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«Developing the Potential of Young People in Sport A report for sportscotland by The University of Edinburgh Developing the Potential of Young People ...»

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Change Over Time As expected across the year groups, the S1 children who were tracked through to S2 all show a significant decrease in the average number of ‘all clubs’ that are attended (F (1, 137) = 4.135, p≤0.05) although there was no significant interaction effect between the DPYPS programme and the control (F (1, 137) = 2.098, p0.05).

However the children who were involved in DPYPS remained more active than those who chose not to be involved in the DPYPS programme.

–  –  –

Those involved in DPYPS showed no change in inactivity levels, however there was an increase in specialising and a decrease in non-specialising children. Those children who chose not to be involved showed a general increase in activity levels represented at all levels of specialisation.

Unfortunately, we have no way of knowing how the DPYPS programme would have affected those children who did not have the inclination to choose to take part. This could only occur should DPYPS be made part of the curriculum as it was at primary level.

Chronic Effects: S2 – S3, North Ayrshire Again the cohort of children tracked from S2 to S3 had the choice to become involved in the DPYPS after school club. As is true for the S1 cohort, although we did have control groups, they are not an equal representation of the age groups and do have different initial characteristics, which are reflected in the initial levels of club attendance, shown in the graphs. Additionally, the children who did take part had one ten week block of DPYPS between January and March 2003. Initial data was collected at the end of December 2002 and post data collected in December 2003.

–  –  –

This cohort did not follow the expected trend of a decline in activity levels. In fact this S2 to S3 group showed extremely positive results for the DPYPS programme. While there were no overall significant differences over time for all groups (F (1, 160) = 0.3, p0.05), there was a significant interaction effect between the DPYPS and the control group. Those involved in the DPYPS programme showed an increase in average number of ‘all clubs’ and those in the control group showed a decrease in the average number of ‘all clubs’ attended (F (1, 160) = 3.886, p≤0.05). As can be seen from the graphs the main difference appears to have been an increase in out of school clubs.

Unfortunately, we have no way of knowing how the DPYPS programme would have affected those children who did not have the inclination to choose to take part. This could only occur should DPYPS be made part of the curriculum as it was at primary level.

–  –  –

Again, although the control group did show a slight decrease in those who are inactive, the expected trend of more specialisation and less non-specialisation was apparent. However, positively, those involved in the DPYPS programme showed a decrease in inactive children and specialisation, with an increase in unspecialised activity levels.

Summary of Tracking Analysis The tracking data from Stirling was extremely positive and showed a statistically significant increase in the number of clubs attended, and also revealed a decrease in the percentage of inactive children and an increase in unspecialised participation.

However, the data from ‘acute’ level of intervention in North Ayrshire showed less positive results where overall both the DPYPS and control group dropped levels of clubs attended. While levels of inactivity remained steady with the DPYPS group, the control group showed a decrease in number of inactive children, although they were still less active than the DPYPS children.

Analysis of the ‘chronic’ tracking data, which followed children through the transition from one year to the next only occurred in North Ayrshire, and took place for P7 to S1, S1 to S2 and S2 to S3 children. As expected the P7 to S1 children showed a significant decline in average number of clubs attended, in line with known patterns of decline, and unfortunately as there was no control group due to every child being involved, no real interpretation value was gained. Although positively, the females that were involved showed a decrease in levels of inactivity. In other words, more females were active!

The S1 to S2 group showed a similar overall trend of small, but significant decreases in numbers of clubs attended, however there was no significant group effect between DPYPS and control groups. Finally the S2 to S3 group showed more positive effects of the tracking data where there was a significant interaction effect between the DPYPS and control groups, where those involved in the DPYPS club showed an increase in the average number of clubs attended, whereas those involved in the control group showed a decline, typical of the transition from S2 to S3. Positively, there was also a larger effect on decreasing inactivity levels and increasing nonspecialisation than the control group. Unfortunately, as the DPYPS programme was voluntary in secondary school there is no way to assess the impact it would have had on those not inclined to choose to take part.

The overall summary of the impact of DPYPS on participation levels shows that, while we expected little or no change, some significant and positive effects were gained through the DPYPS pilot programme, most prevalently in Stirling, but also for some aspects of the North Ayrshire cohort, particularly the S2 to S3 ‘chronic’ tracking groups. Indeed, with a more long term, systematic and coherent level of input, DPYPS may be capable of producing far more impact on a far more widespread target audience.

–  –  –

North Ayrshire Primary 7 – Cross Sectional Analysis The analysis of the children’s self perceptions is very important in a study of this kind.

It well documented that perceived physical competence (i.e. how good a child thinks they are at physical activities), self-motivation (i.e. how well a child can motivate themselves) and self-determination (i.e. how much choice and control the child feels they have over their participation) are important factors in the promotion of physically active lifestyles and successful talent development (cf. Abbott et al, 2002; Abbott & Collins 2002).

North Ayrshire P7 (Dec02 Vs Dec03): Self Perceptions: Cross Sectional Analysis 3.9 The two P7 cohorts (i.e. P7 Dec02 & P7 Dec03) represented above are differentiated by the fact that the DPYPS group (i.e. P7 Dec03) received one ten week programme from October to December 2003. There are no significant differences over time (F (3, 225) = 0.029, p0.05) with no significant interaction of gender (F (3, 225) = 1.007, p0.05). All of the children were involved in the programme and as such it is not possible to interpret any real impact of the programme against a control.

North Ayrshire S1 – Cross Sectional Analysis

–  –  –

The S1 cohorts are different from the P7 cohorts that were analysed since the DPYPS group received two ten week blocks of work from January to June 2003.

Indeed, while there is no control group, it is interesting to note that these children who have received a double block of DPYPS work have shown significant increases in all of their self perceptions (F (3, 292) = 3.72, p0.05) where those who only received one block in the P7 cohorts showed none. However similarly, there was no significant gender interaction (F (3, 292) = 0.392, p0.05) for the S1 cohorts.


The cross sectional analysis of the P7 and S1 cohorts provided an interesting result.

The group who had received two ten week blocks of work had improved significantly in the average perceptions (perceived physical competence, self-motivation & selfdetermination), whereas the group who received only one ten week block had not showed any significant improvement.

Tracking Data Analysis Acute Effects: Stirling

–  –  –

There were no significant differences in data or DPYPS affect between the two clusters; Self-determination (F (1, 242) = 2.339, p0.05); Self-motivation (F (1, 242) = 2.974, p0.05); Perceived physical competence (F (1, 242) = 0.303, p0.05).

–  –  –

Interestingly, the data shows that there is a significantly different effect of the DPYPS programme depending on what group a child was in. This was consistent across each of the three constructs; Perceived physical competence (F (1, 238) = 22.779, p≤0.01); Self-motivation (F (1, 238) = 11.643, p≤0.01); Self-determination (F (1, 238) = 36.77, p≤0.01). The programme has a positive effect on the low and average perception groups, with a trend for a greater effect with those with low initial self perceptions. However, the programme shows a negative influence on those children with high initial perceptions, although it must be remembered that the perceptions in this group still remain high. Perhaps the programme leads to a ‘rationalisation’ in these confident children? Certainly, the decreases do not appear to have offered any negative impact, either behaviourally or emotionally.

Acute Effects: North Ayrshire Cohort 1 North Ayrshire Primary

–  –  –

North Ayrshire did not show such positive results as the Stirling cluster. However, over the ten week block of work, self-motivation increased significantly (F (1, 67) = 7.488, p≤0.05), while perceived physical competence (F (1, 67) = 2.825, p0.05) and self-determination (F (1, 67) = 0.682, p0.05) showed no significant effects. No differences occurred between males and females for any construct (i.e. no gender interaction effects); Self-motivation (F (1, 67) = 0.289, p0.05); Self-determination (F (1, 67) = 0.304, p0.05); Perceived physical competence (F (1, 67) = 0.51, p0.05).

As with the Stirling cohort, the children were split into groups to represent those who were initially low, average and high in the perception constructs in order to evaluate any mediating effect of the DPYPS programme on different types of youngsters.

–  –  –

Interestingly, the same trends occurred in North Ayrshire as they did in Stirling. The group with low perceptions improved the most with the average group responding more slightly and the high perception group decreasing. However, relatively this group still had high perceptions. Significant effects were found for self- determination (F (2, 67) = 8.86, p≤0.01) and self-motivation (F (2, 67) = 3.514, p≤0.05), but not for perceived physical competence (F (2, 67) = 2.38, p0.05).


The acute effects of the tracking data revealed a positive impact of the DPYPS programme in constructs in both Stirling and North Ayrshire. Interestingly, both areas also revealed that those with low initial perceptions tend to be most positively influenced by the programme; however those with high initial perceptions, while still remaining high, appear to decrease in perception level. This of course will become a more interesting phenomenon and caveat for the S1 and S2 clubs because of the voluntary nature of the club. It has been shown in the baseline report and in data presented below that those who volunteer to participate have, on average, higher self perceptions than non-selecting colleagues.

–  –  –

As with the participation data, there is a decreasing trend across the P7 and S1 age group. Of course, this is to be expected and unfortunately, as it was not possible to have a control group because of the practicalities of the programme, interpretation is difficult. Significant changes were evident for self-determination (F (1, 117) = 9.164, p≤0.05) and perceived physical competence (F (1, 117) = 13.301, p≤0.05), but not for self-motivation (F (1, 117) = 1.008, p0.05). No gender interaction was shown: Selfdetermination (F (1, 117) = 0.162, p0.05); Self-motivation (F (1, 117) = 0.709, p0.05); Perceived physical competence (F (1, 117) = 1.49, p0.05).

Chronic Tracking Effects: S1 – S2, North Ayrshire

–  –  –

The trends for the DPYPS and control groups appeared to follow a similar pattern of decrease over the year group, with the exception of self-motivation in which both groups showed a positive trend. Indeed, perceived physical competence did show a significant effect over time (F (1, 115) = 12.144, p≤0.01) and a significant effect between the DPYPS and control (F (1, 115) = 5.092, p≤0.05), where the DPYPS group showed a larger drop in perceptions. However, it must be recognised here that data above has shown that those children with high initial perceptions tend to decrease slightly. This may have had a bigger impact due to the fact that the children who volunteered for the club found themselves amongst children of a higher ability level from which to compare their competence against. The other constructs did not show any significant differences or interaction effects over time; Self-determination over time (F (1, 115) = 0.461, p0.05), DPYPS interaction effect (F (1, 115) = 0.005, p0.05) ; Self-motivation over time (F (1, 115) = 0.407, p0.05), DPYPS interaction effect (F (1, 115) = 0.058, p0.05).

Chronic Tracking Effects: S2 – S3, North Ayrshire

–  –  –

Unlike the participation data, there were no significant differences in the perception data over time or interaction effects between DPYPS and control; Self-determination over time (F (1, 147) = 0.241, p0.05), DPYPS interaction effects (F (1, 147) = 0.026, p0.05); Self-motivation over time (F (1, 147) = 2.947, p0.05), DPYPS interaction effects (F (1, 147) = 0.629, p0.05); Perceived physical competence over time (F (1, 147) = 2.149, p0.05), DPYPS interaction effects (F (1, 147) = 0.018, p0.05).

However, those who chose to become involved in the DPYPS programme had higher self perceptions initially and after the programme. It would be interesting to see, if the DPYPS was made part of the curriculum, what effect it would have on those children who have lower perception and more inactive lifestyles.


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