«by David Parker Department of Cultural Studies University of Birmingham Bibliography in Ethnic Relations No.12 Centre for Research in Ethnic ...»
-- close ethnographic work amongst the Chinese associations and welfare groups of early 1960s London led Ng to argue that Chinese immigrants had the least contact of all postwar migrants with British society. Being a small and dispersed community had not caused the Chinese to assimilate. By restricting themselves to catering, the Chinese were not widely viewed as a social problem.
Ng, R. (1986) "My People - The Chinese Community in the North East", in Multi Cultural Teaching, Vol. 43.
-- a short background sketch of Chinese history and culture ends with a plea for Newcastle City Council to work more closely with local Chinese voluntary organisations in North East England.
O'Neill, J. (1972) The role of family and community in the social adjustment of the Chinese in Liverpool. MA thesis, University of Liverpool.
-- a participant observation study of 30 Chinese families in Liverpool. Describes three family types - traditional Chinese, modern Chinese and Anglicised. Sees the Liverpool Chinese as heterogeneous, without much sense of solidarity and anxious to be accepted without making claims on the dominant society.
Pan, Lynn (1990) Sons of The Yellow Emperor - The Story Of The Overseas Chinese.
-- a highly readable account of overseas Chinese settlement throughout the world.
Contains sections on early and contemporary Chinese settlement in Britain. Argues that the British Chinese are a long way behind their American Chinese counterparts in securing their rights.
Parker, D. (1993) The Cultural Identities of Young People of Chinese Origin in Britain.
Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham.
-- after a review of theories of cultural identity, and a historical contextualisation of Chinese settlement; a questionnaire survey and extensive interview material provide an account of the range of identities formed by young Chinese. The public articulation of new ethnicities seen in the black and Asian communities is less well developed.
However, an embryonic British Chinese identity is beginning to emerge in cultural production and youth work with young Chinese people.
Runnymede Trust (1986) The Chinese Community in Britain. Runnymede Trust, London.
-- a useful summary of the Home Affairs Committee Report is followed by a response from the Chinese Advice and Information Centre which argues that the Report fails to address questions of institutional racism.
Scheffauer, H. (1911) "The Chinese in England", in The London Magazine, June and July 1911.
-- taken together this two part article by a San Francisco journalist is the best illustration of early twentieth century demonisation of the Chinese communities of Britain's seaports. Opium dens, miscegenation, mysterious food and music are highlighted in a bid to warn the British of "the growing national problem" in their midst.
Shang, Anthony (1984) The Chinese in Britain. Batsford, London.
-- a well illustrated book for young people, telling the story of Chinese in Britain, exemplified by three Chinese families.
Shang, Anthony (1985) "Chinatown and Beyond", in Ten 8, No.16, 62-69.
-- a short article based largely on the above book Siyu - a monthly Chinese community magazine/newspaper. Available from 4th Floor Nicholas St., Manchester.
-- this newspaper has a circulation of over 30,000 and contains several pages in English.
Simpson, M. (1987) Children of the Dragon. Bradford and Ilkley Community College.
-- a study of Chinese primary school children in Yorkshire. The author brings out the difficulties faced by young Chinese coming from non-English speaking homes into schools where there are few other Chinese pupils.
Simsova, S. and Chin, W (1982) Library Needs of Chinese in London. School of Librarianship and Information Studies, Polytechnic of North London.
-- through a survey of Chinese library users in London, the authors make a series of recommendations to improve the provision of library services to Chinese people.
Summerskill, M. (1982) China On The Western Front. Michael Summerskill, London.
-- a fascinating and well-researched account of the part played in World War One by the Chinese Labour Corps; 100,000 Chinese men imported by France and Britain to provide food and transport for Allied soldiers in the trenches.
Tan, S. (1982) Food Ideology and Food Habits of Chinese Immigrants in London, and the Growth of their Young Children. Report of a Survey. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
-- a survey of 50 Chinese families throughout London. Illustrates the continuing prevalence of a Chinese conception of the role of food in ensuring health through balancing "hot" and "cold" forces. Argues strongly for Chinese dietary needs to be recognised in hospitals and schools.
Taylor, M. (1987) Chinese Pupils In Britain. NFER, London.
-- as part of the Swann Committee Report, this book marshals all the evidence hitherto gathered by researchers on the Chinese population and presents a concise summary of their findings. Concludes that the invisible Chinese have been "ignored by default" both by educational researchers and institutions.
Tsow, Ming (1984) Mother Tongue Maintenance. Commission for Racial Equality, London.
-- based on a large number of interviews with Chinese children attending part-time voluntary Chinese language classes, their parents and the volunteer teachers.
Emphasises the lack of support from statutory bodies for the classes and the lack of adequate classrooms and teaching resources.
Turner, Jo Ann (1989) Chinatown London. Dissertation, Humberside College of Further Education.
-- a survey of land use in London's Chinatown district. Argues that Chinatown is no longer seen as a hindrance to integration and instead marks recognition of the permanent presence of the Chinese in Britain.
Waller, P.J. (1970) "Racial Phobia: The Chinese Scare 1906-14, An Historical Study", in Essays to C.M. Bowra. The Alden Press, Oxford.
-- documents popular anti-Chinese hysteria in the wake of the 1905 Aliens Act. Extracts from newspaper and magazine articles form a "stock pattern" of racial propaganda comprising diet, sexuality, economic competition and religious bigotry.
Waller, P.J. (1985) "The Chinese", in History Today, September 1985.
-- a more general article drawing out the persistent ambivalence in British conceptions of the Chinese: admiration of Chinoiserie yet denigration of "heathen" Orientals, and the fear of the "yellow peril".
Watson, J. (1975) Emigration and the Chinese Lineage. University of California Press, Berkeley.
-- extensive fieldwork in both Hong Kong and London underpins this detailed account of the chain migration system operated by the Man clan.
Watson, J. (1977) "The Chinese: Hong Kong Villagers in the British Catering Trade", in Watson, J. (ed.) (1977) Between Two Cultures. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
-- a general survey of the Chinese community in Britain. The dispersed settlement pattern and concentration in catering contribute to a "low profile" with a notable lack of unifying nationwide voluntary associations. Argues that by the mid 70s no "British Chinese" culture had emerged.
Wong, Grace Koon Wah (1989) Assimilation, Stress, Coping Resources and Coping Strategies as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in British Chinese. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
-- a quantitative analysis of British Chinese mental well-being, coping mechanisms and degree of assimilation. Argues that Chinese may have specific coping mechanisms that produce similar well-being to non Chinese in Britain.
Wong, Lornita Yuen Fan (1991) "The Hong Kong Chinese Speech Community", in S.
Alladina and V. Edwards (eds.) Multilingualism in the British Isles: Africa, the Middle East Asia. Longman, London.
-- sees the desire of Chinese parents to maintain the mother tongue as a crucial indicator of community coherence. The dispersed settlement pattern has precluded a satisfactory solution to the problems faced by voluntary Chinese language classes.
Wong, Lornita Yuen Fan (1992) Education of Chinese Children in Britain and the USA.
MultiLingual Matters, Clevedon.
-- compares provision for Chinese language education in Britain and the USA. Argues that Chinese pupils' difficulties could be alleviated by the training of bilingual support staff and the use of more relevant teaching resources for those learning Chinese. Hopes voluntary language schools becoming more friendly and active will provide a valuable site for Chinese children to make friends and feel less isolated.
SECTION TWO Selected Media Reports And Representations Newspaper Articles
1. Early Chinese Settlement in Britain The best source for collected newspaper articles on the Chinese in Britain is the Local History Section of Tower Hamlets Library. Diligently preserved are a series of articles from both local and national newspapers on the Chinese settlements of the Limehouse area.
Of particular note are the following:
Morning Chronicle, No.4118 July 1782.
-- report of an attack on a Chinese man in Stepney.
Daily Express, 1st October 1920: "Yellow Peril in London".
-- fanciful account of "a vast syndicate of vice" at work in the East End of London.
Evening News, 4th October 1920: "The Lure of the Yellowman".
-- article referring to the "moral suicide" of English girls and the "frantic" problem of their marriages to Chinesemen. The piece sparked several subsequent articles in other newspapers.
Daily Sketch, 12 Feb 1927: "What Mr Saw Has Seen". Photostory.
-- adoption of Fung Saw, a Chinese seamen's leader, as prospective Labour candidate for Holborn. (He was later deselected on the grounds of his suspected Communist affiliations and did not contest the seat in the subsequent General Election).
Evening News, 11 April 1931: "The Life of London's 190,000 Foreigners".
-- a series of sketches of the different ethnic communities of interwar London includes several paragraphs on Chinese settlers. Finds little criminality but portrays the partChinese children as "tragic" and the real "Broken Blossoms".
Evening Standard, 2nd September 1933: "Way Down East".
-- "Terry and Mendoza" tour London's Chinatown and are disappointed not to find the lurid underworld of popular mythology.
Daily Sketch, 30 April 1934: "Limehouse Memories".
-- Sax Rohmer, the author of the Fu Manchu series of novels, reflects nostalgically on the disappearance of Limehouse Causeway, the games of pak-a-pu and the opium dens.
Liverpool City Library also has some materials relating to the early Chinese community
there. Amongst these are:
Liverpool Echo, 6 June 1919, Editorial.
-- in the aftermath of the race riots of 1919, the editor cautions against the formation of a segregated Chinese community in Chinatown.
Liverpool Courier, 11/6/1919.
-- reports on the refusal of crews on the Blue Funnel Line to serve under a Chinese chief steward.
Liverpool Diocesan Review, August 1935: "St Michael's Pitt Street - The Church of Many Nations".
-- a depiction of the multiethnic congregation. Author appears fascinated by the mixed race children and argues that "the children present a special problem...they speak English but their mode of thought is Eastern."
Finally, the role of the Chinese Labour Corps in World War One is registered in Plymouth.
Western Evening Herald, July 6 1917: "Funeral of Three Chinamen at Plymouth".
-- reports on the burial of three Chinese men at Egg Buckland Cemetery, Plymouth and the attendance at the service of other ill and wounded Chinese, "all of whom uncovered their heads and bowed several times."
2. More recent reports Daily Mail, 15 October 1965: "It's boomtime for Tem Suin Yuk".
-- reports on how "the Chinese have revolutionised British catering in the past ten years, with their readiness to keep open late and serve meals at any time."
The Times, 18 April 1968: "The Lonely Chinese in London".
-- a review of K.C. Ng's research The Guardian, 3 May 1977: "Chinese Women in Britain".
-- Amrit Wilson describes the "desolate lives of some Chinese women in Britain and sees a glimmer of hope for them in the future".
Sunday Times, 22 May 1977: "The Silent Dragon".
-- colour magazine feature on Chinese in Britain.
The Times, 20 July 1977: "Why the quiet migrants cannot wait to go back home".
-- a piece based on James Watson's research in Between Two Cultures (see Watson 1977).
The Times, 10 July 1982.
-- CRE receives undertaking from Birmingham Bull Ring Shop Tenants' Association about opposition to a Chinese bookshop opening.
Sunday Times, 24 February 1985: "No escaping this wok ethic".
-- an irritatingly jocular piece on the Chinese being restricted to catering employment.
Observer Sunday Magazine, 9 February 1986: "Chinese Breakaway".
-- features David Nam, a Chinese local councillor in Carmarthen, and Zingari, the only British Chinese pop group to date.
The Times 3 August 1986: "Anger as Tories bar Chinese nominees".
-- local Conservative party in Oxford refused membership to five Chinese people.
Observer Sunday Magazine, 5 March 1989: "Sharks in Chinatown".
-- a report on the activities of Chinese Triad gangs throughout Britain.
The Independent, 7 August 1989: "Sunday Best Spells Business at little China in the North."
-- a brief account of the growth of Manchester's Chinatown and the development of social and cultural institutions for the Chinese in North West England.
The Sun 22 December 1989: "Why I'll be voting with Labour on Hong Kong", article by Norman Tebbit.
-- argues against making a special case for the Hong Kong Chinese and altering British immigration controls.
The Times, 23 January 1990: "Racist populism?"