of the confusing world faced by new arrivals from Hong Kong and ends with portents of discontent and delinquency.

Hong Kong Urban Council (1991) "Hong Kong Cinema in the Eighties". 15th Hong Kong International Film Festival.

-- a special thematic supplement to the 1991 Film Festival catalogue. The best starting place for an English language summary of contemporary Hong Kong cinema. Richly illustrated.

Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants (1989) A Matter of Honour: The Nationality Question in Hong Kong. JCWI, London.

-- published just prior to the passing of the British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act, this analyses the impact of successive changes in immigration legislation on Hong Kong Chinese and makes a coherent case for Britain to discharge its "moral responsibility" and grant right of abode to all British nationals in Hong Kong.

Jin, Meiling (1986) Gifts from my Grandmother. Sheba Feminist Press, London.

-- a collection of writings by a Guyanese born Chinese woman poet.

Jones, D. (1979) "The Chinese in Britain", in New Community Vol. 7: 397-401.

Jones, D. (1987) "The Chinese in Britain", in New Community Vol. 14: 245-47.

-- These two articles provide a very brief overview of the Chinese community in Britain.

Kohn, M. (1992) Dope Girls: The Birth of the British Drugs Underground. Lawrence and Wishart, London.

-- sees the early twentieth century panic over drugs as a symptom of Britain's deeper crisis. The "heady cocktail of public anxieties" at times fixed on Chinatowns, and London's East End in particular. Fascinating account of the cases of Brilliant Chang, Yee Sing and the creation of the figure of the "Chinese dope king".

Lai, Annie, Little, B. and Little P. (1986) "Chinatown Annie: The East End Opium Trade 1920-35: The Story of a Woman Opium Dealer", in Oral History Journal, Vol. 14 No.1 pp.18-30.

-- an article based on a series of interviews with an English woman who lived with a Chinese opium dealer in Limehouse in the 1920s.

Lai, Linda (1975) Chinese families in London: a study into their social needs. Unpublished MA thesis, Brunel University.

-- an investigation of 24 Chinese families in the borough of Camden. Illuminating on the difficulties faced by young mothers and children newly arrived from Hong Kong, in particular cramped housing and poor knowledge of English.

Lambeth Chinese Community Association (1992) Exploring Our Chinese Identity, London.

-- a collection of short writings produced by participants in a drama group led by the actor David Yip. Some very pointed and poignant observations on "the joys of being a banana".

Lau, Kwok Wah (1989) A Cultural Interpretation of the Popular Cinema of China and Hong Kong. Unpublished PhD thesis, North Western University, Chicago.

-- An analysis of the differing cultural traditions underlying recent films in China and Hong Kong. Argues that whilst sharing some fundamental Chinese assumptions, the two cinemas are distinctive. China's films still stress ching - having concern for others whereas Hong Kong's cutthroat capitalist environment places greater stress on the value of jing - being clever and resourceful in the pursuit of self interest.

Lau, Siu Kai (1982) Society and Politics in Hong Kong. Chinese University Press, Hong Kong.

-- a systematic analysis of the postwar history and politics of Hong Kong. Aims to explain the achievement of breathtaking economic growth without political upheaval.

Describes Hong Kong as a "minimally integrated political system" where stability is maintained through political apathy and minimal government intervention in the economy.

Lau, Siu Kai and Kuan, Hsin Chi (1988) The Ethos of the Hong Kong Chinese. Chinese University Press, Hong Kong.

-- Draws on two extensive social surveys undertaken in Hong Kong after the 1984 SinoBritish Agreement. The book captures the many facets of the distinctive Hong Kong identity, and the dynamic relationship between traditional and modern cultural elements.

The ethos of the Hong Kong Chinese "establishes a clear demarcation between the public and private spheres and the relative autonomy of the social, economic and political sectors."

Lee, P. (1991) The Absorption and Indigenization of Foreign Media Cultures: a Study of a Cultural Meeting Point of the East and West: Hong Kong. Hong Kong Institute of Asia Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong Reprint Paper No.11.

-- Hong Kong is presented as a counter to the thesis of communications imperialism.

With regard to film, television and popular music; four forms of absorption and indigenization of foreign cultures are identified. The strength of local consumer demand and local production systems in Hong Kong has prevented a simple replication of Western cultures.

Lent, J. (1990) The Asian Film Industry. Christopher Helm, Bromley.

-- contains chapters on the film industries of Taiwan, Hong Kong and China.

Li, Pui Ping (1992) "Health Needs of the Chinese Population", in W. Ahmad et al. (eds.) The Politics of Race and Health. Race Relations Research Unit, Bradford.

-- outlines the services offered by the London Chinese Health Resource Centre and the difficulties faced by Chinese people in communicating their health needs to general practitioners.

Liao, Yi (1992) The Chinese Community in Greater Manchester. Unpublished M. Phil.

thesis, University of Manchester.

-- a survey of Manchester's Chinatown and the catering trade. Uses a statistical model to relate the pattern of Chinese business location to the proportion of single householders in a locality. Sees Manchester Chinatown as having a "symbolic existence much greater that its geographical size".

Lin Wong, Maria (1989) Chinese Liverpudlians. Liver Press, Wirral.

-- based on oral history and supported by extensive reproduction of family photographs, the author sensitively portrays the history of the pioneering Chinese communities of early twentieth century Liverpool. Gives an extended account of the role white women played in sustaining Chinese families.

Listener Magazine (1989) "Banana Split: Young Chinese in Britain Today" Sept 28.

-- The presenter of a BBC Radio 4 programme on British-born Chinese argues that the second generation are struggling to emerge from the takeaway sector. They consider themselves to be "bananas"; white on the inside, yellow on the outside. Despite the difficulties and ambivalences of negotiating two cultures "the only safe assumption is that the part they play in all our institutions will be a vital one."

Liverpool City Council (1907) "Report of Committee investigating Chinese Settlement in Liverpool". Council Proceedings June 1907.

-- this committee was set up in response to popular disquiet at the Chinese seamen in Liverpool. Designed to seek out evidence of widespread opium smoking, debauchery and illicit interracial liaisons with young English women; the report failed to find justification for contemporary xenophobia.

Loh Lynn, I. (1982) The Chinese Community in Liverpool: Their Unmet Needs with Respect to Education, Social Welfare and Housing. Merseyside Area Profile Group, Liverpool.

-- a report documenting the wide ranging disadvantages faced by Chinese people in relation to local institutions on Merseyside. The stereotype of a self sufficient and proudly independent Chinese community has prevented local authorities from responding to Chinese needs.

Ma, J. (1961) Look Back in Hope. Light and Salt Publishers, Liverpool City Library.

-- some fascinating recollections by a Chinese pastor in postwar Liverpool who served the Chinese seafaring communities at the Chinese Seamen's Centre.

May, J.P. (1973) The British Working Class and The Chinese 1870-1911, with particular reference to the Seamen's Union Strike of 1911. Unpublished MA dissertation University of Warwick.

-- extensive survey of national and local newspapers and trade union journals tracing the relationships between British workers and Chinese migrants. Examining the 1906 General Election controversy over Chinese labour in South Africa and the 1911 disturbances in Cardiff; the author argues that working class antipathy was to "the Chinese as a symbol of all those forces of capitalism working against their interests".

May, J.P. (1978) "The Chinese in Britain 1860-1914", in C. Holmes (ed.) Immigrants and Minorities in British Society. Allen and Unwin, London.

-- describes the animosity directed towards Chinese in the early twentieth century: during the 1906 General Election over the use of "coolie" labour in South African mines; in Liverpool in 1906, and during the seamen's strike of 1911. Argues that because the Chinese population was so small, hostility was muted, particularly at the level of officialdom, until after the end of World War One.

May, R. and Cohen, R. (1974) "The Interaction between Race and Colonialism: A Case Study of the Liverpool Race Riots of 1919", in Race and Class Vol 16, No 2. pp 111-26.

-- Focussing mainly on the black population of Liverpool and the place of the 1919 riots in the history of racism in Britain, the piece makes reference to the antipathy of white crews towards Chinese seamen and the deportation after 1918 of many Chinese who had been brought to England to work in agriculture.

McFarland, E.W. (1991) "Clyde Opinion on an Old Controversy: Indian and Chinese Seafarers in Glasgow", in Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol 14/4.

-- traces the history of Chinese and Indian seafarers in Glasgow from the 1850s onwards.

Argues that seafarers were problematised, first as a moral threat, and in the early twentieth century as an economic threat. Points to the role of "pioneers" who settled and formed a bridgehead for post 1945 migrants.

NFCW (1988) National Federation of Chinese Women. Report on the Needs of Chinese Women based on an inaugural conference held in September 1988, Birmingham.

-- a bilingual report containing short sections on the needs of Chinese women; health, employment and education and British born Chinese experiences.

Newell, V. (1989) "A Note on the Chinese New Year Celebration in London", in Western Folklore, Vol.48 January 1989, 61-66

-- gives an account of the part played by the Chinatown Chinese Association and Westminster City Council in redesigning Chinatown as a tourist attraction and promoting the annual New Year festivities. The views of local Chinese businessmen are sharply contradicted by younger community workers who regard the celebrations as "a pantomime put on for tourists and English people by wealthy restaurateurs."

Ng, A. (1982) Learning of Chinese by Chinese immigrant children. Unpublished B.Phil thesis, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

-- a study of 251 Chinese adolescents in ten Chinese language schools nationwide.

Critical of the lack of innovative teaching methods and argues for more active involvement of parents in the Chinese education of their children.

Ng, K.C. (1968) The Chinese in London. Institute of Race Relations, London.

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