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«Developing the Potential of Young People in Sport A report for sportscotland by The University of Edinburgh Developing the Potential of Young People ...»

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The programme is implemented through the employment of an Active Primary School Co-ordinator to work across a cluster of schools. The co-ordinator's role involves developing opportunities for children to participate in sport and physical activity, to support and train parents, teachers and volunteers, to make links with other relevant agencies and individuals in the local community, including sports development, local clubs, voluntary organisations and area health boards. Of crucial importance is the partnership developed between the co-ordinator, the secondary School Sport Coordinator and the primary PE specialist (where they exist).

Thanks to additional Government funding of £2.8m over three years from the 2000 Comprehensive Spending Review, the programme which was first piloted in five local authorities has been extended to include a wider sample of Scotland's primary schools.

By April 2002 there will be 37 Active Primary School Co-ordinators in post, working across 22 local authorities in around 280 primary schools.

Commenting at the visit today, Alastair Dempster, Chairman of sportscotland said: "It is vital that we do everything possible to encourage our children to become involved in regular physical activity at an early age. With the latest worrying obesity statistics released last week, we at sportscotland continue to face an uphill task, and initiatives like the Active Primary School Programme assume an ever-increasing importance.

"The development of a network of Active Primary School Co-ordinators provides an important resource for the promotion of physical activities that are stimulating and good fun for young Scots. It is our aspiration that there will be a co-ordinator working across every cluster of primary schools in Scotland by 2007."

Partnership working at a national and local level has been critical to the success of the programme, including the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS) and local authorities.

Ian Young, Programme Manager: Schools, Health Education Board for Scotland said:

"We are fully supportive of this important initiative. Increasing the levels of physical activity in young people in primary schools will help to establish active lifestyles at an early age.

"In addition to the obvious health benefits of early physical activity, such as developing a healthy heart and lungs, other advantages include a reduced risk of osteoporosis in later years and the mental health benefits that are part of looking good and feeling good."

Stirling Council and sportscotland established a Strategic Alliance for Sport in 2000, with children and young people a key priority. sportscotland is delighted to be working in partnership with Stirling on the Active Primary School pilot programme. Currently with three full-time co-ordinators employed in the Wallace High School, Bannockburn and Balfron clusters, they are already seeing some tangible benefits, with an increasing number of children and staff taking part in an extended range of activities both during and after school.

John Hendry, who chairs Stirling Council's Community and Economic Development Committee, said: "The impact on our schools of Stirling's partnership with sportscotland has been extraordinary. Our participation in the pilot of this programme has produced one of the most far-reaching sports initiatives in Scotland. It will reach into every school and club, giving all youngsters the opportunity to take part in daily sport activities."

• £450,000 from the 1998 Comprehensive Spending Review enabled the development of the phase 1 pilot programme introduced in 1999. sportscotland worked in partnership with five local authorities: Stirling, West Lothian, East Lothian, Perth and Kinross and Inverclyde, and five Active Primary School Coordinators were appointed.

• Scottish Council for Research in Education has been appointed to undertake the evaluation of the Active Primary School Programme. Year 1 findings will be available in the next few weeks, but early indications show that the pilot programme has had a positive impact in promoting opportunities for physical activity and has encouraged further joint working between education, sport and leisure and health within local authorities.

• sportscotland's aspiration is that there will be an Active Primary School Coordinator working across every cluster of primary schools in Scotland by 2007.

The total cost of this will be £12 million.

Social Inclusion Partnerships www.sportscotland.org.uk £1million to empower communities to help themselves through allocation of funds for groups to establish and sustain their own projects. For example, the Greater Easterhouse SIP sports programme will adopt a new approach to delivering locallybased sports programmes through a strong working partnership between Glasgow City Council’s Cultural and Leisure services, Greater Easterhouse Social Inclusion Partnership and a number of active voluntary sector agencies based in Easterhouse.

The programme will include high quality coaching in basketball, volleyball, badminton, golf and football and an aerobics programme for teenage girls; creation of multi-sports clubs aimed at P6/7 and a fitness programme for long term unemployed men and lone parents. No formal evaluation programmes were apparent.

Out of School Hours Learning sportscotland Web release Wednesday 6 August 2003 Youngsters across Scotland are set to benefit from a range of sport based out of school hours learning opportunities (OSHL) thanks to a new partnership between sportscotland and the New Opportunities Fund.





The New Opportunities Fund has awarded £2.8M to sportscotland to invest in innovative extra-curricular sporting activity programmes put forward by local authorities who are already part of the Active Schools Programme. The aim is to increase the number of opportunities available for young people to take part in sport and physical activity outside of normal school hours, helping to set them on the road to an active healthy lifestyle.

The first tranche of awards announced this week, totalling more than £2.1M over three years, went to 26 out of Scotland's 32 local authorities for a range of exciting projects.

All of the programmes put forward provide a range of innovative activities targeted at traditional non-participants to encourage an interest in sport and physical activity. As well as tackling exclusion issues for pupils with behavioural difficulties and those with special educational needs, local authorities such as Aberdeenshire and Shetland are also addressing rural and transport disadvantages.

Teenage girls are the key focus of many projects including Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and East Renfrewshire where there will be an emphasis on delivering 'aesthetic activities', which research has proven to be of interest to this target group. Health related fitness, aerobics, yoga, body combat and dance are amongst the activities which will be on offer.

Some of the projects will give young people the opportunity to train as sports leaders who can then go on to support and mentor their younger colleagues taking part in the after school activities, whilst projects in West Lothian and the Western Isles will support the transition of youngsters from primary into secondary PE and sport opportunities.

Outdoor education activities delivered in a non-competitive environment have proved a popular option to tackle the issue of low-self esteem, helping to build confidence. This will be the main focus of Glasgow's OSHL programme, where a wide variety of activities are proposed to ensure that children who have little or no experience of physical activity outside of the formal PE curriculum can experience the challenges presented by the great outdoors.

Alastair Dempster, Chairman of sportscotland said: "Sport shouldn't just be seen as a formal part of the school curriculum. By encouraging youngsters to take part in fun sporting activities after school, as a normal part of their social life, there is real hope of ensuring that they carry this on throughout adolescence and into adulthood. Only by influencing the young, do we have a realistic prospect of tackling some of our nation's health and obesity problems.

"I am delighted that we are working in partnership with the New Opportunities Fund on this key initiative. This money has enabled us to introduce a new strand into our Active Schools Programme which is already demonstrating positive results in terms of participation in and attitudes towards sport."

New Opportunities Fund Board Member for Scotland David Campbell welcomed this week's awards he said: "The New Opportunities Fund is a major funder of community sport, through a range of programmes throughout the UK and Scotland. Encouraging an active and healthy lifestyle among young people is essential for health and wellbeing and this is what this initiative is all about. We are delighted to be working in partnership with sportscotland to offer children and young people a chance to try out a sport that suits them and their lifestyle and in many cases offers an alternative to traditional school sports.” North Lanarkshire Council’s Health and Fitness Initiative – MacFit Tuesday 9 December 2003 - www.sportscotland.org.uk The “Macfit” Programme provides children between the ages of 4-11 years the opportunity to participate in a range of innovative activities, focusing on the core elements of sport such as throwing, jumping and catching. The main aim of the initiative is to encourage youngsters to develop an interest in physical activity, for a future active and healthy lifestyle.

The programme has been running for between 7-8 years. It is a generic programme (rather than sport-specific) and is very games based. Roughly 7000 children per year participate in the programme, and at any one time 1/3 of the primary schools are receiving MacFit sessions. There are currently 35 primary schools on the list waiting to get sessions.

The sessions occur out-of-school hours, but are held within the school, and the primary schools ask for someone to come and run the sessions. Children may pay up to £1 for the sessions, where possible the sessions are free.

Individuals are employed to run the sessions, many come from the local colleges (coach courses within the colleges run a MacFit module, which is about 21 hours long).

No formal evaluation of the project has been carried out. However, they have received about £20,000 pa from the Social Inclusion Programme (SIP) and to get this money a year-end report has to be submitted in conjunction with an application from. Obviously, they also monitor numbers and informal feedback from schools and children.

We were unable to discover if the programme was developmental in any way. As far as we could ascertain, training was focused on how to run specific sessions, not about the philosophy of the approach or the extension of consequences to other areas.

Health Education Board for Scotland (now ‘Health Scotland’), ‘The Class Moves!’ Project http://www.hebs.com/research/cr/crscripts/FTReportTocM.cfm?TxtTCode=1188&Nav=1 &sc=research (programme evaluation document).

Following a successful pilot, HEBS launched ‘The Class Moves!’ on 11 October 2002.

It was pioneered in the Netherlands and aims to build healthy and enjoyable activity into the daily routine of pupils.

Over 1400 primary schools in Scotland benefit from the programme which is suitable for P1 – P7. Illustrations (different for every class year) appear on a wall-mounted calendar, and for p1-p5 there are accompanying CDs with specially written songs and music to accompany the programme. Teachers have a manual explaining how to get the best out of the programme. There is a separate theme for each month including emotions, breathing, stability, balance, expressing emotions, relaxation, positive body image and growth. The monthly themes reoccur every year. Teachers say that not only is the programme fun for the children but it also helps them learn about positive body awareness, gross motor skills (such as left-right awareness), sensorimotor skills such as being able to tighten and relax muscles, or moving slowly, or quickly. They get to have fun and then they have to re-focus.

It doesn’t need long time slots, easily adapting to fit in with whatever is going on in the class daily routine. It can easily be integrated with other subjects, and can even be used as a behaviour management tool by channeling the children’s energy in a constructive and fun way. Teachers received training into the underlying ideas and concepts, then accompanying manual including programme philosophy, physiology and teaching methods.

Thinking Through Philosophy – Clackmannanshire Council (Publicity pamphlet)

• A programme to introduce philosophy to 8-11 year old children.

• A detailed study is being undertaken to monitor its effectiveness.

• Practical philosophy – i.e. it is about the process, not the teaching of facts. So it explores philosophical questions through Socratic questioning.

• The development of thinking skills has been identified as of great importance to the educational development of young people. Information handling, creative thinking and evaluation are all important. How to think well is crucial to success. The other big influence is the emotional intelligence of the individual – are they self-aware, self-regulated, motivated and empathetic?

• The process is more than conversation, offering the possibility that one’s own ideas and perceptions may change in the process. Teachers and pupils learn together by developing a ‘community of enquiry’.

• Following the introduction of a stimulus such a story or poem, philosophical questions are formulated from which the dialogue is derived. The facilitator must ask good open-ended questions and encouraging the children to develop the same.

For example…

• Can you say more about that? What makes you say that? Do you have any evidence for that view? Why? How do you know that? If….then what do you think about…?

• Through this dialogue many skills are developed:

1. Information Handling – processing skills about analysing, interpreting, locating.

2. Enquiry – Posing and defining problems, planning, predicting, testing conclusions.

3. Reasoning – giving reasons for opinions, making deductions, making judgements informed by evidence.

4. Creative thinking – generating ideas, being imaginative in thinking, being innovative.

5. Evaluation – evaluating what is read or heard, developing criteria for judging.

• Aims to make the children self-regulated. Where choice is possible instead of habitual behaviour.

• A research project and evaluation by Steve Trickey looks to see if the programme has developed the children in four main ways: critical reasoning skills and dialogue;

changes in self-image as a learner and problem solver; emotional and social development; and development in cognitive ability. Using a two by two pre-post design, the evaluation employs a range of measures, Cognitive Ability tests (CAT), myself as a learner (MALS), and the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations (TOPS). Comparison of classroom discussions recorded with a video camera in October 2001 and May 2002 is also used. Diaries filled in by teachers and head teachers, and questionnaires by the children. Some schools participated in the scheme purely as controls.

Comment:

Overlaps with DPYPS are tenuous, relating only to the claimed improvements in selfevaluation and self-awareness. It is hard to see how the project will contribute to emotional intelligence.

sportscotland Caledonia House South Gyle Edinburgh EH12 9DQ Tel: 0131 317 7200 Fax: 0131 317 7202 www.sportscotland.org.uk The sportscotland group is made up of sportscotland, sportscotland Trust Company (National Centres) and the Scottish Institute of Sport.

www.nationalcentrecumbrae.org.uk www.glenmorelodge.org.uk www.nationalcentreinverclyde.org.uk www.sisport.com This document is available in a range of formats and languages. Please contact sportscotland’s communications team for more information.

Tel: 0131 317 7200 Fax: 0131 317 7202 © sportscotland 2007 Published by sportscotland ISBN: 978 1 85060 510 2

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