WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 11 | 12 || 14 | 15 |   ...   | 23 |

«SPEAKING OF FAITH: PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE AMONG RELIGION COMMUNICATORS IN THE UNITED STATES Committee: Dominic L. Lasorsa, Co-Supervisor Ronald ...»

-- [ Page 13 ] --

+ I diagnose communications problems and explain them to others in the organization.

+ I plan and recommend courses of action for solving communication problems.

+ Others in the organization hold me accountable for the success or failure of communication programs.

+ I take responsibility for the success or failure of the organization’s communication programs.

These six statements described the communication process facilitator:

+ I create opportunities for management to hear the views of various internal and external publics.

+ I represent the organization at events and meetings.

+ I keep management informed of public reaction to organizational policies, procedures and/or actions.

+ I keep others in the organization informed of what the media report about our organization and important issues.

+ I report public opinion survey results to keep management informed of the opinions of various publics.

+ I conduct communication audits to identify communication problems between the organization and various publics.

These six statements defined the problem-solving facilitator:

+ In meetings with management, I point out the need to follow a systematic communications planning process.

+ I encourage management participation when making the important communication decisions.

+ I keep management actively involved in every phase of the communication program.

+ I operate as a catalyst in management’s decision making.

+ When working with managers on communication, I outline alternative approaches for solving problems.

+ I work with managers to increase their skills in solving and/or avoiding communication problems.

These six statements characterized the technician:

+ I write materials presenting information on issues important to the organization.

+ I edit and/or rewrite for grammar and spelling the materials written by others in the organization.

+ I do photography and graphics for communication materials.

+ I produce brochures, pamphlets and other publications.

+ I handle technical aspects of producing communication materials.

+ I maintain media contacts for the organization.

Responses to the 24 measures were (1) never do, (2) seldom do, (3) sometimes do, (4) often do and (5) always do. Means were calculated for responses by RCC members and faith group leaders to each of the 24 statements. Composite means for the two groups were also calculated for each role. Independent samples t tests of means were run. They checked for statistically significant differences in mean responses from communicators and leaders. Effect size was considered as well. Differences in means of

0.2 pooled standard deviations were considered small, 0.5 SD medium and 0.8 SD large (Cohen, 1992). Pearson’s correlations were computed. They checked how closely mean responses from communicators and leaders to the six statements about each role were associated. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for each scale were determined.

–  –  –

about practices described in the four models of public relations (Grunig & Grunig, 1992;

Grunig, Grunig & Dozier, 2002; Grunig & Hunt, 1984). To answer that question, a comparison of means was used. RCC members and faith group leaders both responded to 16 statements about the four public relations models. Both groups gave answers on a five-point Likert scale. Responses were (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) agree and (5) strongly agree.

Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) provided four statements to measure each model. For the press-agentry/publicity model, questionnaires asked how much

communicators and senior executives agreed with following statements:

–  –  –

Means were calculated for responses to each of the 16 statements by RCC members and their faith group leaders. Composite group means were calculated for each model. The four composite group means were further combined into a total mean for communicators and for leaders. Means higher than 3.50 were judged to show agreement.

Those from 2.51 to 3.49 were taken to show neither agreement nor disagreement (generally neutral opinions). Those below 2.50 were rated as showing disagreement.

Independent samples t tests of means were run. They checked for statistically significant differences in mean responses from communicators and leaders. In addition, Pearson’s correlations were computed. They checked how closely mean responses to the 16 statements from the two groups were associated. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were computed for each model scale. Alphas from the RCC study were compared to those reported by Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002).

–  –  –

public relations practices in the four models of public relations. To investigate that, a comparison of means was used. RCC members were asked to predict how their supervisors would respond to the 16 statements about the four public relations models used in RQ3.

Those predictions were on a five-point Likert scale. Responses were (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) agree and (5) strongly agree.





Means were calculated for how RCC members predicted their senior leaders would answer the 16 statements and compared to what faith group executives actually said. Composite means were calculated for predictions about each model. Means higher than 3.50 were judged to show agreement. Those from 2.51 to 3.49 were taken to show neither agreement nor disagreement (generally neutral opinions). Those below 2.50 were rated as showing disagreement.

Independent samples t tests of means were run. They checked for statistically significant differences in what communicators predicted and what leaders actually said.

Effect size was considered. Differences in means of 0.2 pooled standard deviations were considered small, 0.5 SD medium and 0.8 SD large (Cohen, 1992). In addition, Pearson’s correlations were computed. They checked how closely mean responses to the 16 statements from the two groups were associated.

–  –  –

RQ5 asked how the expertise of RCC members to practice each public relations model compared to that of secular practitioners. To probe that, survey responses from RCC members were compared to those by communicators in Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002). Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) used four statements to measure expertise necessary to practice each model. For the press agentry/publicity model, those statements

were:

+ Persuade reporters to publicize your organization.

+ Get your organization’s name into the media.

+ Keep bad publicity out of the media.

+ Get maximum publicity from a staged event.

These statements described expertise needed to practice the public information model:

+ Provide objective information about your organization.

+ Understand news values of journalists.

+ Prepare news stories reporters will use.

+ Perform as a journalist inside the organization.

For the two-way asymmetrical model, these statements represented necessary expertise:

+ Get publics to behave as your organization wants.

+ Use attitude theory in a campaign.

+ Manipulate publics scientifically.

+ Persuade a public your organization is right on an issue.

The four expertise statements for the two-way symmetrical model were:

+ Determine how publics react to the organization.

+ Negotiate with an activist group.

+ Use theories of conflict resolution.

+ Help management understand the opinions of particular publics.

Communicators in the secular studies indicated expertise levels in their departments for each task on an open-ended fractionation scale. For them, 100 represented an “average” expertise; 50 represented “half the average”; 200 represented “twice the average”; 0 represented “does not describe”; and anything above 200 represented “as high as you want to go.” Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) then reported the results as transformed means (square roots of the fractionation number). As in RQ1, SurveyMonkey.com could not provide a similar fractionation scale for the online survey of RCC members. SurveyMonkey.com could handle a five-point Likert scale. Grunig (personal correspondence, June 5, 2006) said that a five-point Likert scale would work fine and still allow approximate comparisons to overall Excellence findings. Therefore, RCC members described expertise levels for their departments as (1) none, (2) some, (3) average, (4) good and (5) tops in the field.

Means were calculated for responses by RCC members to each of the 16 statements. Composite means were calculated for each of the four scales. To allow approximate comparisons with baseline Excellence data, results from Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) were squared back into fractionation numbers between 0 and 200. As in RQ1, RCC mean responses were converted from the Likert scale to numbers approximating those on the fractionation scale. In that conversion, 1 on the RCC scale equaled 0 (does not describe) on the fractionation scale. Each 0.1 above 1 in a mean on the five-point Likert scale equaled five points on the fractionation scale. Consequently, 1.5=25, 2=50 (half the average), 2.5=75, 3=100 (average), 3.5=125, 4=150, 4.5=175 and 5=200 (twice the average).

Independent samples t tests of means were run (Sission & Stocker, 1989). They checked for the statistically significant differences in mean responses between religion and secular communicators. Pearson’s correlations were computed. They checked how closely mean responses to the 16 statements from the two groups were associated. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were determined for each model scale. Alphas from the RCC study were compared to those reported by Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002).

–  –  –

communicators compared to those of their secular counterparts. To answer that question, survey responses from RCC members were compared to those from communicators in Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) on 16 items. Eight of those asked about the expertise level available in the communication department for carrying out management functions.

The other eight asked about expertise in the department for accomplishing technical

communication functions. The eight management functions were:

+ Manage people.

+ Conduct evaluation research.

+ Develop goals and objectives for your department.

+ Prepare a department budget.

+ Perform environmental scanning.

+ Develop strategies for solving communication problems.

+ Manage the organization’s response to issues.

+ Use research to segment publics.

The eight technical communication tasks were:

+ Coordinate press coverage or arrange media coverage of an event.

+ Produce publications.

+ Write an advertisement.

+ Take photographs.

+ Write speeches.

+ Produce audio/visuals (graphics, slide shows, videos, radio spots).

+ Write news releases and feature articles.

+ Create and manage a speakers bureau.

Communicators in the secular studies indicated expertise levels for their departments on an open-ended fractionation scale. For them, 100 represented an “average” expertise; 50 represented “half the average”; 200 represented “twice the average”; 0 represented “does not describe”; and anything above 200 represented “as high as you want to go.” As in RQ1 and RQ5, SurveyMonkey.com could not provide a similar fractionation scale for the online survey of RCC members. SurveyMonkey.com could handle a five-point Likert scale. Grunig (personal correspondence, June 5, 2006) said that a five-point Likert scale would work fine and still allow approximate comparisons to overall Excellence findings. Therefore, RCC members responded (1) none, (2) some, (3) average, (4) good and (5) tops in the field.

Means were calculated for responses by RCC members to each of the 16 statements. Composite means for the two groups were also calculated for each of the two scales. To facilitate comparisons with Excellence baseline data, RCC mean responses were converted from the Likert scale to numbers approximating those on the fractionation scale in Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002). In that conversion, 1 on the RCC scale equaled 0 (does not describe) on the fractionation scale. Each 0.1 above 1 in a mean on the five-point Likert scale equaled five points on the fractionation scale. Consequently, 1.5=25, 2=50 (half the average), 2.5=75, 3=100 (average), 3.5=125, 4=150, 4.5=175 and 5=200 (twice the average).

Independent samples t tests of means were run (Sission & Stocker, 1989). They checked for the statistically significant differences in mean responses between the two groups. Pearson’s correlations were computed. They checked how closely mean responses to the 16 statements were associated. In addition, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were determined for each scale. Alphas from the RCC study were compared to those reported by Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002).

–  –  –

RQ7 asked how formal education, participation in professional associations and reading of trade publications affected the way RCC members practiced public relations.

Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) considered formal education, professional association memberships and familiarity with trade publications all indicators of public relations knowledge. Four cross tabulations looked for answers to RQ 7. The first checked the relationship between highest level of education in any field and responses to the 16 items about public relations practice used in RQ 3 and the 16 statements about communication expertise used in RQ 5. The levels of education were no college, some college, a bachelor’s degree, some graduate courses, a master’s degree and a doctoral degree.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 11 | 12 || 14 | 15 |   ...   | 23 |


Similar works:

«In Theory Changing the Debate about “Success” in Conflict Resolution Efforts Tamra Pearson d’Estrée, Larissa A. Fast, Joshua N. Weiss, and Monica S. Jakobsen This essay outlines a conceptual framework for discussing “success” in interactive conflict resolution and in conflict resolution efforts more generally. It first proposes reasons why evaluation is crucial for improving practice. An overview of the new framework and its development are then presented. This gives the reader a...»

«Transcript by Amigo22 602 BUSEYS RUN AWAY TRANSCRIPT Hal: Where the hell are my glasses?! (they’re on his head). Malcolm: (TC): He’s been looking for those glasses for two and a half hours. He’s totally shattered his old record. Hal: This is ridiculous. They just disappear. Maybe they’re in the car. Where the hell are my keys?! Reese: Give me back the deodorant. I haven’t done the upper half of my body yet. Malcolm: No! This has to last us the whole month, and you’re wasting it!...»

«Ascending Before The Throne A d’rash for parashat Tetzaveh – Shemot (Exodus) 30:1-10 By Rabbi Reuel Dillon Shemot (Exodus) 30:1 states, You are to make an altar on which to burn incense; make it of acacia-wood”. In our parashah we see that Adonai instructed Am Yisra'el (The People Of Yisra'el) to make an altar of incense and overlay it with zahav tahor (pure gold). It was most holy and very valuable in the eyes of Adonai. It was located in front of the parochet (curtain), which concealed...»

«Understanding DOCSIS Data Throughput and How to Increase it John J. Downey Broadband Network Engineer – CCCS CCNA Cisco Systems, jdowney@cisco.com Introduction Before attempting to measure the cable network performance, there are some limiting factors that one should take into consideration. In order to design and deploy a highly available and reliable network, an understanding of basic principles and measurement parameters of cable network performance must be established. This document...»

«THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE MERRIMACK, SUPERIOR COURT SS Docket No. 08-E-0053 In the Matter of the Liquidation of Noble Trust Company LIQUIDATOR'S MOTION FOR APPROVAL OF SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT AND ASSIGNMENT OF CLAIMS WITH STANLEY D. MILLER AND ASSIGNIN G PARTIR,S Glenn A. Perlow, Bank Commissioner for the State of New Hampshire, in his capacity as liquidator (the Liquidator) of Noble Trust Company and Aegean Scotia Holdings, LLC (Noble Trust and Aegean Scotia, respectively), by his attorneys, the...»

«Ascorbic acid Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification Gezondheidsraad Vo o r z i t t e r Health Council of the Netherlands Aan de minister van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid Onderwerp : Aanbieding advies Ascorbic acid Uw kenmerk : DGV/MBO/U-932542 Ons kenmerk : U 5653/HS/pg/543-N11 Bijlagen :1 Datum : 17 december 2009 Geachte minister, Graag bied ik u hierbij het advies aan over de effecten van ascorbinezuur op de vruchtbaarheid en het nageslacht; het...»

«http://www.club.cc.cmu.edu/talks TALK SERIES Date Topic Presenter 01/27 The Dot Com Bubble Lincoln Roop 02/03 Introducing the X68000: Japan's 16-bit Beast Ford Seidel 02/10 PGP and Public Key Cryptography Alex Reese 02/17 Privacy Technology and You Shelby Cunningham Sponsored By Makers of the world's highest performing compilers, most secure realtime operating systems, revolutionary debuggers, and virtualization solutions for embedded systems. Copyright 1969-2016 Carnegie Mellon Computer Club....»

«MALMESBURY SCHOOL A high performing academy TJG/REM May 2015 Headteacher’s Newsletter to Parents – No. 1 Summer Term Dear Parents/Guardians External public examinations are now underway and staff are working hard supporting students in their preparation and revision. As always our students have been very impressive in the way they have prepared for and undertaken their exams. We wish them all the very best with their results. st Year 12 are on study leave, The Year 11s left on 21 May with a...»

«SpriNg 2014 Vol. 49 No. 2 MHA in San Antonio: The Texas Legacy of Mormonism In ThIs Issue: The Mormon venture into Texas resulted from the stark reality that the AmeriSan Antonio Conference p. 1-2 can government, its institutions, and many of its people were hostile to MorPresident’s Message p. 3 mon objectives in the 1840s. Texas was one of several options considered by Mormon leaders as removal from Illinois became inevitable. The Republic of News MHA Exec. Dirs. p. 4 Texas, of course, did...»

«The Village Guide Your guide to magical memories in Central Florida and at Give Kids The World Village. Share your experience with us on social media! Official Hashtag: #GKTWVillage /gktwvillage /@gktwvillage /@gktwvillage /givekidstheworld The Village Guide is also available as an app for iPhone and Android users. If using an iPhone, go into the app store and search “happ4hotels”. If using an Android phone, go to Google Play and search for “happ hotels” or “happ4hotels”. Once...»

«We Have Never Been Modern Bruno Latour translated by Catherine Porter Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts This translation © 1993 by Harvester Whearsheaf and the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Originally published as Nous n 'avons jamais ete modernes: Essais d'anthropologie symmetrique. Copyright © 1991 La Decouverte Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Latour, Bruno. [Nous n'avons jamais ete...»

«Bridal veil infestation: Photo DWLBC S e ctio n 0 3 : B ridal Vei l BRIDAL VEIL Asparagus declinatus L O th er s p ecies na me s : Myrsiphyllum declinatum Syn. Asparagus crispus O th er co mmo n n a me s : Pale berry asparagus fern Asparagus fern Bridal creeper South African creeper Bridal veil :Flora of NSW Asparagus Weeds Best Practice Management Manual Bridal veil Asparagus declinatus is native to the Western Cape region of South Africa. It is a highly invasive and aggressive environmental...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.