«DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD SUMMER STUDY TASK FORCE ON INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FOR THE BATTLEFIELD DTlC OCTOBER 1994 S ELECTE APR I 0 1995' G i 95-01137 I ...»
Information Assimilation. Traditional problems of information overload and miscommunication are exacerbated by unanticipated crises, joint operations and coalition operations.
Overcoming these problems depends on leveraging advancing technologies in three areas:
information presentation, information filtering and synthesis, and tools for collaboration.
However, even with today's technologies, problems remain in integrating information from the large collection of preexisting incompatible databases and in finding common reference
models for information presentation. DoD should make further investments in specific technologies that will support these needs:
" Common reference models: Information presentation is a three step process - data must be collected, it must be fused to form functional composites, and it must be presented in a form the customer can rapidly and unambiguously interpret. Much of the information needed for the battlefield picture can be described in geographic coordinates - locations of friendly and enemy forces, supply routes, weather, planned maneuvers, etc. During a crisis, when there is a need to rapidly and unambiguously interpret such information, graphical presentations based on digitized geography and terrain are an excellent way for humans to absorb complex information. More research is needed into the technology to support the use of digital terrain as a common reference model for presentation. Better techniques are needed to convert imagery data to digitized terrain data at varying resolutions, to improve animation techniques and to overcome bandwidth problems associated with transmission and display.
"* Self-describing data models: The problem of multiple representations and multiple interpretations of data can be solved by imposing data standards or by requiring the use of standardized data dictionaries. An alternative approach is to design data models in which the semantic meanings for the data items are attached to the data items. These self-describing data models can facilitate the integration of data from numerous heterogeneous data sources. Additional research in these techniques is especially needed due to the urgent need for data definition and waveform standards for joint operations.
. Information Movement. DoD C41 systems will become increasingly heterogeneous and dynamic. They will incorporate high bandwidth backbones, satellite direct broadcast systems, high capacity wireless communications and low data rate tactical networks in a telecommunications environment that dynamically evolves to support varying operations and within the course of a single operation. To maintain a telecommunications advantage, the component
systems must continue to evolve and better methods for managing bandwidth and information distribution must be found. Technologies needed to support information movement are:
"* Low-cost digital radios: Advances in semiconductor technology, including mixed-signal front ends, offer the prospect of building low-cost digital radio systems which can meet a wide range of voice and data needs in DoD. These systems must interoperate with a wide range of legacy systems as well as meet future needs for high bandwidth data transmission, jamming and spoofing. Systems such as Speakeasy are being developed as R&D proof of principal; the challenge is to leverage the commercial manufacturing base to develop lowcost radios which can meet a wide range of DoD needs.
"* Advanced antennas: As the amount of data required on the battlefield continues to rapidly increase, mobile tactical units must be able to access multiple satellites simultaneously to achieve the necessary bandwidth. Currently, single-band electromechanical antennas can access only one satellite at a time. There is a pressing requirement for low-cost, broadband, D-26 high gain, electronically steerable antennas that can simultaneously access multiple satellites, both DoD and commercial, in different parts of the sky.
" Dynamic information distribution: Tools for managing the flow of information become crucial as ) C4I telecommunication systems become more complex, combining high )oD bandwidth backbones, satellite direct broadcast systems, high capacity point-to-point communications and low data rate tactical networks. These tools must match user information needs with bandwidth constraints and provide for the dynamic reconfiguring of the information flow when a communications component becomes unavailable.
" Application-specific data compression: New technologies are needed to cope with DoDunique needs for data compression, particularly for image and SAR data. There is a need to dynamically alter compression ratios and fields of compression as communications bandwidth changes in the transmission systems. Additionally, systems which allow users to specify variable compression ratios for different regions of a single image need to be further developed.
Information and Information Systems Protection 6.2 The DoD's reliance on increasingly sophisticated information systems provides numerous opportunities for penetration and disruption by both sophisticated and unsophisticated adversaries. Currently, data security can be costly and a major constraint on timely information flow to the user. Consequently, low cost ways must be found to implement security so that it does not limit the value that can be provided by the information system.
Two recommendations are made. First, DoD should harmonize its current practices with the recommendations of the Joint Security Task Force and the recommendations made in the R&D for the Nil: Technical Challenges report. Second, DoD should field available security components and make further investments in several specific technologies that are critical to support DoD's information and information systems protection needs, which at a minimum must provide for the development of capabilities and tools for protection against attack, detection of attacks, and the ability to react to attacks. These technologies fall into three broad categories: enterprise security, network security, and data security.
"* Technology is not a major impediment to information dominance on the battlefield "* The commercial information industry leads in technology and research investment "* Information technology is available globally
- Givein military-unique information technology R&D Invest special attention to information protection technology Use the best commercial technology Action: DDR&E ensure that R&D strategy capitalizes on commercial technology and focuses DoD investment in milta-uniue information technology FigureD-21 With respect to modem C4I systems, component technology is not the major impediment to information dominance on the battlefield. We must assume that both current, and ir.zreasingly, more capable commercial technologies will be available, acquired, and used by friend and foe alike. It will be important to stay abreast of current and emerging technology but our real discriminator will be our ability to continuously infuse these technologies and to configure and reconfigure the ensuing products to support joint warfare.
Key to technology insertion is the recognition that the commercial information technology industry leads in technology and research investment. We have seen advances in office automation systems, mapping systems, imagery processing and GPS. Those technologies and resultant products are available from the global marketplace.
With the increasing dependence on information technologies in C4I systems and the explosion of interconnected networks and databases, the importance of information and information systems protection has grown significantly.
.In response to this dramatically changed environment, it is important for the DoD to recognize that it must accelerate its efforts along a two-pronged course. First, it must continue its emphasis on supporting and infusing best commercial technologies. This will allow DoD to piggyback off of the tremendous R&D investments being made in the commercial marketplace.
Secondly, the DoD should continue its investments in military-unique information technology R&D. Those technologies that are stressed by military applications should be given priority and, in particular those that support enhanced reconfiguration and information and information systems protection. Special attention should be given to information and information systems protection because of the increasing reliance on commercial products and systems and the increased threat of the use of information warfare as a weapon against C41 systems.
Actionw We recommend that DDR&E continue to leverage commercial information systems technology to facilitate rapid technology infusion and reprioritize R&D investment to differentiate military-unique information technology in support of enhanced reconfigurability and information and information systems protection.
* Interpretability among heterogeneous lower level systems through interoperability protocols, data dictionaries, and common addressing 0 High leverage opportunities for retrofitting interconnecting legacy systems with digital translation
4. Consider imposition of policy/security restrictions on information through explicit software and encryption rather than hardware to ease rapid changes when authorized;
5. Consider how joint exercises, gaming, and simulation can validate alternate concepts;
Provide specific guidelines for implementation of the 6.
Task Forces's recommendations;
The Task Force should submit its final report by September
1994. The Task Force should include an assessment of the potential impact on military readiness for those recommendations where such an assessment is appropriate.
The Director, Defense Research and Engineering and the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence) will co-sponsor this Task Force. Dr. Craig I.
Fields and Gener.al James P. McCarthy, USAF (Ret) will serve as its Co-chairs. Ms. Virginia L. Castor will serve as the Task Force Executive Secretary and Commander Robert C. Hardee, USN will serve as the Defense Science Board secretariat It is not anticipated that this Task Fore will representative.
go into any "particular matters" within the meaning of need to Section 208 of Title 18 U. S. Code, nor will it cause any member to be placed in the position of acting as a procurement official.
Contractor Administrative and Technical Su ort Mr. Brad Smith Strategic Analysis, Inc.
Mr. David Thomas Strategic Analysis, Inc.
Mr. Fred Karkalik Strategic Analysis, Inc.
Dr. Nancy Chesser Directed Technologies, Inc.
HF High Frequency HQ USAF Headquarters, U.S. Air Force HUMINT Human Intelligence IBTA Integrated Battlefield Targeting Architecture ICM Intelligence Correlation Module IDEF Integrated Definition IEW Intelligence and Electronic Warfare INFOSEC Information Security IP Internet Protocol IPT Integrated Process Team ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International Organization for Standardization 1W Information Warfare JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JEWC Joint Electronic Warfare Center JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander JOPES Joint Operations Planning and Execution System JROC Joint Requirements Oversight Council JSIMS Joint Simulation System JSIPS Joint Services Imagery Processing System JTF Joint Task Force JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System JWFC Joint Warfighters Center LAN Local Area Network MAJCOM Major Command MASINT Measurements and Signatures Intelligence MATT Multimission Advanced Tactical Terminal MCE Modular Control Element MCEB Military Communications and Electronics Board MCS Maneuver Control System MENS Mission Element Need System MILSTAR Military Strategic Relay MISSI Multilevel Information System Security Initiative Multimode, Multimission Broadband Antenna MMBA Mission Needs Statement MNS MOP Memorandum of Policy MRC Major Regional Conflict MSE Mobile Subscriber Equipment H-3 Message Test Format MTF Moving Target Indicator MTI Maneuver Control System MVR NCA National Command Authority NIE National Intelligence Estimate NMl National Information Infrastructure NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NSA National Security Agency NSG Naval Security Group OODBMS Object-Oriented Data Base Management System OOP Object-Oriented Programming OOTW Operations Other Than War OPFAC Operational Facilities OPSEC Operational Security ORD Operational Requirements Document OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense OSE Open Systems Environment OSI Open Systems Interconnect OT&E Operational Testing and Evaluation P3I Preplanned Product Improvement PDD Presidential Decision Directive PMD Program Management Directive POM Program Objectives Memorandum PPLI Precise Position, Location and Identification PRD Presidential Review Document PRISM Portable, Reusable, Integrated Software Modules PSN Public Switched Network PSTS Precision Spaceborne Targeting System R&D Research and Development RFP Request for Proposal ROCS Required Operational Capability Statement SAB Scientific Advisory Board SAFWCCS Standard Air Force Wing Command and Control System SATCOM Satellite Communications SB H Sentinel Byte H SCI Sensitive Compartmented Information SCN Satellite Control Network SECDEF Secretary of Defense Super High Frwequny SHF SIGINT Signals Intelligence SINCGARS Single Channel Ground Radio System S1OP Single Integrated Operations Plan Statement of Operational Need SON SONET Synchronous Optical Network STACCS Standard Theater Army Command and Control System STOW Synthetic Theater of War SWSC Space and Warning Systems Center TACC Tanker and Airlift Control Center TACS Tactical Air Control System TAD Theater Air Defense