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«Rivier University Writing & Resource Center Using APA: Creating a Reference Page (Revised Sept. 2015—APA 6th Edition) General Guidelines for ...»

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Rivier University Writing & Resource Center

Using APA: Creating a Reference Page

(Revised Sept. 2015—APA 6th Edition)

General Guidelines for Formatting a Reference Page

Your reference list provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source

you cite in the essay.

1. Each source you cite in the essay must appear in your reference list (except for personal

communications), and each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

2. Start the reference list on a new page. Using the same 12-point font, type the word References in upper and lowercase letters, centered, at the top of the page on the first line below the page header; do not underline, bold, or put it in quotation marks.

3. Your reference list must be in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name; if no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize by the title of the piece. If you have more than one work by a particular author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest.

4. Provide first initial (not first name) and middle initial (if provided) for all authors of a particular work.

5. Capitalize only the first word of a title of a work, a proper noun in a title, or a word that follows a colon in a title.

6. Italicize titles of books and journals—note that the italics extend to include the volume number of a periodical as well as the period at the end of a book title.

7. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a single work.

8. The first line of each entry on your reference page should be at your left margin;

subsequent lines should be indented ½ inch (“hanging” indentation).

9. The entire reference page must be double-spaced—do not add extra spacing between entries.

10. Space once after periods that separate parts of a reference citation.

11. Provide the year of publication only—the only exception to this is if you are referencing a monthly or weekly magazine or a newspaper article. References to academic journals should NOT include the month or date.

(For purposes of space, the examples in this document are presented using NUMBERS OF AUTHORS 1.5 spacing; all entries on an APA Reference page, however, should be double-spaced!) One Author Riabov, V. V. (2011). Methodologies and tools for the software quality assurance course. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 26(6), 86-92.

Two Authors Philip, B. N., & Lee, R. E. (2010). Changes in abundance of aquaporin-like proteins occurs concomitantly with seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology, 56, 679-685.

Three to Seven Authors Rock, M. L., Schoenfeld, N., Zigmond, N., Gable, R. A., Gregg, M., Ploessl, D. M., Salter, A., & Krishnaraj, N. (2013). Can you Skype me now? Developing teachers' classroom management practices through virtual coaching. Beyond Behavior, 22(3), 15-23.

More Than Seven Authors List the first six authors (in the order presented) followed by an ellipses (... ) and the name of the last author.

Cunningham, P. D., Valdes, N., Vallejo, F., Hayden, L. M., Polishak, B., Xing-Hua, Z.,... Twieg, R. (2011).

Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials. Journal of Applied Physics, 109(4), 43505-43511.

No Author Title of article or web page. (Year of publication). Title of the publication or sponsoring web site, page number OR Retrieved from URL Roane announcement set. (2009, September 13). Knoxville News Sentinel, p. B2.

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/heuristic Group Authors If the author is a corporation, organization, or government agency, use the group's name in the author position.

Spell out the full name.

American Diabetes Association. (2014). What is gestational diabetes? Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. (2014). Afghanistan: Human rights report 2013. Retrieved from http://0www.atoztheworld.com.lib.rivier.edu/ ntent.php?cat=grw


If a database or online source provides a PDF file, you do not need to name the database or provide a URL. APA does require that you provide a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when available. Many publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document or on the results page.

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of the Periodical, volume(issue), page number(s). doi: (if available).


Croxton, R. A. (2014). The role of interactivity in student satisfaction and persistence in online learning.

MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 365-379.

Tawa, J., & Murphy, S. (2013). Psychopharmacological treatment for military posttraumatic stress disorder:

An integrative review. American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 25(8), 419–423.

doi: 10.1111/1745-7599.12016


iPads could hinder teaching, professors say. (2011). Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/iPads-for-College-Classrooms-/126681/ Kennedy, R., Murphy, D., & Roberts, D. (2013). An overview of the national quality strategy: Where do nurses fit? OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(3). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN.html



Barbaro, S. E. (1999). Effects of low temperature, cold shock and various carbon sources on the physiology of a psychrotrophic Acinetobacter sp. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Thesis Database. (UMI No. NQ38217).


(Note: ERIC documents are treated as archival material and are an exception to databases.) Keaton, J., & Alie, T. (2009). Motivating the reluctant learner. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED341178).


Friedman, N. (2014, July 1). Parents just don’t understand. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/ 201406/parents-just-dont-understand Slezak, M. (2013, November 2). The now delusion. New Scientist, 34-38.


Endangered sea turtles released to the wild. (2014, August 5). Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/05/endangered-sea-turtles-released-wild/story.html Porter, E. (2014, May 21). For schools, long road to a level playing field. New York Times, pp. B1, B6.



Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of the book (edition, if provided). City, State: Publisher.

Meehan, M. (2013). Islam, modernity, and the liminal space between. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Tavani, H. T. (2013). Ethics & technology: Ethical issues in an age of information & communication technology (4th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.


Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of the book (edition, if provided). [Version, if applicable].

Retrieved from URL Benner, P. E. (2011). Clinical wisdom and interventions in acute and critical care. Retrieved from http://lib.rivier.edu/record=b1234002~S0 Grossman, S. (2013). Mentoring in nursing: A dynamic and collaborative process. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Ew8aWVr2X10C&dq= nursing&source=gbs_navlinks_s Rekart, J. L. (2013). The cognitive classroom: Using brain and cognitive science to optimize student success.

[Kindle version]. Retrieved from amazon.com


If the corporate author is also the publisher, type the word “Author” in place of the publisher.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

National Advisory Mental Health Council Behavioral Science Workgroup. (2000). Translating behavioral science into action. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS20928 Washington Post Writers Group. (1995). Issues in adolescent sexuality: Readings from the Washington Post writers group. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.


Agency. (Date). Title of document. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Department of Labor. (2003). Employment law guide (OASP-01). Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). Statistical


of the United States: 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Kats, Y. (Ed.). (2010). Learning management system technologies and software solutions for online teaching:

Tools and applications. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/ doc/119900494/Learning-Management-System-Technologies-and-Software-Solutions-for-OnlineTeaching-Tools-and-Applications Wasserman, L. H., & Zambo, D. (Eds.). (2013). Early childhood and neuroscience: Links to development and learning. New York, NY: Springer.


Author of section, A. (Publication year of book). Title of section. In A. Author (Ed.), Title of book (pages of section). City, State: Publisher.

Connell, D., & Van Stelten, J. (2013). Neuroscience: The genesis of our individual brain strengths. In L. H.

Wasserman & D. Zambo (Eds.), Early childhood and neuroscience: Links to development and learning (pp. 23-42). New York, NY: Springer.

Riabov, V., & Higgs, B. J. (2010). Software tools and virtual labs in online computer-science classes. In Y.

Kats (Ed.), Learning management system technologies and software solutions for online teaching:

Tools and applications (pp. 332-350). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/ 119900494/Learning-Management-System-Technologies-and-SoftwareSolutions-for-Online-Teaching-Tools-and-Applications


Baptism. (2009). In The Catholic encyclopedia. New York, NY: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02258b.htm

Gentes, E. (2014). Due process. In The encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice. Hoboken, NJ:


Magnus, T. D. (2002). Mathematics: Probability and the law of large numbers. In Encyclopedia.com.

Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3407500241.html Nurse-midwife. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/nurse-midwife



When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text. There is no need to list it on your reference page.

St. Joseph Hospital has a comprehensive website that provides information on its services (http://www.stjosephhospital.com/).


If there is no author, start your citation with the title of the article or web page. If there is a span of years listed at the bottom of the web page/section, provide the most current year.

Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies Communications. (2014). U.S. unprepared for housing needs of aging population. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/ story/2014/09/u-s-unprepared-for-housing-needs-of-aging-population/ Modeling and role modeling theory. (2014). Nursing Theories. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtheory.org/ theories-and-models/erickson-modeling-and-role-modeling-theory.php National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/ health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml Russell, D. R. (2014). Remarks at China-U.S. symposium. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2014/04/225223.htm Uganda. (2014). Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/ To-Z/Uganda.html



Ainsley, M. (2014, Fall). Basics of family health care [Online handout]. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.

Faiia, M. (2014, September 29). Social norms [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.

O’Donnell, P. (2014, March 4). Sexuality and gender identity [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.


Cite the correct format for the original version using as much information as available and adding current online information. Style will depend on the type of source.

Bjork, S. T. (2010). Behavioral problems in the classroom. In S. Sharkey (Ed.), Classroom management (pp. 306-310). Nutley, NJ: Halthorpe. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.

McDonald, L. (2014). Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole on nursing and health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(6), 1141-1152. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.

Talbot, T. B. (2013). Balancing physiology, anatomy and immersion: How much biological fidelity is necessary in a medical simulation? [Excerpt]. Retrieved from Rivier University Canvas course page.


MOTION PICTURE, VIDEO FILE, or DVD Buppert, C. (2014, March 17). Legal issues keeping nurses awake at night [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/4kV3iFZBmQg?list=PLumNaMdMcQisfpg1Rd5y5pIDKV6lRHBvN Kamaron Institute. (2009, April 20). Cyber bullying prevention: A survival guide [Video file].

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